2013年6月15日 星期六

聞所成地-4.因明處--4.3.論所依---4.3.9.比量


4.3.9.比量
比量者,謂與思擇俱,已思、應思所有境思。此復五種。一、相比量;二、體比量;三、業比量;四、法比量;五、因果比量。
[]什麼是比量?想知道一件事,要觀察眾多的因緣,在內心裏面思惟。這個識和思擇的心所在一起,思擇也就是觀察、分別。就是思惟過去的情形,也思惟將來的情形,也應該思惟現在的情況,這樣子來認識這件事。如果認識得正確,是名比量。此復五種,哪五種?一、相比量;二、體比量;三、業比量;四、法比量;五、因果比量。anumānaṃ katamat/ sahābhyūhayābhyūhito 'bhyūhyaś ca viṣayaḥ tat punaḥ pañcavidhaṃ draṣṭavyaṃ/ liṅgataḥ svabhāvataḥ karmato dharmato hetuphalataś ca/
What is inference (anumana)? What is attended with the inferable or what has already been inferred, and the sense object which is inferable. Besides, it is of five kinds: from an evidence (lingatas), from an individual presence (svabhavatas), from activity (karmatas), from natures (dharmatas), from cause and effect (hetuphalatas).

1)相比量者,謂隨所有相狀相屬,或由現在,或先所見推度境界。
[]什麼是相比量?隨所學知道的那件事的所有相狀,互相關聯。或者是由現在所看見的相狀,或者是過去看見的相狀,利用這些,推求、思惟是怎麼情況,就叫做相比量。liṅgato 'numānaṃ katamat/ yat kena cid eva chinanimittasambandhena varttamānena vā pūrvadṛṣṭena vā viṣayābhyūhanaṃ/
A. What is the inference from an evidence (linga)? The inferring of a sense object by association with some sign or sign-source, whether present or formerly seen;

如見幢故,比知有車;由見煙故,比知有火;如是以王比國;以夫比妻;以角犎等,比知有牛;以膚細軟、髮黑、輕躁、容色妍美,比知少年;以面皺髮白等相,比知是老;以執持自相,比知道俗。以樂觀聖者、樂聞正法、遠離慳貪,比知正信。
[]譬如看見幢,就知道有車。有幢一定有車,有車一定有幢,所以看見幢就知道是有車。看見那地方冒煙,就是有火,因為以前燒火的時候就是有煙。所以後來看見煙,沒有看見火,也比知是有火。這樣,看見國王很有道德,能力很強,就知道國家也會治理得很好。丈夫是那樣子,也可以知道他的妻子怎麼樣。看見角,看見犎,就知道是有牛。看見皮膚是細軟,頭髮是很烏黑,很輕躁,面容的顏色很美,就知道這個人是個少年。看見面已經有點皺紋,頭髮也白,還有其他的相,比知這個人老。看見這個人,或者拿什麼東西,穿的衣服,來執持,他本身的相貌,就可以知道,這個是出家人,那是俗人。這是從外相,表現於外的相貌,來知道他那件事。這個人歡喜親近聖人,歡喜向聖人學習。或歡喜聽聞正法,對於正法歡喜學習。沒有慳貪。有的,不願意布施,是慳;沒有的還要多求,是貪。從這件事來比對,就知道這個人,是對佛法有信心的人。tadyathā dhyajena ratham anuminoti/ dhūmenāgniṃ rājñā rāṣṭram patyā striyaṃ kakudaviṣāṇabhyāṃ gāvaṃ śiśukālaśīrṣapratya- grayauvanayā taruṇaṃ valīpalitādibhir vṛddhaṃ svena veṣagrahaṇena gṛhiṇāṃ vā pravrajitānāṃ vā āryāṇāṃ darśanakāmatayā saddharmaśravaṇena vītamātsaryatayā ca śraddham/
for example, one infers a battle chariot by means of an ensign (dhvaja); fire by means of smoke; a kingdom by a king; a wife by means of a husband; a bullock by the hump and horns; youth by the head at the time of childhood and the early juvenile; old age by the wrinkles, grey hair, etc.; whether one is among householders or among those in the religious life, by the individual wearing of clothes; a man of faith, by the aryas' desire for the (right) view, their listening to the illustrious doctrine, their freedom from jealousy;

