2012年10月2日 星期二

總說三學

學相應
學有三種,謂增上戒學,增上心學,增上慧學。建立如是三學差別,如聲聞地應知其相(T30434c)
聲聞地說:
云何為學?謂三勝學。一、增上戒學;二、增上心學;三、增上慧學。 (tatra śikṣā katamā / āha / tisraḥ śikṣāḥ / adhiślaṃ śikṣā, adhicittam adhiprajñaṃ śiksā /)
一、正解三學
(一)辨三學體
1、增上戒學
云何增上戒學?謂安住具戒等,如前廣說。 是名增上戒學。(tatrādhiśīlaṃ śikṣā katamā / yathāpi tac "chīlavān viharatī"ti vistareṇa pūrvavat /)
2、增上心學
云何增上心學?((...tatrādhicittaṃ śikṣā...))
(1)謂離欲惡不善法,有尋有伺,離生喜樂,入初靜慮具足安住, 乃至能入第四靜慮具足安住,是名增上心學。(vivi[']ktaṃ kāmair viviktaṃ pāpakair akuśalair dharmaiḥ savitarkam, savicāram, vivekajam, prītisukham prathamaṃ dhyānaṃ yāvac caturthaṃ dhyānam upasaṃpadya viharati / iyam adhicittaṃ śikṣā /)
(2)又諸無色,及餘所有等持、等至,亦皆名為增上心學。(api khalu sarva ārūpyās tadanyāś ca samādhisamāpattayo 'dhicittaṃ śikṣety ucyate /)
(3)然依靜慮,能最初入聖諦現觀,正性離生,非全遠離一切靜慮能成此事,是故靜慮最為殊勝,故偏說為增上心學。(api tu dhyānāni niśritya tatprathamataḥ sa[']tyābhisamayo nyāmāvakrāntir bhavati / na tu sarveṇa sarvaṃ vinā dhyānaiḥ / tasmāt pradhānāni dhyānāni kṛtvādhicittaṃ śikṣety uktāni /)
3、增上慧學
云何增上慧學?謂於四聖諦等,所有如實智見。是名增上慧學。((...tatrādhiprajñaṃ śikṣā...) yac caturṣv āryasatyeṣu yathābhūtaṃ jñānaṃ /)
(二)明立三學定數
問:何緣唯有三學,非少、非多?(kena kāraṇena tisra eva śikṣā (...na tata ūrdhvam...) /)
答:建立定義故,智所依義故,辨所作義故。(āha / samā[']dhipratiṣṭhārthena jñānasanniśrayārthena kṛtyakaraṇārṭhena ca /)
1、建立定義者,謂增上戒學。所以者何?由戒建立心一境性,能令其心觸三摩地。(tatra samā[']dhipratiṣṭhārthenādhiśīlaṃ śikṣā / tathā hi śīlaṃ pratiṣṭhāya cittaikāgratāṃ spṛśati cittasamādhim /)
2、智所依義者,謂增上心學。所以者何?由正定心念一境性,於所知事,有如實智 、如實見轉。(tatra jñānasanniśrayārthenādhicittaṃ śikṣā / tathā hi samāhita-cittasyaikāgratāsmṛtyā jñeye vastuni yathābhūtaṃ jñānadarśanaṃ pravartate /)
3、辨所作義者,謂增上慧學。所以者何?由善清淨若智、若見,能證究竟諸煩惱斷,以煩惱斷,是自義利、是勝所作,過此更無勝所作故。由是因緣,唯有三學。(tatra kṛtyakaraṇārthenādhiprajñaṃ śikṣā / tathā hi suviśuddhena jñānadarśa[']nena kleśaprahāṇaṃ sākṣātkaroti / eṣa hi svārtha etat paramaṃ kṛtyaṃ yaduta kleśaprahāṇaṃ tata uttarikarṇīyaṃ punar nāsti / tenaitās tisra eva śikṣāḥ /)
(三)明三學次第
問:何緣三學如是次第?(kāḥ punar āsāṃ śikṣāṇām (...ānupūrvī /)
答:先於尸羅善清淨故便無憂悔;(suviśuddhaśīlasya...)[] avipratisāraḥ( /)
無憂悔故歡喜安樂;(avipratisāriṇaḥ prāmodyam, prītiḥ, praśrabdhiḥ, sukham,)
由有樂故心得正定;(sukhitasya cittasamādhiḥ)
