2012年5月29日 星期二

正斷相應


八 正斷相應
復次、嗢陀南曰:勇、力、修、等持,異門、神足後。
應知建立四種正斷,如聲聞地已廣分別(T30,442a)

I.勇:『經』文在卷二五,已佚失。
此中宣說勇第五句,云何名勇?謂如前說,堪能忍受發勤精進所生眾苦,諸淋漏苦,界不平苦,他麤惡言損惱等事所生眾苦。非此因緣,退捨修習正斷加行,故名為勇。

II.四正斷
1.釋惡不善法等
如是於四念住串習行故,已能除遣麁麁顛倒,已能了達善不善法,從此無間於諸未生惡不善法為不生故,於諸已生惡不善法為令斷故,於其未生一切善法為令生故,於其已生一切善法為欲令住、令不忘失,廣說如前,乃至攝心、持心。云何名為惡不善法?謂欲纏染污身、語、意業,是身、語、意惡行所攝,及能起彼所有煩惱。若未和合,未現在前,說名未生;若已和合,已現在前,說名已生。云何名為一切善法? 謂若彼對治、若蓋對治、若結對治。未生、已生,應知如前惡不善法。若時未生惡不善法,先未和合;為令不生,發起希願:我當令彼一切一切皆不復生。 是名於諸未生惡不善法,為不生故生欲。若時已生惡不善法,先已和合;為令斷故,發起希願:我當於彼一切一切皆不忍受,斷滅、除遣。是名於諸已生惡不善法,為令斷故生欲。
[梵本] sa evaṃ caturṣu smṛty-upasthāneṣu kṛtaparicaya audāriko(kau)dārikaṃ viparyāsam apīnaya kuśalākuśala-dharmābhijñaḥ / tad-anantaram anutpannānāṃ pāpakānām akuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpādāya / utpannānāṃ prahāṇāya / anutpannānāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām utpādāya / utpannānāṃ sthitaya iti vistareṇa pūrvvavad yāvac cittaṃ pragṛhṇāti / pradadhāti // tatra katame pāpakā akuśalā dharmā[ḥ][/] yatkāmāvacaraṃ kliṣṭaṃ kāyakarma, vāk-karma, manas-karma, kāyavāṅ, manoduścarita-saṃgṛhītaṃ / yena tat-samutthāpakāḥ kleśāste punar ye asamavahitā, asaṃmukhībhūtāste utpannā, ye samavahitāḥ saṃmukhībhūtāste utpannāh[/] tatra kuśalā dharmā ye tat-prātipakṣikā dharmāduścarita-prāti-pakṣikā, nivaraṇa-prātipakṣikāḥ saṃyojana-pratipakṣikā vā tepy anutpannās tatha eva veditavyāḥ / utpannāś ca pāpakā akuśalā dharmās tatra yadā anutpannānāṃ pāpakānām akuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpādāya spṛhām utpādayati / praṇidhatte, sarveṇa sarvvaṃ sarvvathā notpādayiṣyāmīty evaṃ chandaṃ janayati /utpannān vā punaḥ samavahitān sarvveṇa sarvvaṃ nādhivāsayiṣyāmi prahāsyāmi / prativinodayiṣyāmi yad anutpanneṣu pāpakeṣv akuśaleṣu pūrvvam eva utpāda(ā)-spṛhām utpādayati / praṇidhatte[/] nādhivāsaya(yi)tukāmo bhavati /ayam utpannānāṃ prahāṇāya[c]chandaḥ[/]

