2012年3月24日 星期六

雜阿含-349


四九一(三四九)堪能解義
1.
如是我聞:一時,佛住王舍城迦蘭陀竹園。

2.堪能解義
爾時、世尊告諸比丘:善來比丘,善出家,善得己利,曠世時時得生聖處。諸根具足,不愚不癡,不須手語,好說、惡說堪能解義。

3.說法
我今於此世作佛,如來、應、等正覺、明行足、善逝、世間解、無上士、調御丈夫、天人師、佛、世尊。說法:寂滅,涅槃,菩提正向,善逝等正覺,所謂此有故彼有,此起故彼起,謂緣無明行,緣行識,乃至純大苦聚集;無明滅則行滅,乃至純大苦聚滅。

4.當如是學,自利,利他,自他俱利
諸比丘!難得之處已得,生於聖處,諸根具足,乃至純大苦聚集,純大苦滅。是故比丘!當如是學,自利,利他,自他俱利。如是出家,不愚不癡,有果、有樂,有樂果報,供養衣服、飲食、臥具、湯藥者,悉得大果、大福、大利。是故比丘當如是學!

5.
佛說此經已,諸比丘聞佛所說,歡喜奉行。

I. 善得己利
[經文] 善來比丘,善出家,善得己利,曠世時時得生聖處。諸根具足,不愚不癡,不須手語,好說、惡說堪能解義。我今於此世作佛,如來、應、等正覺、明行足、善逝、世間解、無上士、調御丈夫、天人師、佛、世尊。說法:寂滅,涅槃,菩提正向,善逝等正覺。
[論說] 具四圓滿,能生聖處。若隨有一成此圓滿,於善說法毘奈耶中正修行時,名曰善來、善出家者。云何名為四種圓滿?一、增上意樂圓滿,二、根圓滿,三、智圓滿,四、即於聖處有佛出世得值圓滿。
1)增上意樂圓滿者,謂如有一,於般涅槃,極淨修治增上意樂方乃出家,非為債主及諸怖畏之所逼迫,乃至廣說。當知如是而出家者,名善出家,生於聖處。
2)根圓滿者,謂如有一,眼、耳無闕,非半擇迦,不缺支分,由得如是根無缺故,於善說法毘奈耶中堪任出家,說正法時堪能聽受。
3)智圓滿者,謂如有一,性不愚戇,無有下品愚癡障故;亦不瘖啞,無有中品愚癡障故;非手代言,無有上品愚癡障故。離三種智愚癡障故,有力能解善說、惡說所有法義。
4)即於聖處有佛出世得值圓滿者,謂如今時,有薄伽梵釋迦牟尼出現於世,是為如來、應、正等覺,乃至廣說,若廣解釋,應知如前攝異門分(T30,765a-b)。宣說正法,趣寂靜等,廣說如前。當知此中生聖處故,名為善來,善得出家;根無缺故,不愚戇故,不瘖啞故,亦不以手代其言故,名善獲得具足人身T30,836c

