如經言：一時，索訶世界主大梵天王往世尊所，頂禮佛足，退坐一面。以妙伽他而讚請曰：atha khalu brahmā sahāṃpatir yena bhagavāṃs tenopasaṃkrānta upasaṃkramya bhagavataḥ pādau śirasā vanditvā ekānte nyaṣīd(ad) ekāntaniṣaṇṇo brahmā sahāṃpatir bhagavantaṃ gāthābhigītena praśnaṃ pṛcchati sma/ (cf. Buddhist Insight p.354-366)
Then, you should know, Brahma Sahampati went there where was the Bhagavat, and having bowed with his head to the feet of the Bhagavat, went to one side; and remaining at one side Brahma sahampati put a question to the Bhagavat by reciting a verse :
śikṣām udgṛhīte pṛṣṭo yānuśikṣā suśikṣaṇā//
(1)You have been perfected in the Instruction and have cleared all doubt. Whatever be the training and the points of instruction, pray tell how one embraces the Instrnction! (commentary advances the view that in consideration of persons being fearful of too many rules and tending to laziness, the Buddha presented the Instructions compactly as three kinds:)
adhiśīlam adhicittam adhiprajñām ca māriṣa/
tisraḥ śikṣāḥ samāsena śṛṇu yā tā suśikṣaṇā//
(2)Exalted friend, Morality, Mind Training, and Insight are the three Instructions in short. Listen, what be the training !
bhavet ṣaḍaṅgasaṃpannaś cittasthitisukhānvitaḥ/
caturṣu caturākāra(ḥ) jñānaśuddhaḥ sadā bhavet//
(3)One should be equipped with the six members (of morality),endowed with the pleasure of mind-fiixation;and the four kinds among the four should always purify knowledge. The six members are: l.one remains in possession of morality; 2.is restrained by the Pratimoksa vow; 3.has perfection of good behavior (acarasampannah); 4.has the perfection of lawful resort (gocarasampannah); 5. views fearfully the major and minor sins; 6.rightly takes and learns the "points of instruction" (siksapada). The Instruction of Mental Training is fixation of mind (cittasthiti) of four kinds, namely the four kinds of Dhyana; its pleasure by way of beatifiic dwelling of present life. The Instruction of Insight is the purification of knowledge by the four kinds for each of the four Noble Truths.
supratiṣṭhitamūlaḥ yaś cittasyopaśame rataḥ/
samyuktavyā visamyuktavyā dṛṣṭyadṛṣṭyāryānāryā//
(4) (Namely, respectively,) a) have what is the well-established basis; b) have joy in the pacification of mind; c) take on the noble right view and leave off the ignoble wrong view.
ādiśuddho dhyānarataḥ satye ca kuśalo bhavet/
utpādayed (vi)varjayed bṛṃhayet satyam eva ca//
(5)He should be pure from the outset; have the pleasure of Dhyana; and should have skill in truth, to wit, he should (respectively) generate, eliminate, and promote truth. He should generate the truth of path; should eliminate the truths of suffering and source of suffering; should promote the truth of cessation by cessation of defilement whether minor, middling, or great.
śikṣāpadeṣu vidyante catasro gatayas triṣu/
vivarjayitvā dvigatī dvigatī samudānayet//
(6)When there are the three "points of instruction," there are the four destinies, to wit, having warded off two destinies, one should acquire two destinies. He should ward off two destinies, the bad destiny (durgati) and the good destiny (sugati) of the realm of desire; and should acquire two destinies, he "upper" destiny of the realm of form and formless reaim, and the Nirvana destiny.
dve dvayapratyupasthāne ekā nirvāṇagāminī/
(7)Two are based on two; one is the Nirvana-road. One should cultivate them becoming in sequence a basis, unmixed and mixed. Of the two, Instruction of Morality and Instruction of Mind Training, the first one, Instruction of Morality, is the basis for both the Instruction of Mind Training and Instruction of Insight. The second, middling one, the Instruction of Mind Training, is the basis for the Instruction of Insight and that part of the Instruction of Morality as pertains to the"restraint of meditation." The best one, namely, the Instruction of Insight, is the road to NirvAna. One should cuitivate them unmixed (abhinna), i.e. consistent respectively, and mixed (sambhinna), i.e. consistent in leading to the goal.
niṣkaukṛtyo bhaved ādau paścāc ca sukhito yataḥ/
ādyāsau sarvaśikṣāṇāṃ yatra śikṣeta paṇḍita(ḥ)//
(8)Wherein the wise one trains, that one should be at first without regret, next happy---this is the first of all instructions. In sequence, be without regret through the Instruction of Morality; and be happy through the Instruction of Mind Training.