2.釋策勵及精進
彼一切惡不善法,或緣過去事生、或緣未來事生、或緣現在事生。如是彼法,或緣不現見境、或緣現見境。若緣過去、未來事境,是名緣不現見境。若緣現在事境,是名緣現見境。當知此中,於緣不現見境,惡不善法其未生者,欲令不生;其已生者,欲令永斷,自策自勵,是名策勵。於緣現見境,惡不善法其未生者,欲令不生;其已生者,欲令永斷,勇猛正勤,是名發勤精進。所以者何?要當堅固,自策自勵,勇猛正勤,方能令彼,或不復生、或永斷滅。又於下品、中品諸纏,其未生者欲令不生,其已生者欲令永斷,故自策勵。於上品纏,其未生者欲令不生,其已生者欲令永斷,發勤精進。又若行於過去境界,如是行時,不令煩惱緣彼生起;設復失念,暫時生起,而不忍受,速能斷滅、除遣、變吐。如緣過去,若行未來,當知亦爾。如是未生惡不善法,能令不生,生已能斷,是名策勵。若行現在所緣境界,如是行時,不令煩惱緣彼生起;設復失念,暫時生起,而不忍受,速能斷滅、除遣、變吐。如是未生惡不善法,能令不生,生已能斷,是名發勤精進。又或有惡不善法,唯由分別力生,非境界力;或有惡不善法,由分別力生亦境界力。唯由分別力生,非境界力者,謂於住時,思惟過去、未來境界而生於彼。由思惟力生,亦境界力者,謂於行時,緣現在境界而生於彼,當於爾時,決定亦有非理分別。當知此中,惡不善法,唯由分別力生,非境界力者,彼若未生能令不生,生已能斷,是名策勵。若由分別力生,亦境界力者,彼若未生能令不生,生已能斷,是名發勤精進。
[梵本] te punaḥ pāpakā akuśalā dharmā atītavastvālambavā vā, anāgatavastvālambanā vā, vartamānaviṣayālambanā vā, utpadyante, bhavanti / yenoktaviṣayālambanā[ḥ], pratyakṣaviṣayālambanāś ca ye atītānā-gatāvasthālambanās te, ye coktaviṣayālambanā, ye vartamānaviṣayālambanās te pratyakṣaviṣayālambanā[ḥ/] tatra parokṣālambanānāṃ pāpakānām akuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpādāya / utpannānāṃ ca prahāṇāya / vyāyacchate[/] pratyakṣaviṣayālambananānāṃ punaḥ /anutpannānām anutpādāyotpannānāṃ ca prahāṇāya vīryam ārabhate /tathāhi teṣāṃ dṛḍhatareṇa vīryāraṃbheṇānutpattiḥ / prahāṇa vā bhavati /api ca mṛdumadhyānāṃ samavasthānām anutpannānām anutpādāya / utpannānāṃ prahāṇāya vyāyacchate /adhimātrāṇāṃ samavasthānāṃ anutpannānām anutpādāya / utpannānāṃ ca prahāṇāya vīryam ārabhate /sa ced atīte ālambane carati / tathā carati / yathāsya tenālambanena kleśo notpadyate / sa cet punaḥ smṛti-saṃpramoṣād utpadyate nādhivāsayati / prajahāti / vyantī-karoti / yathā atīte ālambane evam anāgate[a]pi veditavyam /evam ayam anutpannānāṃ pāpakānām akuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpādāya utpannānāṃ ca prahāṇāya vyāyacchata ity ucyate /sa ced ayam varttamāne ālambane carati, tathā tathā carati / yathā tenālambanena kleśo na utpadyate / sa cet punaḥ smṛtisaṃpramoṣād utpadyate / utpannaṃ nādhivāsayati / prajahāti / vinodayati / vyantīkaroti /evam anutpannānāṃ pāpakānām akuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpādāya / utpannānāñ ca prahāṇāya vīryam ārabhata ity ucyate / santi pāpakā akuśalā dharmā ye saṃklpavaśe(bale)-na utpadyante / na viṣayabalena / santi yo saṃkalpabalena ca / viṣayabalena ca / tatra saṃkalpabalena utpadyante / tad yathā viharataḥ / atītānāgatālambanā ye utpadyante / tatra saṃkleśavaśe(le)na ca viṣayabalena ca utpadyate(nte) / tad yathā carato vartamānenālambane-na utpadyante / avaśyaṃ tatrāyoniśaḥ saṃkalpo bhavati /tatra ye saṃkalpabalenotpadyante teṣām anutpannām anutpādāya / utpannānāṃ ca prahāṇāya / vyāyacchate / tatra ye viṣayabalena saṃkalpabalena ca utpadyante /teṣām anutpannānāmam anutpādāya utpannānāñ ca prahāṇāya vīryamārabhate /

