2017年11月17日 星期五

雜阿含-186經

1.雜阿含186經
如無常,如是,動搖、旋轉、尫瘵、破壞、飄疾、朽敗、危頓、不恆、不安、變易、惱苦、災患、魔邪、魔勢、魔器、如沫、如泡、如芭蕉、如幻、微劣、貪嗜、殺摽、刀劍、疾妬、相殘、損減、衰耗、繫縛、搥打、惡瘡、癰疽、利刺、煩惱、讁罰、陰蓋、過患處、愁慼、惡知識、苦、空、非我、非我所、怨家、連鎖、非義、非安慰、熱惱、無蔭、無洲、無覆、無依、無護、生法、老法、病法、死法、憂悲法、惱苦法、無力法、羸劣法、不可欲法、誘引法、將養法、有苦法、有殺法、有惱法、有熱法、有相法、有吹法、有取法、深嶮法、難澀法、不正法、兇暴法、有貪法、有恚法、有癡法、不住法、燒然法、罣閡法、災法、集法、滅法、骨聚法、肉段法、執炬法、火坑法、如毒蛇、如夢、如假借、如樹果、如屠牛者、如殺人者、如觸露、如淹水、如駛流、如織縷、如輪涉水、如跳杖、如毒瓶、如毒身、如毒華、如毒果、煩惱動。

2.大般若波羅蜜多經卷第七十八-初分天帝品第二十二之二
2.1.六界
「憍屍迦!若菩薩摩訶薩以應一切智智心,用無所得為方便,
1)思惟地界無常,思惟水、火、風、空、識界無常;
2)思惟地界苦,思惟水、火、風、空、識界苦;
3)思惟地界無我,思惟水、火、風、空、識界無我;
4)思惟地界不淨,思惟水、火、風、空、識界不淨;
5)思惟地界空,思惟水、火、風、空、識界空;
6)思惟地界無相,思 惟水、火、風、空、識界無相;
7)思惟地界無願,思惟水、火、風、空、識界無願;
8)思惟地界寂靜,思惟水、火、風、空、識界寂靜;
9)思惟地界遠離,思惟水、火、 風、空、識界遠離;
10)思惟地界如病,思惟水、火、風、空、識界如病;
11)思惟地界如癰,思惟水、火、風、空、識界如癰;
12)思惟地界如箭,思惟水、火、風、空、識界 如箭;
13)思惟地界如瘡,思惟水、火、風、空、識界如瘡;
14)思惟地界熱惱,思惟水、火、風、空、識界熱惱;
15)思惟地界逼切,思惟水、火、風、空、識界逼切;
16)思惟地界敗壞,思惟水、火、風、空、識界敗壞;
17)思惟地界衰朽,思惟水、火、風、空、識界衰朽;
18)思惟地界變動,思惟水、火、風、空、識界變動;
19)思惟地界速滅,思惟 水、火、風、空、識界速滅;
20)思惟地界可畏,思惟水、火、風、空、識界可畏;
21)思惟地界可厭,思惟水、火、風、空、識界可厭;
22)思惟地界有災,思惟水、火、風、 空、識界有災;
23)思惟地界有橫,思惟水、火、風、空、識界有橫;
24)思惟地界有疫,思惟水、火、風、空、識界有疫;
25)思惟地界有癘,思惟水、火、風、空、識界有癘;
26)思惟地界性不安隱,思惟水、火、風、空、識界性不安隱;
27)思惟地界不可保信,思惟水、火、風、空、識界不可保信;
28)思惟地界無生無滅,思惟水、火、風、 空、識界無生無滅;
29)思惟地界無染無淨,思惟水、火、風、空、識界無染無淨;
30)思惟地界無作無為,思惟水、火、風、空、識界無作無為。
憍屍迦!是為菩薩摩訶薩般若波羅蜜多。