以善思所思、善說所說、善作所作,比知聰叡。
[]善思所思,有問題的時候,能夠注意地、善巧地去思惟。善說所說,若需要發表,也注意的安排好好的再說。善作所作,若有事要做的話,也安排好好,作得好好。由這身口意表現出來的相貌,就可以知道這個人是有聰明、有智慧的人。
sucintita-cintitayā subhāṣita-bhāṣitayā sukṛtakarmakāritayā paṇḍitam
a wise man, by his reflecting on what was well thought over, by his speaking what was well spoken, by his doing the deeds that were well done;

以慈悲、愛語、勇猛、樂施、能善解釋甚深義趣,比知菩薩。
[]對苦惱的人,內心有慈悲,所說的言語,對人能真實利益。對於眾生要有慈悲心,要為眾生說愛語,要有大勇猛,才能做到。自己有如法所得的財物,歡喜布施給眾生解決困難。能善解釋甚深義趣,有這樣的大智慧。用這個相貌可以知道,這人是菩薩。anukampayā priyavāditayā dhairyena muktahastatayā gambhīrārthasaṃdhi- nirmocanatayā ca bodhisattvam
a bodhisattva, by his compassion, his kindly words, his steadfastaess, his 'open handedness' [i.e. liberality], his unravelling the knots of the profound meaning [=the name of the basic scripture of the Yogacara school, Samdhinirnocana];

以掉動、輕轉、嬉戲、歌笑等事,比未離欲;以諸威儀恒常寂靜,比知離欲。
[]身掉動,語言也掉動,心也掉動,老是不安。很容易就浮動,歡喜嬉戲,歡喜歌唱、歡笑這些事情。用這個事情來比對,就知道這個人還沒有離欲。因為欲是向外攀緣,向外攀緣就容易動,容易輕轉,就是輕薄,嬉戲、歌笑這些事情。若是行、住、坐、臥的相貌,恒常是寂靜,不是掉動、輕轉、嬉戲、歌笑,就知道這個人離欲,因為不向外攀緣。auddhatya-drava-saṃcagghita- saṃkrīḍita-saṃkilikilāyitena/ avītarāgaṃ sadāpraśānteryāpathena vītarāgaṃ
one addicted to lust, by his frivolity, seductive attitude, laughing together, sporting together, making happy noises together with (others); one free from lust, by his dignified posture, which is continually tranquil;

以具如來微妙相好、智慧、寂靜、正行、神通,比知如來、應、等正覺,具一切智。
[]因為具足如來微妙的三十二相、八十種好。有大智慧,能夠通達諸法實相,能通達諸法緣起的道理。內心能夠寂靜,因為能住於天住、梵住、聖住。說法、教化眾生的正行。有六種神通。這樣子知道這人是佛,具足一切智慧。
《披尋記》五五四頁:
以具如來微妙相好等者:由諸如來,以三十二大丈夫相等莊嚴其身,叫具微妙相好。四無礙解,皆悉成就,名具智慧。煩惱所知二障永斷,多住無上無等第四靜慮天住,名具寂靜。哀愍世間,令諸天人獲得義利利益安樂,名具正行。六種神通,皆悉成就,名具神通。義如(菩薩地)釋。(陵本三十八卷二頁)所言應者,謂應為一切眾生恭敬供養故。等正覺者,謂如其勝義覺諸法故。具一切智者,謂於能引攝義利法聚,於能引攝非義利法聚,於能引攝非義利非非義利法聚,遍一切種現前等覺故。亦如(菩薩地)說。(陵本三十八卷三頁)
tathāgatair lakṣaṇair anuvyañjanais tathāgatajñānenopaśamena pratipattyā prabhāvena tathāgatam arhat(t)vaṃ samyaksambuddhaṃ sarvajñaṃ
an omniscient Tathagata-Arhat-Samyaksam-buddha, by the Tathagata characteristics and minor marks, by the Tathagata knowledge, tranquillity, accomplishment, and power;

以於老時,見彼幼年所有相狀,比知是彼。如是等類,名相比量。
[]現在這個人老,看見他以前幼年的相狀,那麼和現在的老比對,就知道這是他。如是等類,名相比量。kaumara-dṛṣṭena nimittena sa evāyam iti vṛddham anuminoti/ ity evaṃbhāgīyaṃ liṅgato 'numānaṃ veditavyam/
one infers that an old man is thingking, "I was that very one," by the sign-source seen (by him) that is related to his youth. And what agrees with this category may be understood as the inference by way of an evidence.

