2013年6月12日 星期三

聞所成地-4.因明處--4.1.論體性


4.因明處
已說醫方明處。云何因明處?謂於觀察義中諸所有事。此復云何?嗢柁南曰:論體、論處所、論據、論莊嚴、論負、論出離、論多所作法。當知此中略有七種。一、論體性;二、論處所;三、論所依;四、論莊嚴;五、論墮負;六、論出離;七、論多所作法。
[]已經說過醫方明處。什麼是因明處?對於經由觀察所成立的道理,其中種種所有的事情。什麼是觀察義中諸所有事呢?嗢柁南曰:論體、論處所、論據、論莊嚴、論負、論出離、論多所作法。當知此中略有七種不同,一、論體性,論本身的內容。二、論處所,在什麼地方。三、論所依,就是這個論所依止、所根據,爲什麼要立這個論。四、論莊嚴,就是對方反駁你,你能破他,那麼就是莊嚴。五、論墮負,就是自己建立的道理,理由不充足,輸了。六、論出離,就是要建立道理的時候,預先要觀察這個理論是圓滿、不圓滿,有沒有什麼過失,對人有沒有利益。七、論多所作法,具足前六個,那麼這個論就能夠有很大的作用。
hetuvidyā katamā/ parīkṣārthena yad vijñanaṃ vastu/ tat punaḥ katamat/ tadyathā vādaḥ vādādhikaraṇaṃ vādādhiṣṭhānaṃ vādālamkāraḥ vādanigrahaḥ vādaniḥsaraṇaṃ vāde bahukāradharmāḥ/ (梵文與英譯摘錄自 A Millennium of Buddhist Logic, p.3-41)
What is the science of reasoning (hetuvidya)? Whatever understanding (vijnana) for the given thing (vastu) by virtue of examination (pariksa). And what is it besides? As follows: I. The debate in itself (vada), II. Setting of the debate (vadadhikarana), III. Foundation of the debate (vadadhisthana), IV. The debates's ornament (vadalamkara), V. Points of defeat in the debate (vadanigraha), VI. Decision whether to undertake the debate (vadanilhsarana), VII. Attributes of much utility in the debate (vade bahukara dharmah).

4.1.論體性
云何論體性?謂有六種。一、言論;二、尚論;三、諍論;四、毀謗論;五、順正論;六、教導論。
[]什麼是論的內容呢?有六種。哪六種?一、言論,二、尚論,三、諍論,四、毀謗論,五、順正論,六、教導論。
vādaḥ katamaḥ sa ṣaḍvidho draṣṭavyaḥ vādaḥ pravādaḥ vivādo 'pavādo 'nuvādo 'vavādas ca/
I. THE DEBATE IN ITSELF
What is the debate in itself? It should be observed as six kinds: I. Utterances of all kinds (vada), 2. A popular message (pravada). 3. Quarrels (vivada), 4.Noxious talk (apavada), 5. (Doctrinally) consistent discussion ( anuvada), 6. Precepts (of guidance) ( avavada).

1)言論者,謂一切言說、言音、言詞,是名言論。
[]什麼是言論?一切言說,這是論的體,由於見、聞、覺、知,所生起的言說。言音,是論的相貌,各種名言發出來的音聲。言詞,是它的作用,想要說話的欲。vādaḥ katamaḥ sarvo vāgvyavahāro vāgghoṣo vāgniruktir vā ity ucyate vādaḥ/
I. What are utterances of all kinds? All (the following:) conventions of speech (vagvyavahara); enunciations of speech ( vagghosa); denotations of speech ( vagnirukti) -these are called "utterances of all kinds."

2)尚論者,謂諸世間,隨所應聞,所有言論。
[]什麼是崇尚的言論?世間善法是隨順有情,為他們所應該聽聞、應該學習。這些善法的言論,為世間所歡喜、所尊重。
pravādaḥ katamaḥ/ yo lokānuśraviko vādaḥ/
2. What is a popular message? Whatever message is being heard frequently by the people.