2.2.十二緣起
「憍屍迦!若菩薩摩訶薩以應一切智智心,用無所得為方便,思惟無明無常,思惟行、識、名色、六處、觸、受、愛、取、有、生、老死愁歎苦憂惱無常;思 惟無明苦,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱苦;思惟無明無我,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱無我;思惟無明不淨,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱不淨;思惟無明空,思惟行 乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱空;思惟無明無相,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱無相;思惟無明無願,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱無願;思惟無明寂靜,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦 憂惱寂靜;思惟無明遠離,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱遠離;思惟無明如病,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱如病;思惟無明如癰,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱如癰;思 惟無明如箭,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱如箭;思惟無明如瘡,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱如瘡;思惟無明熱惱,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱熱惱;思惟無明逼切, 思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱逼切;思惟無明敗壞,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱敗壞;思惟無明衰朽,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱衰朽;思惟無明變動,思惟行乃至老 死愁歎苦憂惱變動;思惟無明速滅,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱速滅;思惟無明可畏,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱可畏;思惟無明可厭,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱 可厭;思惟無明有災,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱有災;思惟無明有橫,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱有橫;思惟無明有疫,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱有疫;思惟無 明有癘,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱有癘;思惟無明性不安隱,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱性不安隱;思惟無明不可保信,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱不可保信;思 惟無明無生無滅,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱無生無滅;思惟無明無染無淨,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱無染無淨;思惟無明無作無為,思惟行乃至老死愁歎苦憂惱 無作無為。憍屍迦!是為菩薩摩訶薩般若波羅蜜多。


3.大般若波羅蜜多經卷第四百二十五-第二分帝釋品第二十五之一
「憍尸迦!若菩薩摩訶薩發一切智智相應之心,以無所得而為方便,思惟色乃至識若無常、若苦、若無我、若空、若如病、若如癰、若如箭、若如瘡、若熱惱、若逼切、若敗壞、若衰朽、若變動、若速滅、若可畏、若可厭、若有災、若有橫、若有疫、若有癘、若不安隱、若不可保信,思惟眼處乃至意處,思惟色處乃至法處,思惟眼界乃至意界,思惟色界乃至法界,思惟眼識界乃至意識界,思惟眼觸乃至意觸,思惟眼觸為緣所生諸受乃至意觸為緣所生諸受,思惟地界乃至識界,亦復如是。憍尸迦!是謂菩薩摩訶薩般若波羅蜜多。


4.諸法集要經卷第四-訶厭五欲品第七之餘
 欲境如夢事,  亦猶尋香城, 猛熾若焰然,  諸天由是墮。
 若於欲生愛,  後則為所損, 曲戾無正思,  諸天由是墮。
 極下惡可厭,  流注若河源, 譬之深險坑,  諸天由是墮。
 欲性本動搖,  猶風浪水月, 如蛇舌不停,  諸天由是墮。
 欲如飛電轉,  亦如於陽焰, 如聚沫不堅,  諸天由是墮。
 欲如迅河流,  如象耳常動, 如芭蕉不實,  諸天由是墮。
 欲如彼幻事,  如金播歌果, 如魚吞其鉤,  諸天由是墮。
 當以真實智,  斷除於欲境, 解脫不善果,  及諸不饒益。
 起妄想思惟,  於欲生欣樂, 則為欲羂拘,  壽命豈能久?
 眾生心輕動,  咸為欲所牽, 愚癡無覺知,  彼為自欺誑。
 若為欲境動,  則是諸苦本, 如乾闥婆城,  當知不久住。
 若於欲生貪,  彼瞋則隨轉, 如是諸眾生,  速趣於惡道。
 是故彼正士,  捨欲除瞋恚, 離癡等過失,  顯發於明慧。
 若人厭欲境,  悟彼如深冤, 以智為良朋,  速證真常果。
 於欲不生著,  得離諸垢染, 斯為具智人,  諸天咸敬奉。
 善超欲淤泥,  能與眾生樂, 心離縛寂靜,  降伏諸魔軍。


5.visuddhimagga 20. Maggāmaggañāṇadassanavisuddhiniddeso
Cattārīsākāraanupassanākathā
697. So tasseva pañcasu khandhesu aniccadukkhānattasammasanassa thirabhāvatthāya, yaṃ taṃ bhagavatā ‘‘katamehi cattārīsāya ākārehi anulomikaṃ khantiṃ paṭilabhati, katamehi cattārīsāya ākārehi sammattaniyāmaṃ okkamatī’’ti etassa vibhaṅge –
(2)( 以四十行相思惟五蘊 )
為了鞏固彼(瑜伽者)於五蘊的無常、苦及無我的思惟,而世尊說: 「 以怎樣的四十行相而獲得隨順忍?以怎樣的四十行相入於正決定?」
Translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli
[STRENGTHENING OF C OMPREHENSION IN FORTY WAYS ]
18. Now, when the Blessed One was expounding conformity knowledge, he [asked the question]: “By means of what forty aspects does he acquire liking that is in conformity? By means of what forty aspects does he enter into the certainty of rightness?” (P‘8).