yato viśodhaye jñānaṃ śucotpattisukhānvitaḥ/
madhyāsau sarvaśikṣāṇāṃ yatra śikṣeta paṇḍitaḥ//
(9)Wherein the wise one trains, where by knowledge is for purification and one has pleasure in arousing purity---this is the middling one of all instructions. The Instruction of Mind Training especially promotes the root of virtue (kusala-mula).
yato vimocayec cittaṃ prapañca(ṃ) ca nirodhayet/
śreṣṭhāsau sarvaśikṣāṇāṃ yatra śikṣeta paṇḍitaḥ//
(10)Wherein the wise one trains, where by one would liberate the mind and destroy verbal elaboration---this is the best one of all instructions. This refers to the Instruction of Insight.
aśuddhagāminī pratipat tathā sugatigāminī/
ādyā pratipad ukteyaṃ sā ca niṣkevalā matā//
(11)The path said to be first, namely the impure way, likewise the way to good destiny---this is held to be by itself (kevala). Through failure of the Instruction of Morality, there is the impure way which is the way to bad destiny. Through adherence to the Instruction of Morality, there is the way to good destiny. And either one is accomplished by one instruction alone.
viśuddhagāminī pratipad na sarvātyantagāminī/
madhyā pratipad ukteyaṃ nāpi niṣkevalā matā//
(12) The path said to be middling, namely the path which is the pure way and not the final way---this is held to be not by itself. This path is pure of the defilements of the realm of desire. But it is not free from the defilements of the realm of form and formless realm, because it has not erased the traces (anusaya) of sensuous lust. It is not the flnal way, since by itself, i.e.without the first and the best (instructions), it does not fulfil.
viśuddhagāminī pratipat sarvātyantagāminī/
śreṣṭhā pratipad ukteyaṃ sā naivādvayakevalā//
(13)The path said to be best, namely the path which is the pure way and the final way-this is not by itself, i.e. not without the two. The way freeing from all defilements of the three worlds and finishing off the traces, is not accomplished without the prior two (instructions) or by itself.
śikṣeta yo na śikṣeta ubhau tau paṇḍitau matau/
śikṣeta yo na śikṣeta ubhau tau balau saṃmatau/
(14)The one who trains and the one who doesn't train, both those are held to be wise (pandita). The one who trains and the one who doesn't train, both those are held to be fools (bala). The one who trains rightly with the three Instructions, and the one who does not train in a wayward manner, is the wise one.The one who trains in a wayward manner,and the one who does not train rightly, is the fool.
parigrahaparityāgād dauṣṭhulyāpagamāt tathā/
pratyakṣatvāc ca jñeyasya śikṣādānam tridhā bhavet//
(15)The taking of the Instruction is threefold by way of a) renouncing possessions, b) eliminating contaminations, c) and direct perception of the knowable. Possessions are home, wife, etc. Contaminations (dausthulya) are the discordant elements to samadhi. The knowable are the four Truths. The verse points to the three Instructions in their order.
sālambanā v(yālambanā) sūkṣmodārikasaṃhitā/ sāmādānaprāvivekyaghoṣaābhogasaṃhṛtā//
(16)They are accompanied with meditative object or devoid of meditative object, are subtle or coarse; and are accomplished by rightly taking, solitude, word, and bent. The Instruction of Morality does not have a defined meditative object; the other two do have; thus the Instruction of Morality is"coarse," the other two "subtle." The Instruction of Morality is accomplished by rightly taking; the Instruction of Mental Training, by solitude of body and mind; the Instruction of Insight, by the word of another and the bent (abhoga) of rightly orienting the mind within.
eka ekā bhavec chikṣā sadvitīyā paro bhavet/
ekasyātmā tṛtīyaiva tā budhaḥ samatikramet//
(17)One Instruction (the first) is a single one. The Instruction with a second one is the subsequent one. The third Instruction is the nature of one. The wise person should surmount those. The Instruction of Morality is single. But.the Instruction of Mental Training needs a second one, the Instruction of Morality. The Instruction of Insight should not lack those two. The one "beyond training" (asaiksa) and the Arhat have surmounted those three Instructions.
ahraṣṭaśīlaḥ śikṣāt(sa) pratijñeyagato bhavet/
(18)His morality should not fall away from the Instruction; he should be possessed of the vow; he should not condemn good behavior; and he should avoid five places. The Instruction is that of Morality. The vow is the pratimoksa. Not condemning good behavior, he does not lose good behavior. The monk adheres to proper resort by avoiding five places, to wit, the royal palace, butcher shop, liquor shop, prostitute quarters, house of outcast.