2)體比量者謂現見彼自體性故,比類彼物不現見體;或現見彼一分自體,比類餘分。
[]什麼是體比量?現在看見那個有情的本身的狀況,那一類的其他眾生是什麼樣子沒看見,但是由現在看見的,可以比對那一類眾生也就是這樣。或是只看見一部份,但是比類其他的部份,也可以知道。svabhāvato 'numānaṃ katamat/ yat pratyakṣeṇa svabhāvena viparokṣe svabhāve 'bhyūhanam ekadeśeṇa vā svabhāvasyāikadeśasvābhyūhanaṃ/
B. What is the inference from an individual presence ( svabhava)? The inferring, when an individual presence is out of sight by an individual presence directly perceived; or the inferring of an individual presence in another place, by one in a certain place.

如以現在比類過去;或以過去比類未來;或以現在近事比遠;或以現在比於未來。
[]以現在這個人,歡喜這事,就可知道過去也是歡喜這事。或是過去是那樣子,將來還是那樣子,因為以前有熏習過,那個東西未來要發生作用。或是現前的事比類遙遠的事情,也是一樣。或是以現在比於未來。tadyathā varttamānenātītam anuminoti/ atītenānāgataṃ pratyutpannaṃ ca sannikṛṣṭena viprakṛṣṭaṃ pratyutpannenāgatam anuminoti/
For example, one infers the past from the present. One infers the future and the present from the past; the remote from the nearby; the future from the present.

又如飲食、衣服、嚴具、車乘等事,觀見一分得失之相,比知一切。以一分成熟比餘熟分。如是等類,名體比量。
[]譬如說日常的飲食,或者衣服,或者其他一切的莊嚴具,或者是坐的車乘,這一切的事情。觀見一部分的得失之相,就能知道其他的一切的事情。又以一分成熟,比餘的熟分也可以知道。如是等類,名體比量。
《披尋記》五五五頁:
又如飲食衣服等者:於彼彼事樂欲轉時,或觸於利,是名為得;或觸非利,是名為失。彼彼事中,於隨一事現見,或得或失,比知所餘一切不現見事得失亦爾。此中一分,謂於一切資具中一事應知。又以飲食一分成熟既現前已,比餘所不現見一分成熟亦爾。此中一分,謂於一事中少分應知。annapānayānavastrālaṃkārāṇāṃ caikadeśena stokena katipayena parīttena parīkṣitena guṇadoṣaparīkṣayā kṛtyam annapānayānavastrālaṃkārāṇāṃ anuminoti/ ekadeśāya kena vā pariśiṣṭāya kam ity evaṃbhāgīyaṃ svabhāvato 'numānaṃ veditavyaḥ/
One infers the purpose (krtya) of food, drink, vehicles, clothes, ornaments, by the particular place of the food, drink, vehicles, colthes, ornaments, and by an inspection that is meager, to some extent, brief, while inspecting the merit and demerit. (One infers) the 'whereby' (kena) for the particular place, and 'to what' (kam) for the rest [the 'merit' and 'demerit']. What is of the same category may be understood as inference from an individual presence.

3)業比量者,謂以作用比業所依。
[]什麼是業比量?業就是作用,所依就是體,體發出來的作用,所以從體發生出來的作用,就知道那個體的情況是怎麼樣。
《披尋記》五五五頁:
謂以作用比業所依者:用不離體,用為能依,體為所依,故能依所依互相繫屬,是故依用可比知體,名以作用比業所依。如下舉事,其相易知。
karmato 'numānaṃ katamat/ yat kāritreṇa karmāśrayābhyūhanam/
C. What is the inference from an activity (karma)? An inferring of the basis of the activity by the mode of action.