‘‘Pañcakkhandhe aniccato, dukkhato, rogato, gaṇḍato, sallato, aghato, ābādhato, parato, palokato, ītito, upaddavato, bhayato, upasaggato, calato, pabhaṅguto, addhuvato, atāṇato, aleṇato, asaraṇato, rittato, tucchato, suññato, anattato, ādīnavato, vipariṇāmadhammato, asārakato, aghamūlato, vadhakato, vibhavato, sāsavato, saṅkhatato, mārāmisato, jātidhammato, jarādhammato, byādhidhammato, maraṇadhammato , sokadhammato, paridevadhammato, upāyāsadhammato, saṃkilesikadhammato’’ti (paṭi. ma. 3.37) –
其分別的方法是這樣的: 「 他觀五蘊是無常、苦、病、癰、箭、惡、疾、敵、毀、難、禍、怖畏、災患,動、壞、不恒、非保護所、非避難所、非歸依處、無、虛、空、無我、患、變易法、不實、惡之根、殺戮者、不利、有漏、有為、魔食、生法、老法、病法、死法、愁法、悲法、惱法、雜染法」
In the answer to it comprehension of impermanence, etc., is set forth by him analytically in the way beginning: “[Seeing] the five aggregates as impermanent, as painful, as a disease, a boil, a dart, a calamity, an affliction, as alien, as disintegrating, as a plague, a disaster, a terror, a menace, as fickle, perishable, unenduring, as no protection, no shelter, no refuge, as empty, vain, void, not-self, as a danger, as subject to change, as having no core, as the root of calamity, as murderous, as due to be annihilated, as subject to cankers, as formed, as Mára’s bait, as subject to birth, subject to ageing, subject to illness, subject to death, subject to sorrow, subject to lamentation, subject to despair, subject to defilement.

Cattārīsāya ākārehi,
‘‘Pañcakkhandhe aniccato passanto anulomikaṃ khantiṃ paṭilabhati. Pañcannaṃ khandhānaṃ nirodho niccaṃ nibbānanti passanto sammattaniyāmaṃ okkamatī’’tiādinā (paṭi. ma. 3.38) nayena, Anulomañāṇaṃ vibhajantena pabhedato aniccādisammasanaṃ vuttaṃ. Tassāpi vasena ime pañcakkhandhe sammasati.
以此等四十行相而觀五蘊無常者,「獲得隨順忍」;而觀五蘊之滅是涅槃者,「入於正決定」,世尊以此等分別隨順智的方法,以(四十行相的)區別而說無常等的思惟,亦即以此而思惟此等五蘊。
Seeing the five aggregates as impermanent, he acquires liking that is in conformity. And seeing that the cessation of the five aggregates is the permanent Nibbána, he enters into the certainty of rightness” (Paþis II 238). So in order to strengthen that same comprehension of impermanence, pain, and not-self in the five aggregates, this [meditator] also comprehends these five aggregates by means of that [kind of comprehension].

698. Kathaṃ ? So hi ekekaṃ khandhaṃ anaccantikatāya, ādiantavantatāya ca aniccato. Uppādavayapaṭipīḷanatāya, dukkhavatthutāya ca dukkhato. Paccayayāpanīyatāya, rogamūlatāya ca rogato. Dukkhatāsūlayogitāya, kilesāsucipaggharaṇatāya, uppādajarābhaṅgehi uddhumātaparipakkapabhinnatāya ca gaṇḍato. Pīḷājanakatāya, antotudanatāya, dunnīharaṇīyatāya ca sallato.
怎樣思惟呢?即彼(瑜伽者)思惟一一蘊:
(1)「是無常」──因為其結果不是常的,而是初後(生滅)之故。
(2)「是苦」──因為給生滅所逼惱,是苦的基地。
(3)「是病」──因為由於緣而得維持,是病的根本。
(4)「是癰」──因為與苦痛相應,常流煩惱之不淨,由生老死的膨脹,成熟,及破壞之故。
(5)「是箭」──因生逼惱,刺擊於內,甚難取出之故。
19. How does he do it? He does it by means of comprehension as impermanent, etc., stated specifically as follows:
He comprehends each aggregate as impermanent because of non-endlessness, and because of possession of a beginning and an end; as painful because of oppression by rise and fall, and because of being the basis for pain; as a disease because of having to be maintained by conditions, and because of being the root of disease; as a boil because of being consequent upon impalement by suffering, because of oozing with the filth of defilements, and because of being swollen by arising, ripened by ageing, and burst by dissolution; as a dart because of producing oppression, because of penetrating inside, and because of being hard to extract;

