2013年6月18日 星期二

聞所成地-4.因明處--4.5.論墮負


4.5.論墮負
4.5.1.捨言
論墮負者,謂有三種,一、捨言;二、言屈;三、言過。捨言者,謂立論者,以十三種詞,謝對論者,捨所言論。何等名為十三種詞?謂立論者謝對論者曰:我論不善,汝論為善;我不善觀,汝為善觀;我論無理,汝論有理;我論無能,汝論有能;我論屈伏,汝論成立;我之辯才唯極於此,過此已上更善思量,當為汝說;且置是事我不復言。以如是等十三種詞謝對論者,捨所言論,捨所論故,當知被破,為他所勝,墮在他後,屈伏於彼,是故捨言,名墮負處。
[]辯論若是輸,有三種情形。一、捨言,二、言屈,三、言過。什麼是捨言?輸方建立這樣的言說,以十三種的言詞,向對方表示他輸,棄捨言論,停止辯論。何等名為十三種言詞呢?
第一對,輸方告謝對方說:我論不善,汝論為善。一切法,能說出道理,是名為善。
第二對:我不善觀,汝為善觀。知道因與喻的相違、不相違,叫善觀。
第三對:我論無理,汝論有理。立出宗、因、喻,沒有過失,就是有理。
第四對:我論無能,汝論有能。
第五對:我論屈伏,汝論成立。
第六對:我這個辯才,高就達到這裏,再往上的境界,要再思量,再和你討論。
第十三:暫時把它停在這裏,我不再發言。
以如是等十三種詞,謝對論者,捨所言論。捨所論故,應該知道,我的立論,被對方破壞,對方勝,我是墮在他的後邊,所以叫做墮負。我要尊重他,屈伏於彼。是故捨言,名墮負處vādanigrahaḥ katamaḥ/ sa trividho draṣṭavyaḥ kathātyāgaḥ kathāsādaḥ kathādoṣaś ca/ kathātyāgaḥ katamaḥ/ iha vādī trayodaśākārayā vāg-vijñaptyā prativādinaṃ vijñapayan kathāṃ parityajati/ trayodaśākāra- vāgvijñaptiḥ katamā/ tadyathā asādhu mama; sādhu vā tava; asupariksitaṃ mama; supariksitam va tava; ayuktam mama; yuktam vā tava; asahitaṃ mama; sahitaṃ vā tava; nigṛhīto madvādaḥ pratiṣṭhito vā yuṣmadvāda; etāvad me 'tra pratibhāti; uttare vā punaḥ saṃcintya vakṣyāmi; alam astv etavān na punaḥ kathāṃ kariṣyāmīti/ ananyā trayodaśākarayā vāgvijñaptyā prativādinaṃ vijñapayan viprakṛtāṃ kathāṃ parityajati/ tasyāś ca parityāgāj jito bhavati/ parājitaḥ parāpṛṣṭikṛto nigṛhītaḥ tasmāt kathātyāgo nigrahasthānam ity ucyate/
V. POINTS OF DEFEAT IN THE DEBATE
What are the points of defeat in the debate (vadanigraha)? There are three kinds: A. Surrender of the discussion, B. Collapse of the discussion, C. Faults of the discussion.
A. What is surrender of the discussion (kathatyaga)? Here the first speaker informs the respondent by thirteen kinds of vocal candor that oneself surrenders the discussion. What are the thirteen kinds of vocal candor (vagvijhapti)? As follows: 1. "Mine is not good." 2. "Yours is good. "3. "Mine was not well-considered." 4. "Yours was well considered." 5. "Mine is not cogent." 6. "Yours is cogent." 7. "Mine is incoherent." 8. "Yours is coherent." 9. "My side has been defeated." 10. "Your side has been well-established." 11. "This is all that occurs to me in this case." 12. "After some more thinking, I shall resume the discussion later on." 13. "Let so much suffice! I shall not further discuss the matter." Informing the respondent with these thirteen kinds of vocal candor, one abandons the thwarted discussion. Having abandoned it, one is defeated, one's logic overcome. Retreating, one is beaten. Therefore, the surrender of the discussion is called 'points of defeat' (nigrahasthana).

