2013年8月11日 星期日

思所成地---3.思擇諸法---3.1.勝義伽他-頌


3.云何思擇諸法?
云何思擇諸法?此復二種應知:一、思擇素呾纜義;二、思擇伽他義。思擇素呾纜義,如攝事分及菩薩藏教授中當廣說。思擇伽他義,復有三種:一者、建立勝義伽他;二者、建立意趣義伽他;三者、建立體義伽他。
[]什麼是簡擇、觀察一切法?這個思擇諸法裡面有兩種不同,應該注意。一、思擇素呾纜義,二、思擇伽他義。什麼是思擇素呾纜義?在攝事分裡面有解釋,在菩薩藏教授中,有說這件事,這裡不說。什麼是思擇伽他義?伽他義,還是有三種的不同。哪三種?一者、建立勝義伽他,二者、建立義趣義伽他,三者、建立體義伽他。

3.1.建立勝義伽他
建立勝義伽他者,如經言:
1)都無有宰主,及作者受者,諸法亦無用,而用轉非無。
svāmī na vidyate kaścin na kartā nāpi vedakaḥ/
dharmāḥ sarve ‘pi niśceṣṭā atha ced vartate kriyā//
There is no proprietor at all, no doer, no feeler; Although all the dharmas are inactive, yet possible activity evolves.(此中梵語與英譯,是抄錄Buddhist Insight p.335-353)
2)唯十二有支,蘊處界流轉,審思此一切,眾生不可得。
dvādaśaiva bhavāṅgāni skandhāyatanadhātavaḥ/
vicintya sarvāṇy etāni pudgalo nopalabhyate//
The twelve members of phenomenal life are the aggregates (skandha), sense bases (ayatana), and realms (dhatu). Pondering all those, a person (pudgala) is not found.
3)於內及於外,是一切皆空,其能修空者,亦常無所有。
śūnyam ādhyātmikaṃ sarvaṃ śūnyaṃ sarvaṃ bahirgataṃ/
na vidyate so ‘pi kaścid yo bhāvayati śūnyatāṃ//
Void is all within; void all without. Nor exists anyone who contemplates voidnes.
4)我我定非有,由顛倒妄計,有情我皆無,唯有因法有。
ātmaiva hy ātmano nāsti viparītena kalpyate/
naiveha sattva ātmā vā dharmās tv ete sahetukāḥ//
For the self is not by way of self; it is imagined in reverse manner. Here there is no being or oneself. But these dharmas have their causes.
5)諸行皆剎那,住尚無況用,即說彼生起,為用為作者。
kṣaṇikāḥ sarvasaṃskārā asthitānāṃ kutaḥ kriyā/
bhūtir yeṣāṃ kriyāsau ca kārakaḥ saiva cocyate//
All the samskaras are momentary; how could there be the activity of transient things? Precisely their arising is the activity as well as the agent.
6)眼不能見色,耳不能聞聲,鼻不能嗅香,舌不能嘗味,
cakṣuḥ paśyati no rūpaṃ śotraṃ śabdāṃ śṛṇoti naḥ/
ghrāṇaṃ jighrati no gandhāṃ jihvā nāsvādayed rasāṃ//
Neither does the eye see form; nor the ear hear sounds. Neither does the nose smell odors; nor the tongue taste flavors.
7)身不能覺觸,意不能知法,於此亦無能,任持驅役者。
kāyaḥ spṛśati no sparśā mano dharmān na kalpayet/
nāsti caiṣām adhiṣṭhātā prerako vidyate na ca//
Neither does the body feel tangibles; nor the mind conceive dharmas. And these have neither controller nor instigator.
8)法不能生他,亦不能自生,眾緣有故生,非故新新有。
na paro janayaty enaṃ svayaṃ naiva ca jāyate/
pratītya bhāvā jāyante niṣpurāṇā navā navā//
Another does not engender his; nor is it engendered of itself. Entities arise dependently. They are not old, but ever new.
9)法不能滅他,亦不能自滅,眾緣有故生,生已自然滅。
na paro nāśayaty enaṃ svayaṃ nāpi ca naśyati/
pratyaye sati jāyante jātāḥ svarasabhaṅgurāḥ//
Another does not destroy this; nor is it destroyed of itself. When there is the condition, things arise; and having arisen, are perishable by their own essence.