Vigarahaṇīyatāya, avaḍḍhiāvahanatāya, aghavatthutāya ca aghato. Aseribhāvajanakatāya, ābādhapadaṭṭhānatāya ca ābādhato. Avasatāya, avidheyyatāya ca parato. Byādhijarāmaraṇehi palujjanatāya palokato. Anekabyasanāvahanatāya ītito. 
(6)「是惡」──因為是可呵責,使無增益,為惡的基地之故。
(7)「是疾」──因為不生獨立性,是疾病的直接之因。
(8)「是敵」──因為無自由,受支配之故。
(9)「是毀」──因為被病老死所毀壞之故。
(10)「是難」──因為招來種種的不幸之故。
as a calamity because of having to be condemned,because of bringing loss, and because of being the basis for calamity; as an affliction because of restricting freedom, and because of being the foundation for affliction; as alien because of inability to have mastery exercised over them, and because of intractability; as disintegrating because of crumbling through sickness, ageing and death; as a plague because of bringing various kinds of ruin;

Aviditānaṃyeva vipulānaṃ anatthānaṃ āvahanato, sabbupaddavavatthutāya ca upaddavato. Sabbabhayānaṃ ākaratāya, dukkhavūpasamasaṅkhātassa paramassāsassa paṭipakkhabhūtatāya ca bhayato. Anekehi anatthehi anubaddhatāya, dosūpasaṭṭhatāya, upasaggo viya anadhivāsanārahatāya ca upasaggato. Byādhijarāmaraṇehi ceva lābhālābhādīhi ca lokadhammehi pacalitatāya calato. Upakkamena ceva sarasena ca pabhaṅgupagamanasīlatāya pabhaṅguto.
(11)「是禍」──因為招來意外的廣大的不利,是一切災禍的基礎。
(12)「是怖畏」──因為是一切怖畏的礦藏,是稱為苦之寂滅的最上入息(聖果)的對抗之故。
(13)「是災患」──因為給種種的不利所追隨,為過惡所牽制,如不值得忍受的危險之故。
(14)「是動」──因為被病老死及利等的世間法所動搖之故。
(15)「是壞」──因為被手段及自然的破壞所迫近之故。
 as a disaster because of bringing unforeseen and plentiful adversity, and because of being the basis for all kinds of terror, and because of being the opposite of the supreme comfort called the stilling of all suffering; as a menace because of being bound up with many kinds of adversity, because of being menaced by ills, and because of unfitness, as a menace, to be entertained; as fickle because of fickle insecurity due to sickness, ageing and death, and to the worldly states of gain, etc.;  as perishable because of having the nature of perishing both by violence and naturally;

Sabbāvatthanipātitāya, thirabhāvassa ca abhāvatāya addhuvato. Atāyanatāya ceva, alabbhaneyyakhematāya ca atāṇato. Allīyituṃ anarahatāya, allīnānampi ca leṇakiccākāritāya aleṇato. Nissitānaṃ bhayasārakattābhāvena asaraṇato. Yathāparikappitehi dhuvasubhasukhattabhāvehi rittatāya rittato.
(16)「是不恒」──因為這是可能落於一切地位的,沒有堅定性之故。
(17)「是非保護所」──因無救護,不得安穩之故。
(18)「是非避難所」──因為不值得去隱藏,不能對避難者盡避難的工作之故。
(19)「是非歸依處」──因為不能對依止者遣去怖畏之故。
(20)「是無」──因為無有如遍計的常淨、樂、我的狀態之故。
as unenduring because of collapsing on every occasion and because of lack of solidity; as no protection because of not protecting, and because of affording no safety; as no shelter because of unfitness to give shelter, and because of not performing the function of a shelter for the unsheltered; as no refuge because of failure to disperse fear in those who depend on them; as empty because of their emptiness of the lastingness, beauty, pleasure and self that are conceived about them;