anāpattaye vyutthātā niṣkaukṛtyo ‘tha kaukṛtya/
śikṣām āgamayet tatra pratipadyeta bhāvatas//
(19)When he regrets that he cannot again sin, he should rise with no regret. One should rely on the Instruction and practice therein sincerely. He should view fearfully the major and minor sins, and rightly take the "points of instruction."
pratyākhyānaṃ na kurvīta jīvitārthaṃ na nāśayet/
pratipattau sthito nityaṃ pravṛttavinayo bhavet//
(20)One should not repudiate it; not lose it even for life's sake;should always be stationed in the endeavor; should be involved with the discipline (vinaya).
These in order are the four 'roots": permanence of morality; firmness of morality; no interruption of it; staying in it, continuously.
pratijñāṃ śodhayet pūrvam ājīvam api śodhayet/
antadvayaṃ varjayitvā praṇidhānaṃ vivarjayet//
(21)One should purify his former vow, and should also purify his life. Having eliminated the two extremes, he should reject the (wrong) aspiration. The two extremes are indulgence in sense desires and ascetic austerity. He should reject the (wrong) aspiration for heaven, for this constitutes merely the pure Instruction of Morality.
antarāyakarān dharma(n) nābhigṛdhyet kathaṃ cana/
cittakṣobhakarān dharmān utpannā(n) nādhivāsayet//
(22)One should not at all hanker after natures that create obstacles. One should not acquiesce in natures that have already arisen that disturb the mind.
nātilīno nātisṛtaḥ sadā sūpasthitasmṛtiḥ/
maulasāmantakaiḥ śuddhaṃ brahmacaryaṃ bhaved api//
(23)With mindfulness always present, he is neither overrelaxed nor overly spirited (in mind). His pure conduct (brahmacarya) is purified by the main part and threshold (of the four Dhyanas).
bhaved ārabdhavīryaś ca nityaṃ dṛḍhaparākramaḥ/
niṣevatā pramādaṃ ca pañcāṅgasupratiṣṭhitaṃ//
(24) He should begin his striving and always have a steadfast forward step by staying close to heedfulness that is well based infive members. Striving means the kind that is armored and does not retreat from the praxis. Staying close to heedfulness shows distinguished purification of the Instructions. The five members of heedfulness are of 1. past, 2. future, 3. present-time, 4. action from previous (striving), 5. practice in conformity (with striving).
bhavet saṃchannakalyānaḥ tathā vivṛtapāpakaḥ/
lūhena vā praṇītena (cīvarasaṃtuṣṭ)ādinā//
(25) He should be reserved about his virtues and confess his sins; be satisfied with his religious garb, etc. whether inferior or fine.
aplena vartayed mātrāṃ lūhenāpi ca vartayet/
dhūtān guṇān samādāyān samārthaṃ kleśavarjitaḥ//
(26) He should abide the amount, even small; and abide it, even inferior. Rightly adopting the virtues of apurified man, he should eliminate defllements for the purpose of calming.
syād īryapathasaṃpanno mātrāṃ kuryāt pratigrahe/
tadarthaṃ kalpitāṃ īryāṃ kuryān naiva kathaṃ ca na//
(27) He should be possessed of dignified posture, and should be judicious in acquisition. On that account, he should in no case ever assume artiflcial postures.
ātmanāś ca guṇan bhūtān na lāpena nāpi lāpayet/
tān guṇān atha cārthitvaṃ nimittena na darśayet//
(28) One should not say one's own merits are real, or induce someone to say it. Besides, one should not reveal those merits by signs in terms of desired objects.
pareṣām antikāt kramān na yācñāṃ ca yācitavyāṃ/
dharmenopagataṃ lābhaṃ lābheneha na saṃcayet//
(29) One should not ask for alms forcefully in the presence of others. When what was received came righteously (with dharma), one should not speak badly of what was received.
lābhaṃ naivābhigṛdhyeta satkāraṃ ca kathaṃ cana/
dṛṣṭiś ca nābhiniviśet samāropāpavādikaṃ//
(30) One should not hanker in anyway for receiving things or for respect. One should not clingto views that over-emphasize or under-value.
lokāyatāṃs tathā mantrāṇ nirarthān na parāmṛśet/
apārthaṃ dhārayen naiva utsadaṃ pātracīvaraṃ//
(31) One should not adhere to the meaningless mantras of the Lokiyatas. One should not uselessly bear the begging bowl and religious garb in excess.