如見遠物無有動搖,鳥居其上,由是等事,比知是杌;若有動搖等事,比知是人。廣跡住處,比知是象;曳身行處,比知是蛇。若聞嘶聲,比知是馬;若聞哮吼,比知師子;若聞咆勃,比知牛王。
[]就像遠遠的看見一個東西,在那裏不動,有鳥落在上面,由這些事,可以知道,不動搖的東西就是那個樹沒有枝。若是遠遠的看見那個東西在動,就知道那是人。那個地方有很大的腳跡,就知道是象。牽動身體在那裏走路,就知道是蛇。若聽聞馬叫的聲音,就知道是馬。若聽聞哮吼,就知道是獅子。若聽聞咆勃,就知道是牛王。
aspandana-pakṣiniḍīnādibhiḥ sthāṇum anuminoti/ praspandanāṅgavikṣepādibhiḥ puruṣaṃ padavikārena hastinaṃ gātragativikārenālagardanaṃ/ heṣitenāśvaṃ naditena siṃhaṃ narditenarṣabhaṃ/
For example, one infers a post from such features as the motionlessness and the downward swoop of birds. One infers a human from the pulsation, the movement oflimbs, and so on; an elephant from the imprinting of his foot; a cobra (alagardana) from the swirling passage of its body; a horse from a neigh; a lion from a roar; a bull from its 'bu';

見比於眼;聞比於耳;嗅比於鼻;嘗比於舌;觸比於身;識比於意。
[]有見的作用,就可以比知眼根是正常。聽聲音的作用很好,就知道這個人的耳根還具足。嗅這個香臭的味,就是鼻;嘗那個酸甜苦辣,就是舌。觸這個冷、暖、澀、滑,會有這樣的感覺,就知道他的身是正常。能夠見色聞聲,思惟法義,就知道那個人的意根是正常。darśanena cakṣuḥ śravaṇena śrotraṃ/ jighritena ghrāṇaṃ/ svāditena jihvaṃ/ sparśitena kayaṃ vijñātena manaḥ/
an eye from vision; an ear from hearing; a nose from smelling; a tongue from tasting; a body from touching; a mind from the understood ( vijnata);

水中見礙,比知有地;若見是處,草木滋潤,莖葉青翠,比知有水;若見熱灰,比知有火;叢林掉動,比知有風。
[]看這水很澄澈,下面有障礙,就是水下面有地。若見是處草木滋潤,莖葉都是青翠,就比知這個地方水很充足。若見熱灰,就比知那個地方有火。叢林掉動,就知道有風來。āpsu darśanena pratighātena pṛthivīṃ/ snigdhaharitapradeśa- darśanena āpaṃ/ dahabhasmadarśanenāgniṃ/ vanaspati-praspandanena vāyuṃ/
earth from the appearance in water and (its) resistance; water from the appearance of a place that is slippery and green; fire from the appearance of hot ashes; wind from the swaying of trees;

暝目執杖,進止問他,蹎蹶失路,如是等事,比知是盲;高聲側聽,比知是聾。正信、聰叡、離欲、未離欲、菩薩、如來,如是等類,以業比度,如前應知。
[]眼睛看不見東西,手裏拿一個杖,或者向前進,或者是不進,要問別人這條路對不對,於是乎跌倒,跑到不是道路的地方去,如是等事,比知是盲。說話的時候聲音很大,要聽別人說話,把頭歪一歪,比知這個人的耳朵有問題,是聾。正信、聰叡、離欲、未離欲、菩薩、如來,如是等類,以業比度,如前應知。sadā nimīlitākṣitvena daṇḍabhṛdparavyapadeśa-skhalitāpamārgagamanādibhiś cāndham uccaiḥ śravaṇena badhiraṃ/ śraddhapaṇḍitāvītarāgavītarāga- bodhisattva-tathāgateṣu karmato 'numānaṃ pūrvavad draṣṭavyaṃ/
a blind person (andha) from the constantly closed eyes, the bearing of a staff, the being commanded by another, the going the wrong way in stumbling manner, and so on; a person of hard hearing, by the loud sound. And among those of faith and those of learning, those not free from passion, and those free from passion, and (among) bodhisattvas and Tathagatas; one may observe, as previously, the inference from an activity.