3)諍論者,謂或依諸欲所起。若自所攝諸欲,他所侵奪;若他所攝諸欲,自行侵奪;若所愛有情所攝諸欲,更相侵奪,或欲侵奪。若無攝受諸欲,謂歌、舞、戲笑等所攝。若倡女、僕從等所攝,或為觀看,或為受用。於如是等諸欲事中,未離欲者,為欲界貪所染污者,因堅執故,因縛著故,因耽嗜故,因貪愛故,發憤乖違。喜鬥諍者,興種種論,興怨害論,故名諍論。
[]爲什麼有諍論呢?或者是依據諸欲而生起的諍論。若是這些五欲或財富是屬於自己,但是被他人所侵犯、所奪取,就有諍論。若是這些五欲或財富是屬於他人,但是自己去侵犯、奪取,就有諍論。若是這些五欲或財富是屬於所親愛的人,互相侵犯、奪取,或想要侵犯、奪取,就有諍論。若是無攝受的諸欲,就是屬於歌、舞、戲笑等。其中,若是屬於倡女、僕從等,爲了觀看,或是爲了享受這二事,互相侵犯、奪取,或想要侵犯、奪取,就有諍論。對於如是等諸欲事中,尚未捨離欲的人,被欲界的貪所染污的人,因為堅固的執著不想放棄,因為欲的繫縛不能出離,因為貪著不能滿足,因為貪愛受用,若遇到不饒益的事情,就發起憤怒,互相違背,就有諍論。若是歡喜鬥諍的人,因為諍論不會停下來,所以興起前後種種不同的言論。說出種種的言論,或是為了要毀辱對方,或是爲了要傷害他,說出來的話,就像刀劍似的,互相傷害,所以名為諍論。
vivādaḥ katamaḥ/ kāmān vārabhya pareṣām ācchettukāma iṣṭasvaparigṛhīteṣu kāmeṣu, pareṣām ācchettukāma iṣṭaparaparigṛhīteṣu kāmeṣu; iṣṭasattvaparigṛhīteṣv ācchidyamāneṣv ācchettukāmasya vāparigṛhīteṣu kāmeṣu; tadyathā naṭanarttakahāsakalāsakādyupasaṃhiteṣu strīgaṇikopasaṃhiteṣv vā punaḥ saṃdarśanāya yā upabhogāya vā iti/ yad evaṃ prakāreṣu kāmeṣv avītarāgāṇāṃ sat(t)vānāṃ kāmarāgaraktānām adhyavasānahetor vibadhyahetoḥ parigredhahetoḥ saṃrāgahetor saṃrabdhānāṃ vigṛhītānāṃ vivādam āpannānāṃ nānāvādo vivādo vipratyanīkavādo/
3. What are [the entries to] quarrels? (1) Entey through desired things (kama). There might be desires to gain for oneself what is wished while there is a desire to deprive others. Or there might be desires to gain for the others what is wished while there is a desire to deprive others. Or there might be deprived (i.e. failing) desires to gain for respected sentient beings; or nongained (i.e. also failing) desires on behalf of the desire to deprive. That is to say, (desires) involving actors, dancers, comedians, sensual performers, etc.; or involving women [in general] and harlots-whether to see them or to enjoy them. And when there are desires of such kind, belonging to sentient beings who are not free from cravings, who are attached to cravings for desired objects,-on account of clinging, on account of bondage, on account of greediness, on account of passion, they begin contending. Having fallen into quarrel, their quarrels or discordant declarations are of many sorts.