3.釋未生善等生欲等
於其未生一切善法,為令生故生欲者,謂於未得、未現在前所有善法,為欲令得、令現在前,發心希願,發起猛利求獲得欲、求現前欲,而現在前,是名於其未生一切善法,為令生故生欲。於其已生一切善法,為欲令住、令不忘失、令修圓滿生欲者,謂已獲得、已現在前所有善法,是名已生善法。於此善法,已得不失、已得不退,依是說言:為欲令住。於此善法,明了現前,無闇鈍性,依是說言:令不忘失。於此善法,已得現前,數數修習,成滿究竟,依是說言:令修圓滿。於此善法,發心希願,發起猛利求堅住欲、求不忘欲、求修滿欲而現在前,是名於其已生一切善法,為欲令住、令不忘失、令修圓滿生欲。策勵者,為於已得令現前故。發勤精進者,為於未得令其得故。又策勵者,於已生善為欲令住令不忘故。發勤精進者,令修滿故。又於下品中品善法,未生令生,生已令住、令不忘失,是名策勵。於上品善法,未生令生,生已乃至令修圓滿,是名發勤精進。
[梵本] tatrānutpannānāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anu(mu)tpādāya chandaṃ janayatīti / ye kuśalādharmā apratilabdhā [a]saṃmukhī-bhūtasya(tāḥ) teṣāṃ pratilambhāya saṃmukhī-bhāvāya ca smṛtim utpādayati[/] cittaṃ praṇidhatte[/] tīvrā pratilabdhukāmatā / saṃmukhī-kartu-kāmatā cāsya pratyupasthitā bhavati / ayam anutpannānāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām utpattaye, kṛ(ya)ttu utpannānāṃ ca kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇāṃ sthitaye, asaṃmoṣāya, bhāvanā paripūraye chandaṃ janayatīti / utpannāḥ kuśalā dharmā ye pratilabdhās saṃmukhībhūtāś ca, tatra pratilaṃbhāvigamaṃ pratilabdhāṃ pārihāṇim adhikṛtyāha /sthitaya iti saṃmukhībhāvād adhandhāyitatvam adhikṛty āhā saṃmoṣāyeti /teṣām eva ca kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām pratilabdhānāṃ sammukhī-bhūtānām āsevanānvayāt pariniṣpattiṃ niṣṭhā-gamanam adhikṛty āha / bhāvanā-paripūraye iti / tatra ca spṛhām utpādayati / cittaṃ praṇidhatte / tīvrā cāsya sthiti-kāmatā asammoṣa-kāmatā / bhāvanā paripūri-kāmatā pratyupasthitā bhavati / ayam ucyate / utpannānāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇāṃ sthitaye asaṃmoṣāya bhāvanā paripūraye[c]chandaḥ / tatra vyāyacchata iti / pratilabdhānāṃ saṃmukhī-bhāvāya vīryam ārabhate / apratilabdhānāṃ pratilambhāya[/] tatra vyāyacchate / utpannānāṃ sthitaye, asaṃmoṣāya, vīryam ārabhate / bhāvanā-paripūraye, api ca mṛduma-dhyānāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpannānām utpādāya, utpannānaṃ ca sthitaye / asaṃmoṣāya vyāyacchate /adhimātrāṇāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpannānām utpādāya, utpānnānāṃ ca yāvad bhāvanā paripūraye vīryam ārabhate /

4.釋策心、持心
言策心者,謂若心於修奢摩他一境性中,正勤方便,於諸未生惡不善法,為令不生,廣說乃至於其已生一切善法,為欲令住、令不忘失、令修圓滿。由是因緣其心於內,極略下劣或恐下劣,觀見是已,爾時隨取一種淨妙舉相,慇懃策勵,慶悅其心。是名策心。云何持心?謂修舉時,其心掉動、或恐掉動,觀見是已,爾時還復於內略攝其心,修奢摩他。是名持心。
[梵本] tatra cittaṃ pragṛhṇāti / yadā tac cittaṃ śamatha-bhāvanāyām ekāgratāyāṃ prayuktaṃ bhavati / anutpannānāṃ pāpakānām akuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpādāya / evaṃ vistareṇa yāvad utpannānāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇāṃ sthitaye / asaṃmoṣāya bhāvanā-paripūraye /tac-ca tathā adhyātmam abhisaṃkṣiptaṃ līnatvāya paraiti / līnatvābhi-śamki ca evaṃ paśyati / tadā anyatamānyatam ena pragrāhakena(ṇa) nimittena prasadanīyena pratigṛhṇāti / saṃharṣayaty evaṃ cittaṃ pragṛhṇāti /kathaṃ pradadhāti / punar ūddhatam auddhatyābhiśaṃki vā pragrahakāle paśyati / tadā punar apy adhyātmam abhisaṃkṣipati / śamathāya praṇidadhāti /