4.5.2.言屈
十三種事,當知言屈。言屈者,如立論者,為對論者之所屈伏,或託餘事方便而退;或引外言;或現憤發,或現瞋恚;或現憍慢;或現所覆;或現惱害;或現不忍;或現不信;或復默然;或復憂慼;或竦肩伏面;或沈思詞窮。
[]十三種事,當知言屈。什麼是言屈?對方勝利,我被人家屈伏。或託餘事方便而退,或引外言,或現憤發,或現瞋恚,或現憍慢,或現所覆,或現惱害,或現不忍,或現不信,或復默然,或復憂戚,或竦肩伏面,或沈思詞窮。kathāsādaḥ katamaḥ/ yathāpi tad vādī parāvādinābhibhūtaḥ anyenānyaṃ pratisarati/ bahirdhā katham upanayati/ kopaṃ ca dveṣaṃ ca mānaṃ ca mrakṣaṃ cāghataṃ cākṣāntiṃ cāpratyayaṃ ca prāviṣkaroti/ tūṣṇīmbhūto vā bhavati/ madgubhūtaḥ srastaskandhaḥ adhomukhaḥ pradhyāna-paramaḥ/ niṣpratibhānaḥ/
B. What is collapse of the discussion (kathasada)? As follows: That first speaker, having been overcome by the respondent [acts in these ways], 1. By means of another (matter) shifts ground; 2. Brings up irrelevant matters; 3-9. Manifests anger, haterd, pride, dissimulation, aggression, lack of forbearance, a bad situation; 10. Becomes speechless; 11. Is upset; 12. Droops shoulders and lowers face; 13. Occupies oneself with subtle reflection, one's resourcefulness gone.

1)假託餘事方便而退者,謂捨前所立更託餘宗,捨先因、喻、同類、異類、現量、比量及正教量,更託餘因乃至正教。
[]什麼是假託餘事方便而退?把以前所立的宗、因、喻棄捨,又假託不同的論,立論宗、因、喻。棄捨以前說的因、喻,同類的比喻,或者異類的比喻,或現量、比量、正教量,都棄捨。又重新的立因、喻,乃至正教量。kathaṃ anyenānyaṃ pratisarati/ pūrvikāṃ pratujñām utsṛjyānyam ālambate/ pūrvakaṃ hetum udāharaṇaṃ sārūpyaṃ vairupyarṃ pratyakṣam anumāṇam āptāgamam utsṛjyānyam āptāgamam ālambate/
B-1. How does one, by means of another (matter), shift ground? Having given up one's former thesis, one espouses another. Having given up the former reason, example, similarity, dissimilarity, direct perception, inference, lineage of the masters, one espouses another lineage of masters.

2)引外言者,謂捨所論事,論說飲食、王臣、盜賊、衢路、倡穢等事,假託外緣,捨本所立,以遣他難。
[]什麼是引外言?棄捨所論的宗、因、喻,乃至到正教論。又重新議論、辯論。說飲食的事情,說王的事情,臣的事情,盜賊的事情,衢路的事情,還是有倡穢的這些事情。假託外邊的這些事情,棄捨原來所立的那個宗、因、喻等,來排遣對方的難問。
kathaṃ bahirdhā-kathām upanayati/ viprakṛtāṃ kathāyās utsṛjya yānnakathā pānakathā rājakathā/ corakathā vīthīkathā veśyākathā ity evambhāgīyāḥ kathāḥ viprakṛtāyāḥ kathāyā bahirdhā-kathety ucyate/ tām upanayati/ atikramyottara-vādaṃ/
B-2. How does one bring up irrelevant matters? Having given up one's offensive discussion: whatever the discussion offood, of drink, of the king, of thieves, of shops, of prostitutes; and any discussion of like category after the offensive discussion-these are the "irrelevant matters". One brings up the (irrelevant matters), namely, a topic that is extraneous.

3)現憤發者,謂以麤獷不遜等言,擯對論者。
[]什麼是現憤發?用麤惡的態度,暴惡的態度,發出不合道理的語言,呵斥對方。輸不承認輸,還呵斥對方。kathaṃ kopaṃ prāviṣkaroti/ pāruṣyāsabhya-vādena prativādinam avasādayati/
B-3. How does one manifest anger? With words that are harsh and unfit for an assembly, one assails the respondent.

4)現瞋恚者,謂以怨報之言,責對論者。
[]什麼是現瞋恚?以怨恨報復的這種語言,來指責對方。kathaṃ dveṣaṃ prāviṣkaroti/ pratikartavyatā-vādena prativādinaṃ abhiyojayati/
B-4. How does one manifest hatred? One threatens the respondent by saying oneself will get even (with that person).

5)現憍慢者,謂以卑賤種族等言,毀對論者。
[]什麼是現憍慢?以沒有文化的這種人,說出那些語言,來毀謗對方。kathaṃ mānaṃ prāviṣkaroti/ hīnajātigotrakulādi-vādena prativādinaṃ paṃsayati/
B-5. How does one display pride? One mocks the respondent by referring to that person's low lineage, clan, family, etc.