Rittatāyeva tucchato appakattā vā, appakampi hi loke tucchanti vuccati. Sāmi-nivāsi-kāraka-vedakādhiṭṭhāyakavirahitatāya suññato. Sayañca assāmikabhāvāditāya anattato. Pavattidukkhatāya, dukkhassa ca ādīnavatāya ādīnavato, atha vā ādīnaṃ vāti gacchati pavattatīti ādīnavo, kapaṇamanussassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ, khandhāpi ca kapaṇāyevāti ādīnavasadisatāya ādīnavato. Jarāya ceva maraṇena cāti dvedhā pariṇāmapakatitāya vipariṇāmadhammato.
(21)「是虛」──亦如無,或者少故為虛,如於世間說少為空虛。
(22)「是空」──因無有主、住者、作者、受者、決意者之故。
(23)「是無我」──因為非自非主等之故。
(24)「是患」──因起(輪廻之)苦,是苦的災患之故;或者因為進行至於悲慘故為災患──與悲慘之人是一同義語,諸蘊亦如悲慘者,因為像悲慘者的悲慘,故為災患。
(25)「是變易法」──因為由於老死二種的自然的變易之故。
as vain because of their emptiness, or because of their triviality; for what is trivial is called “vain” in the world; as void because devoid of the state of being an owner, abider, doer, experiencer, director; as not-self because of itself having no owner, etc.; as danger because of the suffering in the process of becoming, and because of the danger in suffering or, alternatively, as danger (ádìnava) because of resemblance to misery (ádìna)  since “danger” (ádìnava) means that it is towards misery (ádìna) that it moves (váti), goes, advances, this being a term for a wretched man, and the aggregates are wretched too; as subject to change because of having the nature of change in two ways, that is, through ageing and through death;

 Dubbalatāya, pheggu viya sukhabhañjanīyatāya ca asārakato. Aghahetutāya aghamūlato. Mittamukhasapatto viya vissāsaghātitāya vadhakato. Vigatabhavatāya, vibhavasambhūtatāya ca vibhavato. Āsavapadaṭṭhānatāya sāsavato.
(26)「是不實」──因為力弱,如樹殼的易於破壞之故。
(27)「是惡之根」──因為是惡的原因之故。
(28)「是殺戮者」──因為如朋友之面的敵人,破壞友誼之故。
(29)「是不利」──因無吉利,從非吉利(愛見)而生之故。
(30)「是有漏」──因為是漏的直接之因。
as having no core because of feebleness, and because of decaying soon like sapwood; as the root of calamity because of being the cause of calamity; as murderous because of breaking faith like an enemy posing as a friend; as due to be annihilated because their becoming disappears, and because their non-becoming comes about; as subject to cankers because of being the proximate cause for cankers;

Hetupaccayehi abhisaṅkhatatāya saṅkhatato. Maccumārakilesamārānaṃ āmisabhūtatāya mārāmisato. Jāti-jarā-byādhimaraṇapakatitāya jāti-jarā-byādhi-maraṇadhammato. Soka-parideva-upāyāsahetutāya soka-paridevaupāyāsadhammato. Taṇhādiṭṭhiduccaritasaṃkilesānaṃ visayadhammatāya saṃkilesikadhammatoti evaṃ pabhedato vuttassa aniccādisammasanassa vasena sammasati.
(31)「是有為」──因為是因緣所作。
(32)「是魔食」──因為是死魔及煩惱魔的食物。
(33)~(36)「是生、老、病、死法」──因為有自然的生老病死之故。
(37)~(39)「是愁、悲、惱法」──因為是愁悲惱之因。
(40)「是雜染法」──因為是愛、見、惡、行、雜染的境法之故。
as formed because of being formed by causes and conditions; as Mára’s bait because of being the bait [laid] by the Mára of death and the Mára of defilement; as subject to birth, to ageing, to illness, and to death because of having birth, ageing, illness and death as their nature; as subject to sorrow, to lamentation and to despair because of being the cause of sorrow, lamentation and despair; as subject to defilement because of being the objective field of the defilements of craving, views and misconduct.

 

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