2013年6月16日 星期日

聞所成地-4.因明處--4.3.論所依---4.3.11.問答


4.3.11.問答
1)問:若一切法自相成就,各自安立己法性中,復何因緣建立二種所成義耶?答:為欲令他生信解故,非為生成諸法性相。
[]問:若一切法它本身的相貌,就是那樣子。每一法的情況,都在每一法上那裏存在,都是那樣子。爲什麼建立兩種所成立義呢?答:說因、說喻,目的是爲了想要令對方,能夠相信我所說的道理的關係,所以說出個因來,不是說諸法性相本來沒有,我現在叫它生、叫它成。
《披尋記》五五九頁:
若一切法自相成就等者:謂一切法,無始時來,理成就性,是名法性。若佛出世,若不出世,一切法性,法爾安住,非由安立名句文身,彼法成就。依此道理,故作是問。
yadā sva-lakṣanataḥ siddhāḥ sarvadharmā vyavasthāpitāḥ svasyāṃ dharmatāyāṃ kena kāraṇena dvividho 'rthaḥ sādhya ity ucyate/ parasaṃpratyayotpattim ārabhya no tu lakṣanotpattiṃ/
[Final comments on III. Foundation of the Debate (vadadhisthana)]. Now, when all features are established each in its that two kinds of thesis topics are stated? It is to begin the generation of confidence in the other person (i.e. in the debate), and it is not for generating the characteristic (of certainty).

2)問:為欲成就所成立義,何故先立宗耶?答:為先顯示自所愛樂宗義故。
[]問:爲了想要成就所建立的道理,來開示對方,令他增長智慧。爲什麼一開始要立一個宗?答:為了先要顯示出來我所歡喜的道理,所以要先把它立出來。
kena kāraṇena sādhyasyārthasya prasiddhaye āditaḥ pratijñā kriyate yāvad evābhinkānkṣitasyārthasya paridīpanārthaṃ/
Why is it for proving the thesis topic, at the outset the thesis (pratijna) is announced? So as to point out the topic which one desires (to prove).

3)問:何故次辯因耶?答:為欲開顯,依現見事決定道理,令他攝受所立宗義故。
[]問:爲什麼以後又要辯別因呢?答:爲了想要將隱藏的道理,把它開顯出來,將蒙蔽的東西,破除出去,把道理顯出來。如何開顯呢?根據現在所看見的事情,來表達決定的道理。使令對方能夠接受我所建立的這個真理。kena kāraṇena hetur upasaṃhriyate/ yāvad eva dṛṣṭavastvāśritayā yuktyā tasminn eva pratijñārthe paragrahaṇārthaṃ/
Why is the reason (hetu) adduced? To draw the other person to precisely the thesis-topic by a principle based on a visible given thing.

4)問:何故次引喻耶?答:為欲顯示能成道理之所依止現見事故。
[]問:為什麼又引譬喻呢?答:爲了想要顯示能成立的道理,宗是所成立,因是能
成立,現見的事情幫助這個因,成立道理,使令對方容易明白。kena kāraṇena dṛṣṭanta upasaṃhriyate/ yāvad eva tasyām eva yukte dṛṣṭavastvāśrayaṃ darśanārthaṃ/
Why is the example adduced? Just so, when given that principle, as to show the locus of a visible given thing.

5)問:何故後說同類、異類、現量、比量、正教等耶?答:為欲開示因喻二種,相違、不相違智故。又相違者,由二因緣。一、不決定故 ;二、同所成故。不相違者,亦二因緣。一、決定故;二、異所成故。其相違者,於為成就所立宗義,不能為量,故不名量。不相違者,於為成就所立宗義,能為正量,故名為量。是名論所依。
[]問:什麼理由在宗、因、喻以後,又說同類的譬喻?又說異類的譬喻呢?又說現量、比量和正教量做什麼呢?答:爲了想要開示出來因喻有兩種,因是一種,喻是一種。而喻又有兩種,同類的譬喻是相順,就是不相違。異類的譬喻是相違背,相違的是從反面來論證這個道理。這樣子能使令你增長智慧。又有兩個原因有相違的事情:一、不決定故,二、同所成故。不相違的,也有兩個因緣:一個是決定故,二、異所成故。為何相違?說因、譬喻的目的,就是為了成就所立宗義。但是說出來的因、譬喻,不是正確,就不能成立,不決定,不算是一個正確的知識,所以不叫量。不決定是什麼意思呢?譬如說聲音無常,這是宗義,若是說出理由,這個理由是所量義故。所量是什麼意思呢?就是所認識的境界、所認同的對象。同所成是什麼意思呢?說出的理由,還沒能夠建立宗義,同一所成的那個理由,還沒有成立好。雖說一個理由,等於沒說,還是沒有成立。什麼是不相違?如果說出來的因和喻,於宗義是相順的話,對於成就所立的宗義,能成立一個正確的知識,才稱爲量。這就是在立論的時候,要有這麼一個依止。kena kāraṇena sārūpyaṃ vairūpyam pratyakṣam anumānam āptāgamaś copasaṃhriyate/ yāvad eva tayor hetūdāharaṇayor virodhāvirodha-paridīpanārthaṃ/ sa punar virodho dvābhyām ākārābhyāṃ veditavyam anaikāntikatvena ca sādhyasamatvena ca/ avirodhaḥ/ dvābhyām evākārābhyāṃ veditavyaḥ aikāntikatvena sādhyaviśeṣeṇa ca/ yatra virodhaḥ/ tat pratijñāsiddho na pramāṇīkriyata iti/ kṛtvā na pramāṇaṃ/ yatra tv avirodhas tat pratijñāsiddho pramāṇīkriyata iti kṛtvā pramāṇaṃ ity ucyate/ idam ucyate vādādhiṣṭhānaṃ/
Why are similarity, dissimilarity, direct perception, inference, and lineage of the masters adduced? So as to point out the incompatibility and the compatibility of the reason-and-example pair. Besides, one may understand the incompatibility by two aspects-uncertainty (anaikantikatva) and equality with the thesis (sadhyasamatva). One may understand the compatibility by two aspects-certainty and divergence from the thesis (sadhyavisesana). When there is incompatibility, it is not authorized as thesis-proved; in effect, there is no authority (pramana). When there is compatibility, it is authorized as thesis-proved; in effect, there is the authority (pramana). The foregoing is called 'Foundation of the Debate.'

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