10)由二品為依,是生便可得,恆於境放逸,又復邪昇進。
pakṣadvaye niśritā hi janatā upalabhyate/
pramattā viṣayeṣv eva mithyā coccalitā punaḥ//
One finds that creatures lie in two categories. They are heedless in sense fields; moreover, waywardly advancing.
11)愚癡之所漂,彼遂邪昇進,諸貪愛所引,於境常放逸。
mohenāpahṛtās te vai mithyā uccalitās turye/
tṛṣṇayāpahṛtās te tu pramattā viṣayeṣu ye//
Truly those caught by delusion are those waywardly advancing. While those caught by desire are those heedless in sense fields.
12)由有因諸法,眾苦亦復然,根本二惑故,十二支分二。
sahetukatvād dharmāṇāṃ duḥkhasyeha tathaiva ca/
maulaṃ kleśadvayaṃ kṛtvā dvādaśāṅgo dvidhā kṛtaḥ//
Because dharmas have their cause, as does also suffering, Since one has created the two fundamental defilements, there are the twelve members, of two kinds.
13)自無能作用,亦不由他作,非餘能有作,而作用非無。
svayaṃkṛtā kriyā naiva tathā parakṛtā na ca/
paraḥ kriyāṃ na kārayati na ca nāsti kriyā punaḥ//
The activity is not created by self, nor created by another; Another (life) does not cause the activity; but also the activity does not fail to exist.
14)非內亦非外,非二種中間,由行未生故,有時而可得。
nādhyātmaṃ na bahir vā ca nāntarāle tayor api/
anutpanno hi saṃskāraḥ kadācid upalabhyate//
Whether within, without, or between the two, The samskara that has not (yet) arisen is nowhere found.
15)設諸行已生,由此故無得,未來無有相,過去可分別。
utpanno ‘pi ca saṃskāraḥ tenāsau nopalabhyate/
anāgataṃ nirnimittam atītaṃ tu vikalpyate//
Even when the samskara has arisen, it is not thereby found. The future is devoid of sign. But one imagines the past.
16)分別曾所更,非曾亦分別,行雖無有始,然有始可得。
kalpyate ‘nubhūtaṃ (na) ca nānubhūtaṃ ca kalpyate/
anādimantaḥ saṃskārā ādiś caivopalabhyate//
One imagines not just the experienced, but imagines also the not-experienced. The samskaras are beginningless. Still, a beginning is found.
17-18)諸色如聚沫,諸受類浮泡,諸想同陽焰,諸行喻芭蕉,諸識猶幻事,日親之所說,諸行一時生,亦一時住滅。
phenapiṇḍopamaṃ rūpaṃ vedanā budbudopamā/
marīcisadṛśī saṃjñā saṃskārāḥ kadalīnibhāḥ/
māyopamaṃ ca vijñānam uktam ādityabandhunā/
ekotpādāś ca saṃskārā ekasthitinirodhinaḥ//
The solar kinsman has proclaimed formation to be like a lump of foam; feeling like a bubble; ideation like a mirage; motivations like plantain trunks; and perception like an illusion. The samskaras arise alike, abide and perish alike.
19)癡不能癡癡,亦不能癡彼,非餘能有癡,而愚癡非無。
na moho mohayed mohaṃ paraṃ naiva ca mohayet/
na paro mohayaty enaṃ na ca moho na vidyate/
Delusion does not delude delusion, nor does it at all delude any one else; nor does anyone else delude it; and yet delusion does not fail to occur.
20)不正思惟故,諸愚癡得生,此不正思惟,非不愚者起。
ayoniśomanaskārāt saṃmoho jāyate sa ca/
ayoniśomanaskāro nāsaṃmūḍhasya jāyate//
That confusion is born of unmethodical mental orientation, And the unmethodical mental orientation is born of one not free from confusion.
21)福非福不動,行又三應知,復有三種業,一切不和合。
puṇyā apuṇyā āniñjyā saṃskārās trividhā mataḥ/
trividhaṃ cāpi yat karma sarvam etad asaṃgataṃ//
Meritorious, demeritorious, and motionless are the motivations (and) held to be threefold; and whichever be the three-fold karma, all that is disjoined.