或依惡行所起。若自所作身語惡行,他所譏毀;若他所作身語惡行,自行譏毀;若所愛有情所作身語惡行,互相譏毀。於如是等行惡行中,願作未作諸惡行者,未離欲界貪瞋癡者,重貪瞋癡所拘蔽者,因堅執故,因縛著故,因耽嗜故,因貪愛故,更相憤發,懷染污心,互相乖違。喜鬥諍者,興種種論,興怨害論,故名諍論。
[]或是由罪惡的行為生起諍論。若是自己作觸惱人的行為或觸惱人的語言,被別人指責、譏毀,就有諍論。若是對於他人所作的身、語罪惡的行為,自己去譏毀別人的錯誤。若是自己所親愛的人,作身、語罪惡的行為,其他人譏毀自己所親愛的人,我又譏毀其他人,就有諍論。對於如是等做出來種種有罪過的事情中,願作惡行而沒有作惡行的人,未離欲界貪、瞋、癡的人,心被重大的貪瞋癡所拘住、蒙蔽的人,因為堅固的執著不想放棄,因為被煩惱繫縛不能出離,因為貪著不能滿足,因為貪愛受用,若遇到不饒益的事情,互相發起憤怒,心懷貪、瞋等染污,互相違背,就有諍論。若是歡喜鬥諍的人,因為諍論不會停下來,所以興起前後種種不同的言論。說出種種的言論,或是為了要毀辱對方,或是爲了要傷害他,說出來的話,就像刀劍似的,互相傷害,所以名為諍論。
《披尋記》五四三頁:
於如是等行惡行中等者:此說興諍論者三種補特伽羅相:謂有一類未受淨戒乃至未能遠離惡行以來,常得說名願作未作諸惡行者,此即第一補特伽羅。復有一類雖受淨戒不作惡行,而於定地未得作意,未能制伏欲界煩惱,是名未離欲界貪瞋癡者,此即第二補特伽羅。復有一類貪瞋癡相極為增上,拘礙於心,令不自在,覆蔽其心,令不願了,是名重貪瞋癡所拘蔽者,此即第三補特伽羅。
duścaritaṃ vā punar ārabhya svayaṃkṛte kāyaduścarite vāgduścarite parair anuyujyamānaḥ parakṛte kāyaduścarite vāgduścarite parānuyuñjana iṣṭast(t)vakṛte kāyaduścarite parair anuyujyamāne paraṃ vā anuyuñjato 'kṛte kāyaduścarite vāgduścarite kartum praṇihitasya iti/ yad evaṃ prakāre duścaritasamācāre 'vigatalobhānām avigatadveṣāṇām avigatamohānāṃ lobhadveṣamohābhibhūtānām adhyavasānahetor vinibandhahetoḥ parigredhahetoḥ saṃrāgahetor anyonyṃ saṃrabdhānāṃ saṃkliṣṭacittānāṃ vigṛhītānāṃ vivādām āpannānāṃ nānāvādo vivādo vipratyanīkavādaḥ/
(2) Or, entry through bad conduct ( duscarita). When there is bad conduct of body or bad conduct of speech committed by oneself,one is reprehended by others. And when there is bad conduct of body or bad conduct of speech committed by others, one reprehends the others. And when there is bad conduct of body or bad conduct of speech committed by a respected sentient being, that one is reprehended by others, or reprehends another. Or when bad conduct of body or bad conduct of speech is not committed, they say it is of one wishing to do it. And when there is such kind of customary behavior of bad conduct of those not free from covetousness. not free from hatred, not free from delusion-they are dominated by covetousness hatred, and delusion. On account of clinging, on account of bondage, on account of greediness, on account of passion, they have begun mutually with defiled mind, contending. Having fallen into quarrel, their quarrels or discordant declarations are of many sorts.

或依諸見所起。謂薩迦耶見、斷見、無因見、不平等因見、常見、雨眾見等種種邪見,及餘無量諸惡見類,於如是諸見中,或自所攝,他所遮斷;或他所攝,自行遮斷;或所愛有情所攝,他正遮斷,或已遮斷;或欲攝受所未攝受。由此因緣,未離欲者,如前廣說,乃至興種種論,興怨害論,是名諍論。
[]或者是依據各式各樣的不同的思想,而生起諍論。哪些見?一、薩迦耶見,認為在這色受想行識裏邊,有個常恒住、不變異的我。二、斷見,人死掉的時候,就中斷,以後就再也沒有。三、無因見,就是世間上的事情,沒有原因就會發生。四、不平等因見,萬物都有因,那麼上帝從那有的?上帝是沒有原因,就是不平等,和萬物比較,就不一樣,叫做不平等。五、常見,執著我是常住的,或者是人死掉以後,永久是做人。六、雨眾見等,就是數論師,有二十五諦。用二十五條道理,說明宇宙的事情。以及其餘許多種種錯誤的思想。對於各式各樣的邪知邪見中,或是自己所歡喜,為他人所障礙,就有諍論。或是他人所歡喜,自己去障礙,就有諍論。或是自己所親愛的人所歡喜,別人去障礙他。他現在正在障礙,或是過去已經障礙,或是未來想學習所未學習的東西。由於這些關係,未離欲者,如前廣說。乃至興種種論,興怨害論,是名諍論。
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或自所攝他所遮斷等者:語現行時,若被遮止,令不相續,是名遮斷。應知略有四相差別,如文可知。初三種相,謂於現在位;後一種相,謂於過去位。或為成立自宗而有所說,令他攝受自所許義,名欲攝受所未攝受。
dṛṣṭiṃ vā punar ārabhya tadyathā satkāyadṛṣṭim ucchedadṛṣṭim ahetudṛṣṭiṃ viṣamahetudṛṣṭiṃ śāśvatadṛṣṭiṃ vārṣagaṇyadṛṣṭiṃ mithyādṛṣṭim iti/ yā vā punar anyā pāpikā dṛṣṭir ity evambhāgīyadṛṣṭiṣu svaparigṛhītāsu parair vicchidyamānā paraparigṛhatāsu parān vicchindayataḥ/ iṣṭasat(t)vaparigṛhītāsu parair vicchidyamānā parān vicchindayato vā aparigṛhītāsu vā punaḥ parigṛhītakāmatām upadāya avītarāgānām sattvānāṃ pūrvavad yāvan nānāvādo vivādo vipratyanīkavādaḥ/ ayam ucyate vivādaḥ/
3) Or entering through views (drsti). (Through) the reifying view ( satkaya-d.), the nihilistic view ( uccheda-d.), the irrational view (ahetu-d.), the view with dishonest reason (visamahetu-d.), the eternalistic view ( sasvata-d.), the view of Varsaganya, the deviant view ( mithya-d.), or any other sinful view among views of like category adopted by oneself. These are reprehended by others after one reprehends others for what (views) were adopted by others. Or when they are among those adopted by respected beings, they are reprehended by others after one has reprehended the other (persons). Or when they are not among those adopted, by resort to the adopted state of desire of sentient beings not free from passion [they could be adopted], as previously, and so on up to, their quarrels or discordant declarations are of many sorts.Those are called [the entries to] quarrels.