心得定故能如實知、能如實見;(samāhitacitto yathābhūtaṃ prajānāti yathābhūtaṃ paśyati)
如實知見故能起厭;(yathābhūtaṃ jānan paśyan nirvidyate)
厭故離染;(nirviṇṇo viravyate /)
由離染故便得解脫;(virakto vimucyate /)
得解脫故證無所作究竟涅槃。 (vimukto 'nupādāya parinirvāti /)
如是最初修習淨戒,漸次進趣,後證無作究竟涅槃。是故三學如是次第。(evam imāni śīlāni bhāvitāny agratāyām upanayanti / yadutānupādāya parinirvaṇam / iyam āsāṃ śīkṣāṇām ānupūrvī /)
(四)明三學增上義
問:何緣三學名為增上戒、心、慧耶?(tatra kena kāraṇenādhiśīlaṃ śikṣā[] adhiśīlam i[']ty ucyate, evam adhicittam adhiprajñam /)
答:1、依所趣及最勝義明增上義
所趣義故、最勝義故,名為增上。(adhikārārthenādhikārthena ca /)
(1)明所趣義
云何所趣義?(tatra katham adhikārārthena /)
A、謂為趣增上心而修淨戒,名增上戒學;(adhicittam adhikṛtya yac chīlaṃ sā[]adhiśīlaṃ śikṣā /)
B、為趣增上慧而修定心,名增上心學;(adhiprajñam adhikṛtya yaś cittasamādhiḥ,) sā [] adhicittaṃ śikṣā /)
C、為趣煩惱斷而修智見,名增上慧學。(kleśaprahāṇam adhikṛtya yaj (... jñānaṃ darśanaṃ...), sā[] adhiprajñaṃ śikṣā /)
如是名為:所趣義故名為增上。((...evam adhikārārthena /)
(2)明最勝義
云何最勝義?謂若增上戒學、若增上心學、若增上慧學,唯於聖教獨有此三,不共外道。如是名為:最勝義故名為增上。(katham adhikārthena / yā cādhiśīlaṃ śikṣā...) yā cādhicittaṃ yā cādhiprajñaṃ śikṣā[] etāḥ śikṣāḥ[] asminn eva śāsane, asādhāraṇā[] ito bāhyaiḥ / evam adhikārthena /)
2、依引發明增上義
又或有增上心學能引發增上慧學;或有增上慧學能引發增上心學。(asti punar adhicattaṃ śikṣā yā[]adhiprajñaṃ śikṣāyā āvāhikā, asty adhiprajñaṃ śikṣā yā[] adhicittaṃ śikṣāyā āvāhikā /)
謂聖弟子未得根本靜慮,先學見迹,後為進斷修道所斷一切煩惱,正勤加行修念覺支,乃至修捨覺支,是名增上慧學引發增上心學。(tadyathā / āryaśrāvako 'lā[']bhī (...maulānāṃ dhyānānām...), (..śaikṣo, dṛṣṭapadaḥ...), tataḥ paścād bhāvanāprahātavyānāṃ kleśānāṃ prahāṇāya prayujyamānaḥ smṛtisaṃbodhyaṅgaṃ bhāvayati yāvad upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṅgam / iyam adhiprajñaṃ śikṣā[] adhicittaṃ śikṣāyā āvāhikā /)
增上心學引發增上慧學者,如前已說。(adhicittaṃ punaḥ śikṣā adhiprajñāyā āvāhikā pūrvam evoktā /)
3、依具不具明增上義
1、又或有增上戒學,無增上心、無增上慧。(tatrāsty adhiśīlaṃ śikṣā nādhicittam, nādhiprajñam /)
2、或有增上戒學,亦有增上心,唯無增上慧。(asty adhiśīlam adhicittam, nādhiprajñam)
3、非有增上慧學而無增上戒及無增上心,是故若有增上慧學,當知必定具足三學。(na tv asty adhiprajñaṃ śikṣā yā vinādhiśīlenādhicittena ca / ato yatrādhiprajñaṃ śikṣā tatra tisraḥ śikṣā veditavyāḥ /)
於此建立三種學中,諸瑜伽師當勤修學。(idaṃ tāvac chikṣāvyavasthānaṃ tatra yoginā yonaprayuktena śikṣitavyam)

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