22)現在速滅壞,過去住無方,未生依眾緣,而復心隨轉。
prabhaṅgurā vartamānā atītā na kvacit sthitā/
ajātāḥ pratyayādhināḥ cittaṃ cāpy anuvartakaṃ//
The present ones are disintegrating; Those of the past abide nowhere; The unborn depend on conditions, And the mind evolves accordingly.
23)畢竟共相應,不相應亦爾,非一切一切,而說心隨轉。
atyantikaḥ saṃprayogo viprayogas tathaiva ca/
na ca sarvair hi sarvasya cittaṃ copagam ucyate//
In an absolute sense not all (mind) has association-dissociation likewise-with all (samskara). It is said that mind evolves accordingly.
24)於此流無斷,相似不相似,由隨順我見,世俗用非無。
tasmin srotasya vicchinne sadṛśāsadṛśe punaḥ/
ātmadṛṣṭyanusāreṇa saṃvṛtiḥ kriyate tv iyaṃ//
Again, the stream (of consciousness) has similar and dissimilar disruption, but this convention works by following the view that there is a self.
25)若壞於色身,名身亦隨滅,而言今後世,自作自受果。
bhidyate rūpakāyas ca nāmakāyo ‘pi naśyati/
svayaṃkṛto ‘pabhogaś ca paratreha nirucyate//
The set of formation breaks up; the set of names also perishes; and the self-done is declared "fruit-eating" both in this and in the other world.
26)前後差別故,自因果攝故,作者與受者,一異不可說。
paurvāparyeṇa cānyatvāt svahetuphalasaṃgrahāt/
sa eva kartā vettā ca anyo veti na kathyate//
That is the 'doer" and the "feeler" through difference of priority and posteriority, and through comprising in it self the cause and the fruit. But one should not explain (that) as "different."
27)因道不斷故,和合作用轉,從自因所生,及攝受所作。
hetuvartmānupacchedāt sāmagryā vartate kriyā/
svasmād dhetoś ca jāyante kurvanti ca parigrahaṃ//
Given that the course of causes is not disrupted, activity evolves by reason of the assemblage (of causes). They are born by their individual cause and take control.
28)樂戲論為因,若淨不淨業,諸種子異熟,及愛非愛果。
prapañcābhiratir hetus tathā karma śubhāśubhaṃ/
sarvabījo vipākaś ca iṣṭāniṣṭaṃ tathā phalaṃ//
When the cause is delight in elaboration, likewise the action (karma) is good or evil. When any seed matures, likewise the fruit is desirable or undesirable.
29)依諸種異熟,我見而生起,自內所證知,無色不可見。
sarvabīje vipāke hi jāyate ātmadarśanaṃ/
pratyātmavedanīyo ‘sau arūpī anidarśanaḥ//
When any seed matures, the view of self is reproduced. what is to be known of one's own self is that it is formless, invisible.
30)無了別凡夫,計斯為內我,我見為依故,起眾多妄見。
kalpayanty antarātmānaṃ taṃ ca bālā ajānakāḥ/
ātmadarśanam āśritya tathā bahvyaś ca dṛṣṭayaḥ//
And that is what the immature and ignorant imagine to be the self within, having based themselves on the view of self. Thus there are many (false) views.
31)總執自種故,宿習助伴故,聽聞隨順故,發生於我見。
piṇḍagrāhāt svabījāc ca pūrvābhyāsāt sahāyataḥ/
śravaṇād anukūlāc ca jāyate ātmadarśanaṃ//
As a result of the cohering seed of self, the former concomitant habitual practice, and (present) hearing in conformity there-with, the view of self arises.
32)貪愛及與緣,而生於內我,攝受希望故,染習外為所。
snehas tatpratyayaś caiva adhyātmam upajāyate/
anugrahābhilāṣāc ca bahiḥ sneho mamāyitaṃ//
Attachment originates in addition to that condition within; And attachment craving for acquisition(originates in addition to) the cherished thing without.
33)世間真可怖,愚癡故攝受,先起愛藏已,由茲趣戲論。
yato bibheti loko ‘yaṃ tan mohāt saṃharaty asau/
pūrvaṃ niveśanaṃ kṛtvā tenopaiti prapañcitaṃ//
Whatever this world fears, that brings the self of delusion. Having formerly made an abode, it undertakes the elaborated.