One should not wear the religious garb and begging bowl in excess so as to receive material things and respect.
gṛhasthaiḥ sahasaṃsargaṃ na kuryāt kleśavarddhanaṃ/
āryais tu sahasaṃsargaṃ kuryāj jñānaviśodhanaṃ//
(32) One should not associate with householders, who promote defilement. One should associate with the nobles, who purify knowledge.
kuryān mitrakulaṃ naiva śokavyākṣepakārakaṃ/
duḥkhasya janakān kleśān utpannā(n) nādhivāsayet//
(33) One should not make residence with friends who cause grief and distraction. One should not tolerate the defilements that have already arisen that generate suffering.
śraddhādeyaṃ na bhuñjīta kathaṃ cic ca kṣatavrataḥ/
pratyākhyānaṃ na kurvīta saddharmasya kathaṃ cana//
(34) One who has lost his vow should not utilize in any case what is to be gained by faith.One should not repudiate in any case the illustrious Dharma.
pareṣāṃ skhalite doṣe anābhogasukhī bhavet/
ātmanaḥ skhalitaṃ doṣaṃ jñātvā vivṛścayāt punaḥ/
(35) Should one have thoughtless pleasure in a stumbling fault of others, he should reflect upon his own stumbling fault and in turn confess it.
āpattiṃ ca tathāpanno yathā dharmaṃ prakalpayet/
tatheti karaṇīyeṣu svayaṃkārī paṭur bhavet//
(36) According as an offence has occurred, one should apply the appropriate Dharma (right act). The wise person should involve himself in duty for the matter concerned.
buddhānāṃ śrāvakāṇāṃ ca anubhāvaṃ ca deśanaṃ/
śrāddho ‘vadyadarśī ca nābhyacakṣīta sarvathā//
(37) With faith in the power and teaching of the Buddhas and their disciples (sravakas), one should never blame by noticing faults.
sugambhīreṣu dharmeṣu atarkāvacareṣu ca/
paurāṇaṃ āgamaṃ tyakṣvo svadṛṣṭiṃ na parāmṛśet//
(38) One should not adhere to one's own view, discarding the old lineage (pauranam agamam) regarding the profound doctrines (dharma) which are not in the range of logic. (The gathas 18-38 present various aspects for purifying the Instruction of Morality).
vyavakṛṣṭaviharī syāt prānte hi śayanāsane/
kuśalān bhavayed dharmān dṛḍhavīryaparākramaḥ//
(39) Should he be dwelling in solitude, using a resting cot in the outskirts, he should contemplate virtuous natures,with steadfast forward step of striving.
So as to fulfill the praxis, he has solitude of body and mind, a resting cot concordant with his samadhi.Contemplating only virtuous natures, he is not oppressed by secondary defllements such as"fading" (laya) and "scattering" (auddhatya) (of the meditative object). This is a special means of the Instruction of Mind Training.
acchadrikaś chadrajāto apraduṣṭo vidūṣaṇaḥ/
nirmiddhaś caiva middhī ca kāle śānto na ca sthitaḥ//
niṣkaukṛtyaḥ sakaukṛtyo niḥkāmkṣvo ‘tha ca kāṃkṣati/
sarvathā sarvadā yukto bhavet samyakprayogavān//
(40-41) Should he, having been without longing, have longing arise; having not blamed, be blaming; been not sleepy, at this time sleepy; not abiding with calm; been without regret, now regretting; been without lusts, now lusts,-he should get yoked in everyway at all times, possessed of the right praxis. This means he must purify his mind from the five hindrances:1.sensuous lust, 2. ill-will; 3. torpor and sleepiness;4. mental wandering and regret; and 5.doubt. This right praxis is the right Instruction of Mental Training.
nudano bodhanaś caiva tathā samyojanoparaḥ/
naimittika snehanaś ca tathā vilasanoparaḥ//
niṣpīdanaś ca paramaḥ snehanaḥ kalpa ucyate/
kāmarāgasya janakas taṃ budhaḥ parivarjayet//
(42-43)"stirring" and "awakening"; likewise being fettered; grasping sign-sources and passion; also given to multiple pleasures; being 'pressed," and sensual climax-are called" imagination" (kalpa), the generator of sensuous lust (kama-raga). This a wise man should thoroughly eliminate.