5.四正斷法異名
如是四種,亦名正勝。謂於黑品諸法,其未生者為令不生,其已生者為令斷滅,生欲、策勵、發勤精進、策心、持心,是二正勝。於白品諸法,其未生者為欲令生,如前黑品廣說,應知是二正勝。如是四種,亦名正斷。一名律儀斷,謂於已生惡不善法,為令斷故,生欲、策勵,乃至廣說。二名斷斷,謂於未生惡不善法,為不生故,生欲、策勵,乃至廣說。由於已生惡不善事,應修律儀令其斷滅,不應忍受;由是因緣,名律儀斷。於其未生惡不善事,為欲令彼不現行斷,為欲令彼不現前斷,為斷故斷,故名斷斷。三名修斷,謂於未生一切善法,為令生故,廣說乃至策心、持心。由於善法數修數習,先所未得能令現前,能有所斷,故名修斷。四名防護斷,謂於已生一切善法,為欲令住,廣說乃至策心、持心。由於已得,已現在前諸善法中,遠離放逸,修不放逸,能令善法,住不忘失,修習圓滿,防護已生所有善法,能有所斷,故名防護斷。
[梵本] tāny etāni bhavanti / catvāri samyak prahāṇāni /kṛṣṇapakṣyāṇāṃ dharmāṇām anutpannānām anutpādāya / utpannānāṃ ca prahāṇāya [c]chando-vyāyāmo vīryārambhaḥ / cittapragrahaḥ / pradadhanam ime dve samyak prahāṇe śukla-pakṣyānāṃ dharmāṇām anutpannānām utpādāya [/]vistareṇa dve samyak prahāṇe veditavye / tad yathā kṛṣṇa-pakṣyāṇāṃ/tatraikaṃ samvaraṇa-prahāṇṃ yad-utpannānām pāpakānām akuśalānāṃ dharmāṇāṃ prahāṇāya [c]chandaṃ janayatīti vistareṇa /dvitīyaṃ prahāṇaprahāṇaṃ yad anutpannānām anutpādāya[c]chandaṃ janayatīti vistareṇa, utpannaṃ hi saṃvarayitavyaṃ / pāpakaṃ ca vastu /anutpannaṃ ca yat-tada-samudācārataḥ prahīṇam evaṃ tad-asaṃmukhībhāvataḥ prahātavyam iti kṛtvā /prahīṇ asya prahāṇaṃ prahāṇaprahāṇa[ṃ] /tatra bhāvanāprahāṇam ekaṃ yadāha / anutpannānāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇām utpādāyeti vistareṇa yāvac cittaṃ pragṛhṇāti, pradadhātīti / tathāhi kuśalā dharmā āsevyamānā, bhāvyamānā, apratilabdhāś ca pratilabhyante / pratilabdhāś ca sammukhīkriyante /tatrānurakṣaṇā-prahāṇam ekaṃ / yad āha / utpannānāṃ kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇāṃ sthitaye / vistareṇa yāvac cittaṃ pragṛhṇāti / pradadhāti / tathāhi pratilabdheṣu saṃmukhī-kṛteṣu ca / kuśaleṣu dharmeṣu yāvat pramādavarjanā apramādaniṣevaṇā ca / sā kuśalānāṃ dharmāṇāṃ sthitaye, asammoṣāya / bhāvanā paripūraye / evam anutpannāḥ kuśalā dharma anurakṣitā bhavanty ayaṃ tāvat samyak prahāṇānāṃ/

6.略義
如是廣辨四正斷已,復云何知此中略義?謂為顯示於黑白品捨取事中,增上意樂圓滿及加行圓滿,是故宣說四種正斷。由生欲故,增上意樂圓滿;由自策勵、發勤精進、策心、持心故,加行圓滿。修瑜伽師唯有爾所正應作事。謂為斷滅所應斷事,及為獲得所應得事,先當生起希願、樂欲;為斷諸纏,復應時時正勤修習止、舉、捨相;為斷諸纏及隨眠故,更應修集對治善法。為顯如是一切所作,說四正勝及四正斷,是名略義。
[梵本] vistara-vibhāgaḥ / samāsata(sārtha)ḥ punaḥ katamaḥ / āha / kṛṣṇaśuklapa[ā]kṣikasya tyāgāt punar vastunaḥ / asty āśayasampat-prayoga-sampac ca / paridīpitā bhavati / tatrāsyā(styā)śayasampat / chandajananatayā, prayoga-sampat punaḥ vyāyāmavīryārambha-citta-pragrahā pramādadhanaiḥ / etāvac ca yoginā karaṇīyaṃ /yat-prahātavyasya vastunaḥ prahāṇāya, prāptavyasya vastunaḥ prāptaye pūrvvam eva spṛhājātena bhavitavyaṃ, paryavasthāna-prahāṇāya ca vīryam ārabdhavyam /anuśaya-prahāṇāya ca, kālena kālaṃ śamatha-pragrahopekṣānimittāni bhāvayitavyāni /paryavasthāna-prahāṇānuśaya-prahāṇāya ca ye prātipakṣikā dharmaḥ kuśalās te samudānayitavyāḥ /tac-ca etat sarvvaṃ caturbhiḥ samyak prahānaiḥ paridīpitaṃ bhavaty ayaṃ samāsārthaḥ //

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