2013年6月13日 星期四

聞所成地-4.因明處--4.3.論所依---4.3.6.同類


4.3.6.同類
同類者,謂隨所有法望所餘法,其相展轉少分相似。此復五種,一、相狀相似;二、自體相似;三、業用相似;四、法門相似;五、因果相似。
[]什麼是同類?就是隨順日常生活中所有的法,對所成立的宗義而言,剩餘的一切法。所餘的法裏面,哪一法的相貌,與成立的宗義,展轉相似,譬喻和宗義相似,宗義也和譬喻相似,而只要少部分相似,就算是同類。這個同類的譬喻,還有五種的不同。哪五種?一、相狀相似,二、自體相似,三、業用相似,四、法門相似,五、因果相似。sārūpyaṃ katamat yat kasya cid dharmasya sādṛśena kasya cid eva sādṛśyaṃ tat pañcavidhaṃ draṣṭavyaṃ liṅgasādṛśyaṃ svabhāvasādṛśyaṃ karmasādṛśyaṃ dharmasādṛśyaṃ hetuphalasādṛśyaṃ ca/
What is similarity (sarutpya)? It is a certain resemblance by a likeness to a certain feature (dharma). It is of five kinds, to wit: a. similarity of evidence (linga), b. similarity of individual presence (svabhava), c. similarity of activity (karma), d. similarity of natures (dharma), e. similarity of cause and effect (hetu-phala).

1)相狀相似者,謂於現在,或先所見相狀相屬,展轉相似。
[]什麼是相似呢?現在的生活中,遇見這件事;或者是以前,也看見這件事。什麼事呢?所看見的相狀,彼此相近,以前看見的和現在的相似,現在看見的和以前的也相似。liṅgasādṛśyaṃ katamat/ yad varttamānena vā pūrvadṛṣṭena vā cihnanimittasambaddhena vānyonyasādṛśyaṃ/
a. What is similarity of evidence (lingasadrsya)? A mutual likeness by association with a sign (cihna) or sign-source (nimitta) that is present or formerly seen.

2)自體相似者,謂彼展轉其相相似。
[]什麼是自體相似?相狀相似,是表現於外的相狀。體,在那件事的體上。譬如說這個桌子是木頭造的,木是它的體,另外那個房子也是木頭造的,這個木和木有點相似,那麼這就是叫做自體相似。svabhāvasādṛśyaṃ katamat/ yad anyonyaṃ lakṣaṇasādṛśyaṃ/
b. What is similarity of individual presence (svabhavasadrsya)? A mutual likeness of character.

3)業用相似者,謂彼展轉作用相似。
[]什麼是業用相似?業的作用,發出來的作用,彼此是相似的。
karmasādṛśyaṃ katamat/ yad anyonyam kāritrasādṛśyaṃ/
c. What is similarity of activity (karmasadrsya)? A mutual likeness of operation.

4)法門相似者,謂彼展轉法門相似。如無常與苦法,苦與無我法,無我與生法,生法與老法,老法與死法。如是有色無色、有見無見、有對無對、有漏無漏、有爲無爲,如是等類無量法門,展轉相似。
[]什麼是法門相似?這一個法,能通到涅槃那裏,所以這一個法是涅槃的門,這叫做法門。這個法門怎麼相似?如無常的變化,苦惱也是無常,所以苦和無常是相似。苦與無我法,也是相似。無我,沒有這個主宰的力量。苦惱來的時候,作不得主。所以苦和無我是相接近。無我與生法也是接近,生是靠因緣,本身就不能決定,就是無我,所以無我與生法也是相接近。生法與老法也是接近,因爲都是因緣有,因緣有變化,這個生就要老,就是一定要變。老法與死法,也是相似。從有爲能通到無爲那裏去;從有色也可以變成無色,無色也可以變成有色,都是相通;有見和無見、有對和無對,都是相通;由有漏可以變成無漏,所以有漏和無漏是相通,但是成了無漏的聖人,能教化有漏的凡夫,可以轉成無漏,也還是有點相通的意思。這由有爲而無爲,得無漏的人,就是證悟無爲的真理,他若發大悲心來教化有爲的衆生,所以也是相通,也是相近。如是等類無量法門,展轉都是相似,都是相接近、相似,這就是法門相似。
dharmasādṛśyaṃ katamat/ yad anyonyaṃ dharmatayā sādṛśyam tadyathā anityaṃ duḥkhadharmatayā duḥkhaṃ nairātmyadharmatayā nirātmakānāṃ jātidharmatayā jātidharmakānāṃ jarādharmatayā jarādharmakānāṃ maraṇadharmatayā rūpyarūpi-sanidarśanānidarśana-sapratighāpratigha- sāśravānāśrava-saṃskṛtā-saṃskṛta-dharmatayā evambhāgīyayā dharmatayā/
d. What is similarity of natures (dharmasadrsya)? What is mutually similar by a continuum (dharmata); as follows: (similarity) to impermanence by the continuum of suffering. To suffering by the continuum of nonself. (Similarity) of those without self by the continuum of birth. Of those with the nature of birth by the continuum of old age. Of those with the nature of old age by the continuum of death. (And similar to) the formed (rupin), theformless (arupin); to the shown (sanidarsana), the unshown ( anidarsana); to the impeded (spratigha), the unimpeded (apratigha); to the fluxional (sasrava)' the nonfluxional (anasrava); to the constructed (samskrta), the unconstructed (asamskrta) bycontinuums; (so) by continuum of like category.

5)因果相似者,謂彼展轉,若因若果,能成所成,展轉相似。是名同類。
[]什麼是因果相似?因能變成果,果又成爲因,展轉的這麼樣成就。或者這個時候因,或者這個時候是果,因能成爲果,果又能成爲因,展轉都是相似。這叫做同類因。
hetuphalasādṛśyaṃ katamat/ yad anyonyoṃ hetutaḥ phalataś ca niṣpādananiṣpattisādṛśyam/ idam ucyate sārūpyaṃ/
e. What is similarity of cause and effect (hetuphalasadrsya)? The mutual likeness of the accomplishing process and the full accomplishment through cause and through fruit. The foregoing is called similarity.

1 則留言:

  1. http://yifertwtw.blogspot.tw/

    我將會在近期於學術期刊發表關於 T210, T212, T213 的學術論文,由於參考你此處部落格貼文編出我部落格的對照表,我想在論文中跟你致謝。
    如果你願意給將你的真實姓名給我,對我來說是最大的期望。
    如果你不願意,也沒關係,我會指名向 Devasanti 與此網址致謝。
    我的e-mail 住址: yifertw@yahoo.com.tw

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