II.自圓滿
[論說] 云何自圓滿?謂善得人身,生於聖處,諸根無缺,勝處淨信,離諸業障。...[']indriyair avikalatā, āyatanagataḥ prasādaḥ, aparivṛttakarmāntatā //
1)云何名為善得人身?
云何名為得人身?謂如有一,生人同分,得丈夫身,男根成就,或得女身。如是名為善得人身。tatra manuṣyatvaṃ katamat/ yathāpīhaikatyo manuṣyāṇāṃ sabhāgatāyāṃ pratyājāto bhavati/ puruṣaś ca puruṣendriyeṇa samanvāgataḥ strīś ca/ idam ucyate manuṣyatvam //
2)云何名為生於聖處?
云何名為生於聖處?謂如有一,生於中國廣說如前,乃至善士皆往遊涉。如是名為生於聖處。āryāyatane pratyājātiḥ katamā /yathāpīhaikatyo madhyeṣu janapadeṣu pratyājāto bhavati, pūrvavad yāvad yatra gatiḥ satpuruṣāṇām /iyam ucyate āryāyatane pratyājātiḥ //
3)云何名為諸根無缺?
云何名為諸根無缺?謂如有一,性不愚鈍亦不頑騃,又不瘖啞乃至廣說支節無減。彼由如是支節無缺、耳無缺等,能於善品精勤修集。如是名為諸根無缺。indriyair avikalatā katamā /yathāpīhaikatyo 'jaḍo bhavaty aneḍamūka iti vistaraḥ / aṅgapratyaṅgāvikalo vā yadrūpeṇāṅgapratyaṅgāvaikalyena śrotrāvaikalyādikena bhavyaḥ kuśalapakṣasamudāgamāya /idam ucyate indriyāvaikalyam //
4)云何名為勝處淨信?
云何名為勝處淨信?謂如有一,於諸如來正覺所說法、毘奈耶得淨信心,如是名為勝處淨信。云何名為勝處?言勝處者,謂諸如來正覺所說法毘奈耶,能生一切世、出世間白淨法故。此中,所起前行增上諸清淨信,名勝處淨信,能除一切所有煩惱、垢、穢、濁故。āyatanagataḥ prasādaḥ katamaḥ /yathāpīhaikatyena tathāgatapravedite dharmavinaye śraddhā pratilabdhā bhavati cetasaḥ prasādaḥ / ayam ucyate āyatanagataḥ prasādaḥ /tatrāyatanaṃ tathāgatapravedito dharmavinayaḥ sarveṣāṃ laukikalokottarāṇāṃ śukladharmāṇām utpattaye / yā punar atra śraddhā tena pūrvaṅgamenādhipatyena sa āyatanagataḥ prasādaḥ / sarva-kleśa-mala-kāluṣya-āpanayanāt //
5)云何名為離諸業障?
云何名為離諸業障?謂能遠離五無間業。所謂於彼害母、害父、害阿羅漢、破和合僧、於如來所惡心出血。隨一所有無間業障,於現法中不作不行,如是名為離諸業障。若有於此五無間業造作增長,於現法中,竟不能轉得般涅槃,生起聖道。故約彼說離諸業障。aparivṛttakarmāntatā katamā /yena pañcānām ānantaryāṇāṃ karmaṇāṃ tadyathā mātṛvadhāt pitṛvadhād arhadvadhāt saṃghabhedāt tathāgatasyāntike duṣṭacittarudhirotpādād anyatamānyatamād ānantaryaṃ karma dṛṣṭa eva dharme na kṛtaṃ bhavati nādhyācaritam iyam ucyate 'parivṛttakarmāntateti /imāni pañcānantaryāṇi karmāṇi kṛtopacitāni dṛṣṭa eva dharme parivartyābhavyo bhavati parinirvāṇāyāryamārgasyotpattaye / tasmād etāni 'parivṛttakarmāntatety ucyate //
6)
自圓滿唯由如是五種支分自體圓滿,是故說此名自圓滿。svayam evānena sa ātmabhāva ebhiḥ pañcabhir aṅgaiḥ sampādito bhavati / tasmād ātmasampad ity ucyate //