34)彼所愛藏者,賢聖達為苦,此苦逼愚夫,剎那無暫息。
yat tan niveśanaṃ kṛtaṃ tad āryā duḥkhato viduḥ/
yena duḥkhitā sadā bālāh kṣaṇamātrānupaśamikena hi//
Whatever the abode that is made, that the noble ones know as suffering. Thereby the immature always suffer, for it is not appeased even for a moment.
35)不平等纏心,積集彼眾苦,積集是愚夫,計我苦樂緣。
vaiṣamyaparigataṃ cittam ācinoti duḥkhaṃ tathāvidhaṃ/
yad ācitaṃ bhavati bālānām ahaṃkārasukhaduḥkhapratyayaṃ//
The mind that is filled with variations gathers suffering of like kind. Whenever it is a mind belonging to the immature, it is the condition of egohood, happiness, and suffering.
36)諸愚夫固著,如大象溺泥,由癡故增上,遍行遍所作。
yatra saktāḥ sarvabāliśāḥ paṅke mahati kuñjaro yathā/
saṃmohas tatra cādhikaḥ sarvatragaḥ sarvaceṣṭite//
Where all fools are stuck, as an elephant sinks in a bog, There is the remaining confusion, proceeding everywhere, given over to every activity.
37)此池派眾流,於世流為暴,非火風日竭,唯除正法行。
tat saraḥ sarvasrotasāṃ vinirbhedāya yāni loke srotāṃsi viṣamāṇi/
naitad agnir na vāyur na bhāskaro viśoṣayed anyatra dharmacaryayā//
.No fire, wind, or sun could dry up those unbearable streams in the world, so as to destroy all streams-Nothing but the practice of the Dharma.
38)於苦計我受,苦樂了知苦,分別此起見,從彼生生彼。
duḥkhī duḥkhito ‘ham asmīty ātmānaṃ sukhito vā punar duḥkhaṃ vyavasyati/ parikalpo dṛṣṭisamuttāpakaḥ sa tasmāj jātas taj janayaty api//
When suffering, one thinks,'I am suffering;" or "I am happy,'when he ascertains himself suffering. Imagination is the arouser of (right and wrong) views. It is produced from them and generates them in turn.
39)染污意恆時,諸惑俱生滅,若解脫諸惑,非先亦非後。
sahotpannaniruddhaṃ hi kleśaiḥ kliṣṭaṃ manaḥ sadā/
kleśebhyas tasya nirmokṣo na bhūto na bhaviṣyati//
The defiled mind always arises and ceases together with defilements. Its release has not occurred and will not.
40)非彼法生已,後淨異而生,彼先無染污,說解脫眾惑。
na tad utpadyate paścāc chuddham anyat tu jāyate/
tac ca pūrvam asaṃkliṣṭaṃ kleśebhyo muktam ucyate//
That does not arise later. On another occasion it is born pure. Precisely that which formerly was unstained is called "freed from defilements."
41)其有染污者,畢竟性清淨,既非有所淨,何等有能淨。
yat kliṣṭaṃ tad ihātyantāc chuddhaṃ prakṛtibhāsvaraṃ/
na ceha śudhyate kaścit kutaścid vāpi śudhyate//
That which was defiled, here in the end is purified, with its intrinsic light. Anything not purified here would surely not become pure anywhere !
42)諸種子滅故,諸煩惱盡故,即於此無染,顯示二差別。
sarvabījasamutsādāt sarvakleśaparikṣayāt/
tatraiva cāpy asaṃkleśād dvidhābhinnaṃ pradarśitaṃ//
By reason of the utter destruction of all seeds the total elimination of all defilement; in the same place, as well, by reason of no stain, a portion of two kinds is specifled.
43)自內所證故,唯眾苦盡故,永絕戲論故,一切無戲論。
pratyātmavedanīyatvād duḥkhamātraparikṣayāt/
tathaiva niḥprapañcatvāt sarvathā na prapañcayet//
Through what is to be known of one's own self, through elimination of suffering only; just so, through no elaboration,one does not elaborate at all.
44)眾生名相續,及法想相中,無生死流轉,亦無涅槃者。
pravāhe pudgalākhyā syād dharmasaṃjñā ca lakṣaṇe/
na veha kascit saṃsartā nirvāty api na kaścana//
The term "person"(pudgala) means "continuous stream" and the expression "natufe" (dharma) means "character." Neither is there any transmigrator here, nor is anything allayed (in parinirvana)

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