4)毀謗論者,謂懷憤發者,以染污心,振發威勢,更相擯毀,所有言論。謂麤惡所引,或不愻所引,或綺言所引,乃至惡說法律中,為諸有情宣說彼法,研究決擇,教授教誡,如是等論,名毀謗論。
[]什麼是毀謗論?就是內心憤恨發出來的人,以貪、瞋等染污心,振作、發動威力與氣勢,互相擯棄、毀謗,發出言論。或是由粗鄙惡劣所引,或是不恭順所引,或是綺言所引,乃至在惡說法律中,為諸有情宣說他所主張的法、律,研究、抉擇,教授、教誡,如是等論,名毀謗論。
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謂麤惡所引等者:若毒螫語,若麤獷語,名麤惡所引。若非可愛、可樂、可欣、可意語,名不遜所引。邪舉罪者,言不應時,若復不實,若引無義,若復麤獷,若挾瞋恚,是名綺言所引。又邪說法時,亦有五相,名為綺語。謂不思量語,不靜語,雜亂語,非有教語,非有法語。由是此說,乃至惡說法律等言,義如(有尋有伺地)說。(陵本八卷十二頁)
apavādaḥ katamaḥ saṃrabdhānāṃ saṃkliṣṭacetasām anyonyam utsṛjya viprakṛtāṃ kathāyaḥ pāruṣyopasaṃhito 'sabhyopasaṃhitaḥ sambhinnapralāpopasaṃhito vādaḥ yāvad durākhyāte dharmavinaye dharmadeśanāsaṃkathye viniścayo 'pavādānuśāsanam/ ayam ucyate 'pavādaḥ/
4. What is noxious talk ( apavada)? Among those (persons) beginning with defiled mentality, when there is mutual emitting of offensive discussions ( viprakrt-katha). The talk exhibits coarseness, exhibits unworthiness to convoke a gathering ( asabhyopasamhita), exhibits incoherence, and so on, up to, set in an account that [supposedly] teaches the Dharma, amounting to a badly expressed doctrine (dharma) and disciplinary code ( vinaya), to wit, an instruction in noxious talk. This is called 'noxious talk'.

5)順正論者,謂於善說法律中,為諸有情宣說正法,研究、決擇,教授、教誠。為斷有情所疑惑故,為達甚深諸句義故,為令知見畢竟淨故,隨順正行,隨順解脫,是故此論名順正論。
[]什麼是順正論?就是在佛法裏面,為一切眾生宣揚佛所說的正法,需要研究,決斷疑惑,加以分析,教授、教誡。為什麼?為斷除有情所產生的疑惑,所以為諸有情宣說正法。為了讓有情能通達佛法中的甚深諸句義,所以需要研究,經過抉擇。為了令彼有情的智慧、見地,能夠究竟的清淨圓滿,所以要教授、教誡。宣說正法是聞慧,研究、抉擇是思慧,教授、教誡是修慧。從聞、思、修學習佛法,是隨順涅槃而修行,是隨順涅槃的解脫,所以這樣的言論,名為順正論。
anuvādaḥ katamaḥ yaḥ svākhyāte dharmavinaye dharmadeśanāsaṃkathye viniścayopaśāsanam utpannasya saṃśayasya chedāya gambhīrasyārthapadasya prativedhāya jñānadarśanasya śuddhaye/ mokṣasyānukūlo 'nulomiko vādaḥ tasmād anuvāda ity ucyate/ ayam ucyate 'nuvādaḥ/
5. What is a (doctrinally) consistent discussion (anuvada)?Whichever is an instruction set in an account that teaches the Dharma as a well-expressed doctrine (dharma) and disciplinary code (vinaya), for cutting off the arisen doubt, for penetrating the profoundly meaningful words, for purifying knowledge and vision. Being a consistent discussion that is compatible with liberation, it is therefore called 'a (doctrinally) consistent discussion'.