4)法比量者,謂以相鄰相屬之法,比餘相鄰相屬之法。
[]什麼是法的比量?就是此法與彼法相鄰近、相接近,法的義相近,是相關聯,相連屬。此相鄰、相屬之法,和其他的相鄰、相屬之法相比對,用知道的比對不知道的,不知道的也知道。
《披尋記》五五六頁:
謂以相鄰相屬之法等者:謂此彼法義相鄰近,名相鄰法;如說無常故苦,苦故無我,皆是此類。又若此法能引彼法,當知此彼互相繫屬;如說生老病死等是。如下舉事,其相易知。
[]謂以相鄰相屬之法等者:此法彼法,裏面的含義,是相鄰近。如說無常和苦就是相鄰近,苦和無我也是相鄰近,都叫做相鄰相屬之法。又若此法能引出來彼法,當知此彼就是互相繫屬。就像生,有情的眾生得到一個色受想行識。生以後,色受想行識,一定會各部份的機能衰退,那就是老。有色受想行識的組織,就會有病。這就叫做此法能引出來彼法,就叫做相屬。dharmato 'numānaṃ katamat/ yan nānuśliṣṭena dharma-sambandhena tatsambandhāyā dharmatāyābhyūhanaṃ/
D. What is the inference from natures (dharma)? The inferring of the continuum (dharmata) of its association by an associated nature (dharma) that is not (obviously) connected thereto.

如屬無常,比知有苦;以屬苦故,比空、無我。以屬生故,比有老法;以屬老故,比有死法。
[]如屬於無常,可以知道有苦,所以無常故苦。因為是屬於苦,無常故苦,所以比知色受想行識,就是空、無我。因為色受想行識是無常,繫屬於苦,就是與苦有關係。因為苦就不自在,不自在故,所以就是沒有我。因為色受想行識,是屬於因緣所生,因緣會變化,所以比知一定有老。因為身體要衰老,就注定要死亡,比知有死法。
tadyathā 'nitya-sambandhena duḥkhatām anuminoti/ duḥkha-sambandhena śūnyatānātmatāṃ jāti-sambandhena jarādharmatāṃ jarā-sambandhena maraṇadharmatāṃ
For example, one infers the state of suffering from one (i.e. dharma) associated with impermanence. One infers voidness and nonself from one associated with suffering; (infers) the continuum of old age from one associated with birth; the continuum of death from one (i.e. dharma) associated with birth; the continuum of death from one (i.e. dharma) associated with old age;

以屬有色有見有對,比有方所及有形質。屬有漏故,比知有苦;屬無漏故,比知無苦。屬有為故,比知生住異滅之法;屬無為故,比知無生住異滅法。如是等類,名法比量。
[]因為屬於色法,屬於地水火風,是屬於有色,可以眼見,有障礙的,比知它就是要佔據一個處所,也有個形體,一種形相。從眼耳鼻舌身意,流出來貪瞋癡,有煩惱漏,比知這個人一定有苦。從眼耳鼻舌身意,不流出來貪瞋癡,沒有煩惱,與聖道相應,與第一義諦相應,所以在這個無常、苦的境界裏面,可以知道無苦。色受想行識,是屬於有為法,就可以知道有生、住、異、滅。若是見到第一義諦,第一義諦是無為法,無為法是沒有生住異滅,離一切戲論,離一切相的境界。如是等類,叫做法比量。rūpi-sanidarśanasapratigha-sambandhena pradeśatāṃ mūrttatāṃ anuminoti/ sāśravasambandhena saduḥkhatām anāśravasambandhenāduḥkhatām/ saṃskṛta-sambandhena utpādavyayasthityanyathātva-dharmatām ity evaṃbhāgīyaṃ dharmato 'numānaṃ veditavyam/
the placement and corporeality by association with the showing and the impeding of a material entity; accompaniment with misery by association with the fluxional (sasrava); nonaccompaniment with misery by association with the nonfluxional; the continuum of arising, passing away, staying, and becoming otherwise, by association with the constructed (samskrta); [and the continuum of not arising, not passing away, not staying, and not becoming otherwise, by association with the unconstructed (asamskrta)]. Whatever agrees with this category should be understood as inference from natures.