There are eight kinds of such imagination:1."stirring" (nudana) is any imagination that instigates the mind along with an improper mental orientation in a sensual object . 2."awakening" (bodhana) is the being attended with awakening enwrapment of lust toward precisely that object. 3. being fettered (samyojana) is the seeking for precisely that object. 4.grasping sign-sources (naimittika) apprehends various pleasant signs in precisely that object. 5.passion (snehana) is the clinging to this object when it is obtained.6.given to multiple pleasures (vilasana) is the engagement from various sides in multiple sensuous enjoyment in that object. 7. being pressed (nispidana) is what is at the time when two unite the twos exual organs. 8.sensual climax (parama-snehana) is what is at the time of sexual discharge.
atṛptikarakāḥ kāmā bahusādhāraṇās tathā/
adharmahetavaś caiva tathā tṛṣṭṇā(ṃ) vivarddhakāḥ//
satāṃ (vi)varjanīyāś ca kṣipraṃ vilayagāminaḥ/
pratyāyeṣv āśritāḥ kāmāḥ pramādasya ca bhūmayaḥ//
(44-45)Desires are not satisfied,and have many cohorts;likewise cause bad conduct (adharma) and promote craving (trsna). They should be avoided by illustrious persons and quickly brought to destruction. Desires are based on conditions (pratyaya),and are the stages of heedlessness. (Commentary indicates that one sees the trouble of desires and avoids them by the eight identifications of the verses 44-45).
karaṅkasadṛśāḥ kāmāḥ māṃsapeśyupamāṣ tathā/
tṛṇolkāsadṛśāś caiva tathā agniśikhopamāḥ//
āśīviṣopamāś caiva tathā svapnopamāḥ punaḥ/
yācñyālaṃkārasadṛśās tathā vṛkṣaphalopamaḥ//
evaṃ kāmān parijñāya nābhigṛdhyet kathaṃ cana/
saddharmaṃ śṛṇu yo nityaṃ cintayed bhāvayed api//
(46-48A) Desires are like bones, like apiece of meat, like a torch of hay, like a peaked fire; like a poisonous snake, like a dream, like a borrowed ornament, like the fruit of tree. Having recognized desires in this way, one should not hanker'after them at all. Like bones, because they do not satisfy; like a piece of meat,because they are frequent and common and occasion wrong conduct; like a torch of hay, because if not hurled away, but left in place, they burn one up; like a peaked fire, because while promoting craving, they dry one up; like a poisonous snake, because they are to be avoided by illustrious persons. They are like a dream, because they quickly perish.They are like a borrowed ornament, because they are based on conditions. They are like, the fruit of tree, because they are the stages of heedlessness.
śānto dārikadarśī prāg yāvan aikāntiko bhavet/
prīhi yo kleśadauṣṭhulyaṃ prahāṇe carato bhavet//
mīmātmakaḥ syān nimitte prayogaparamo bḥavet/
kuryāc ca kāmavairāgyaṃ rūpavairāgyam eva ca//
satyābhisamayaṃ kuryāt sarvavairāgyam eva ca/
dṛṣṭe dharme ca nirvāyāt tathā upadhi(ṃ) saṃkṣayāt//
(48B-51) Listen to the illustrious Dharma, whoever would ponder it and cultivate it! First one should be calm and far-sighted, and continue on up to single certitude. Rejoice, whoever is engaged in eliminating the contamination of defilement! Should he analyze the sign-source, he would become uppermost in the praxis. He would eliminate desire of the desire-realm and eliminate desire of the form-realm. He would bring about the clear realization of truth and the dispassion toward everything; would attain Nirvana in the present life; and would erase the (remaining) basis.
The verses 48B to 51 show the pure Instruction of Insight in terms of the seven mental orientations. Of these, the first one, realization of the characteristics"(laksana-pratisamvedi), is shown by listening to and pondering the illustrious Dharma. The second, 'made of conviction" (adhimoksika), is shown by cultivating this Dharma. The third,"seclusion" (pravivekya), is shown by the expressions calm" and "far-sighted." The fourth,''attraction of rapture" (ratisamgrahaka) is shown by "continue on up to single certitude." The fifth,"orientation with comprehen-sion" (mimamsa-manaskara), is shown by "should be analyze the sign-source." The sixth, "final stage of application" (prayoga-nistha), is shown by "would become uppermost in the praxis."The seventh," fruit of thefinal stage of application" (prayoga-nisthaphala), is shown by "He would eliminate desire of the desire-realm and eliminate desire of the form-realm; would bring about the clear realization of truth and the dispassion toward everything. This seventh mental orientation (manaskara), namely, "fruit of the final stage of application," is the mundane fruit, Nirvana with remainder; and the supramundane fruit, Nirvana without remainder.