III.他圓滿
[論說] 云何他圓滿?謂諸佛出世,說正法教,法教久住,法住隨轉,他所哀愍。parasampat katamā /tadyathā buddhānām utpādaḥ, saddharmadeśanā, deśitānāṃ dharmāṇām avasthānam, avasthitānāṃ ca dharmāṇām anupravartanam, parataś ca pratyanukampā //
1)云何名為諸佛出世?
云何名為諸佛出世?謂如有一,普於一切諸有情類,起善利益增上意樂,修習多千難行苦行,經三大劫阿僧企耶,積集廣大福德、智慧二種資糧,獲得最後上妙之身,安坐無上勝菩提座,斷除五蓋,於四念住善住其心,修三十七菩提分法,現證無上正等菩提,如是名為諸佛出世。過去、未來、現在諸佛,皆由如是名為出世。tatra buddhānām utpādaḥ katamaḥ /yathāpīhaikatyaḥ sarvasattveṣu kalyāṇahitādhyāśayam utpādya prabhūtair duṣkarasahasrair mahatā ca puṇyajñānasambhāreṇa …… ātmabhāvapratilambhe bodhimaṇḍe niṣadya, pañca nivaraṇāni prahāya, caturṣu smṛtyupasthāneṣu sūpasthitacittaḥ, saptatriṃśadbodhipakṣyān dharmān bhāvayitvānuttarāṃ samyaksaṃbodhim abhisaṃbudhyate / ayam ucyate buddhānām utpādaḥ /atītānāgatapratyutpanneṣv adhvasu evam eva……
2)云何名為說正法教?
云何名為說正法教?謂即如是諸佛世尊出現於世,哀愍一切諸聲聞故,依四聖諦宣說真實苦、集、滅、道無量法教。所謂契經、應頌、記別、諷誦、自說、因緣、譬喻、本事、本生、方廣、希法、論議。如是名為說正法教。諸佛世尊及聖弟子一切正士,皆乘此法而得出離,然後為他宣說稱讚,是故說此名為正法。宣說此故,名正法教。 saddharmadeśanā katamā /ta evaṃ buddhā bhagavanto loka utpadya tasyaiva ca śrāvakā lokānukampām upādāya catvāry āryasatyāny ārabhya ...duḥkhasamudayanirodhamārgān dharmadeśanāṃ vartayanti,yad uta sūtra-geya-vyākaraṇa-gāthodāna-nidānā-vadānetivṛttaka-jātaka-vaipulyādbhutadharmopadeśān /iyam ucyate saddharmasya deśanā./sadbhir ayaṃ dharmo niryāto deśitaḥ praśasto buddhaiś ca buddhaśrāvakaiś ca /
3)云何名為法教久住?
云何名為法教久住?謂說正法已,轉法輪已,乃至世尊壽量久住及涅槃後,經爾所時,正行未減、正法未隱,如是名為正法久住。如是久住,當知說彼勝義正法作證道理。deśitānāṃ dharmāṇām avasthānaṃ katamat /deśite saddharme pravartite dharmacakre yāvac ca buddho bhagavān jīvati tiṣṭhati ca parinirvṛte ca buddhe bhagavati yāvatā kālena pratipattir na hīyate saddharmaś ca nāntardhīyate / idam ucyate saddharmasyāvasthānaṃ /
4)云何名為法住隨轉?
云何名為法住隨轉?謂即如是證正法者,了知有力能證如是正法眾生,即如所證,隨轉隨順教授教誡。如是名為法住隨轉。avasthitānāṃ dharmāṇām anupravartanaṃ katamat / yat ta evādhigantāraḥ saddharmasya saddharmasākṣātkriyāyai bhavyāṃ pratibalatām janānāṃ viditvā yathādhigatām evānulomikīm avavādānuśāsanīm anupravartayanti / idam ucyate 'vasthitānāṃ dharmāṇām anupravartanam //
5)云何名為他所哀愍?
云何名為他所哀愍?他謂施主,彼於行者起哀愍心,惠施隨順淨命資具,所謂如法衣服、飲食、諸坐臥具、病緣醫藥。如是名為他所哀愍。parataḥ pratyanukampā katamā / para ucyante dāyakadānapatayaḥ te yāni tasyānulomikāni jīvitopakaraṇāni taiḥ pratyanukampante yaduta cīvara-piṇḍapāta-śayanāsana-glāna-pratyaya-bhaiṣajya-pariṣkārair iyam ucyate parataḥ pratyanukampā //

沒有留言:

張貼留言