5)因果比量者,謂以因果展轉相比。
[]什麼是因果比量?就是因和果去相比,果又和因來相比,就是展轉。hetuphalato 'numānaṃ katamat/ yad dhetunā phalasya phalena vā hetor abhyūhanaṃ/
E. What is the inference from cause and effect ( hetuphala)? The inferring of an effect by means of a cause, or of a cause by means of an effect.

如見有行,比至餘方;見至餘方,比先有行。若見有人如法事王,比知當獲廣大祿位;見大祿位,比知先已如法事王。若見有人備善作業,比知必當獲大財富;見大財富,比知先已備善作業。見先修習善行惡行,比當興衰;見有興衰,比先造作善行惡行。
[]看見那個人在走路,就知道他到另一個地方。看見那個人,已到另一個地方,就知道他以前是有行。假設看見一個人,合法、不違背國家的法律,奉事於王,就知道這個人將來會得到廣大的祿位。若看見那個人,已經得到廣大的福德的官位,就可以知道他以前已經如法事王。若看見一個人,謹慎地善巧地做事情,就可以知道將來會發財。看見大財富,可以知道已經是很謹慎地很有智慧地做事情。若看見那個人,曾經做過很多於人有利益的事情,於人有損害的事情,可以知道,將來會興盛,也會衰敗,作惡事,將來要得惡報,作善就得善報。若看見那個人很多如意的事情,很多榮譽的事情,後來又是倒楣,那比知先造作有善行,也有惡行的關係。tadyathā gatyā deṣāntaraprāptim anuminoti deṣāntarapraptyā gatim/ rājarādhanena mahābhisāralābhaṃ/ mahābhisāralābhena rājarādhanaṃ sukṛta-sampanna- karmāntatayā mahādhanadhānyalābham mahādhanadhānyalābhena sukṛta-sampanna-karmāntatāṃ prāktana-sucarita-duścaritena sampatti- vipattī sampatti-vipattibhyāṃ prāktana-sucarita-duścaritaṃ/
For example: One infers the reaching of another place by means of the travelling; and (infers) the travelling by the reaching of another place. Attainment of a great rendezvous by pleasing the king; pleasing the king by attaining a great rendezvous. The acquirement of much wealth and goods, by the condition of work that fulfills the well-done; the condition of work that is well-done, by acquirement of much wealth and goods. (One infers) good fortune or disaster, by former good deeds or bad deeds; former good deeds or bad deeds, by good fortune or disaster.

見豐飲食,比知飽滿;見有飽滿,比豐飲食。若見有人食不平等,比當有病;現見有病,比知是人食不平等。見有靜慮,比知離欲;見離欲者,比有靜慮。若見修道,比知當獲沙門果證;若見有獲沙門果證,比知修道。如是等類,當知總名因果比量,是名比量。
[]看見他有很豐足、豐美的飲食,就可以知道一定是飽滿,不會有饑餓。見有飽滿,
就比豐飲食。若見有人吃得不平等,吃得太多,或吃得太少,或者所食的東西,對他的身體不合適,比知將來會有病。現見有病,比知是人食不平等。若看見有人得到色界的四靜慮,知道那個人是離欲。若看見一個人,能夠離欲,可以知道這個人,一定會得到禪定。若是看見有人能放下世間的塵勞,修學聖道的話,比知當獲出世間的四種沙門果。若見有獲沙門果證,比知一定是修道的關係。如是等類,當知總名因果比量。prabhūta-bhojanena tṛptiṃ/ tṛptyā prabhūta-bhojanam/ viṣama- bhojanena vyādhiṃ/ vyādhinā viṣama-bhojanaṃ/ dhyānena vairāgyaṃ vairāgyena dhyānaṃ mārgeṇa śrāmaṇyaphalaṃ śrāmaṇyaphalena mārgam/ ity evaṃbhāgīyaṃ hetuphalato 'numānaṃ veditavyam/ idam ucyate 'numānam/
Satiation, from the plentiful eating; plentiful eating, from the satiation. Illness, from wrong eating; wrong eating, from illness. (One infers) dispassion, by the meditation (dhyana); meditation, by the dispassion (vairagya). The fruit of monkhood, by the path; the path, by the fruit of monkhood. Whatever agrees with this category should be understood as inference from cause and effect. The foregoing is called inference (anumana).

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