6)教導論,者謂教修習增上心學、增上慧學補特伽羅。心未定者,令心得定;心已定者,令得解脫,所有言論。令彼覺悟真實智故,令彼開解真實智故,是故此論,名教導論。
[]什麼是教導論?就是教導眾生修學禪定,教導眾生學習苦集滅道的智慧。若是這個人內心還沒有定,就教導修學禪定,令心得定。若是心已得禪定的人,就教導學習增上慧,令得大自在,斷除一切煩惱,令得解脫。這樣的言論,就叫做教導論。若是能夠學習禪定,就有能力覺悟真理的真實智慧。若是能夠學習增上慧,就能見到真理,成為聖人,就能夠開導眾生,解悟真實的智慧,因此,這樣的言論,名為教導論。
《披尋記》五四五頁:
令彼覺悟真實智故等者:此中初句,釋前令心得定所由;後句,釋前令得解脫所由。心得定故,能如實知,能如實見,是名覺悟真實。得解脫故,能為他說宣揚開示自所證法,是名開解真實。
avavādaḥ katamaḥ/ adhicitte/ 'dhiprajñe prayoktukāmasya pudgalasyāsamāhitasya vā cittasya samādhāya samāhitasya vā cittasya vimokṣāya yo vādaḥ tat(t)vajñānāvabodhāya tat(t)vajñānāvagamāya vādaḥ tasmād anuvāda ity ucyate/ ayam ucyate 'vavādaḥ/
6. What are precepts (of guidance) (avavada)? a. Whatever precept for concentrating the unequilibrated mind of a person desirous of exerting oneself to higher mind training ( adhicitta), or for liberating that one's equilibrated mind. b. Or desirous of exerting oneself to higher insight ( adhiprajna), a precept for awakening the knowledge of reality, and for comprehending the knowledge of reality. Therefore, they are called 'precepts (of guidance)'. This is called avavada.

問:此六論中幾論真實,能引義利,所應修習?幾不真實,能引無義,所應遠離?
答:最後二論,是真是實,能引義利,所應修習;中間二論,不真不實,能引無義,所應遠離;初二種論,應當分別。
[]問:此六論中,幾論是真實,能引發出來真實的義利,是應該學習?什麼是義利
?現在的功德就是義,未來的功德就是利。世間的功德就是義,出世間的功德就是利。遠離罪惡就是義,攝受善法就是利。福德就是義,智慧就是利。幾個是不真實虛妄的,能引發種種的過失,應該遠離?
答:最後順正理論、教導論這兩個論是真實,能引發功德,所應該學習的。中間二論諍論和毀謗論,是不真實,能引無義,所應遠離。最初言論和尚論這兩種論,應該分別說,通於善惡。若是善,應該學習,若是不善,就應該遠離。
eṣāṃ ṣaṇṇām vādānam kati vādā bhūtās tat(t)vā arthopasaṃhitāḥ sevitavyāḥ/ kati vādā abhūtā atat(t)vā anarthopasaṃhitāḥ parivarjayitavyāḥ dvau paścimau vādau bhūtau tattvau arthopasaṃhitau sevitavyau/ dvau madhyau vādav abhūtav atat(t)vav anarthopasaṃhitau (pari)varjayitavyau ādyayor dvayor vādayor bhedaḥ/
Of those six (kinds of) 'debate' (in itself), which communications are genuine ( bhuta), real ( tattva), meaningful ( arthopasamhita), and to be followed (sevitavya)? Which communications are false, unreal, meaningless, and to be avoided? The last two (i.e. nos. 5 and 6) are genuine, real, meaningful. and to be followed. The two middle ones (i.e. nos. 3 and 4) are the two that are false, unreal, meaningless, and to be avoided. The kind of the first two (i.e. nos. 1 and 2) is of both communications (to be followed and to be avoided).

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