6)現所覆者,謂以發他所覆惡行之言,舉對論者。
[]什麼是現所覆?以顯發對方所覆藏的惡行,不名譽的事情,發出這種言論,指責你有什麼不道德的事情,來毀辱對方。kathaṃ mrakṣaṃ prāviṣkaroti/ praticchādita-duścaritodvādana-vādena prativādinaṃ codayati/
B-6. How does one express dissimulation? One petitions the respondent by speaking in a raised voice that conceals one's own bad conduct.

7)現惱害者,謂以害酷怨言,罵對論者。
[]什麼是現惱害?以傷害對方,很殘酷的那種怨毒的語言,辱罵對方。katham āghātaṃ prāviṣkaroti/ vadhaka-pratyarthika-pratyamitra-vādena prativādinam ākṣipati/
B-7. How does one express aggression? One challenges the respondent by calling that person a murderer, or an adversary, or an enemy.

8)現不忍者,謂發怨言,怖對論者。
[]什麼是現不忍?發出來怨恨的語言,來恐怖對方。katham akṣantiṃ prāviṣkaroti/ vairiṇopādāna-vādena prativādinaṃ tarjayati/
B-8. Hoes does one express lack of forbearance? One threatens the respondent with words that adopt enmity.

9)現不信者,謂以毀壞行言,謗對論者。
[]什麼是現不信?以破壞他的行為,說他的行為怎麼的不好,來誹謗對方。katham apratyayaṃ prāviṣkaroti/ bhinnacāritra-vādena prativādinaṃ pratikṣipati/
B-9. How does one express a bad situation? One chides the respondent with words that the course of action has been shattered.

10)或默然者,謂語業頓盡。
[]什麼是默然?不出聲,默然。就是沒有話說。kathaṃ tūṣṇīmbhūto bhavati/ vākkarma-saṃkocataḥ/
B-10. How does one become silent? By withdrawing from acts of speech.

11)或憂慼者,謂意業焦惱。
[]什麼是憂慼?就是內心裏面很熱惱。kathaṃ madgubhūto bhavati/ manaskarmasaṃkocataḥ/
B-11. How does one become inattentive? By withdrawing from (volitional) acts of mind.

12)竦肩伏面者,謂身業威嚴而頓萎瘁。
[]什麼是竦肩低頭?身表現於外相貌的威嚴,現在輸,忽然間就憔悴,枯萎。
kathaṃ srastaskandho bhavaty adhomukhaḥ/ kāyakarma-dhairya- saṃkocataḥ/
B-12. How does one lower one's shoulders and have a lowered face? By withdrawing from acts of body and courage.

13)沈思詞窮者,謂才辯俱竭。
[]什麼是沈思詞窮?靜下思惟這件事,但是怎麼樣思惟都沒有話說,詞窮。內心裏面的智慧,和語言上的辯才,這兩方面都沒有,所以沒有話好說。kathaṃ pradhyāna-paramo bhavati niṣpratibhānaḥ/ pratibhāna-saṃkocataḥ/
B-13. How does one get preoccupied with subtle reflection, one's resourcefulness gone? By withdrawing from resourcefulness.

由如是等十三種事,當知言屈。前二妄行矯亂;中七發起邪行;後四計行窮盡。是名言屈,墮在負處。
[]由如是等,一共十三種事,就可以知道對方是言屈。前兩句是妄行矯亂,前兩句,第一句是假託餘事方便而退,加上引外言,這兩句是虛妄的行為,用欺詐的心理去搗亂。用這樣的事情,來掩飾自己敗的形相,去擾亂他的境界。中間的七句,從第三句開始,到第九句,這是中間的七句。發起不合道理的行為,蠻橫的不講道理。後面四個就是默然、憂慮、竦肩伏面、沈思詞窮,完全到這裏窮盡。這叫做言屈,輸給人家。ity ebhis trayo-daśabhir ākāraiḥ kathāsādo veditavyaḥ/ dvābhyāṃ pūrva- kābhyāṃ vikṣepapratipattitaḥ saptabhir madhyair mithyāpratipattitaḥ / caturbhiḥ paścimaiḥ apratipattitaḥ/ ayam ucyate kathāsādaḥ nigrahasthānam/
By these thirteen aspects one may recognize the collapse of the discussion. The first two (l-2) are through distraction; the middle seven (3-9) are through deviant (or, perverse) action; the last four (10-13) are through inaction. This is called 'collapse of the discussion', as points of defeat.

4.5.3.言過
言過者,謂立論者,為九種過污染其言,故名言過。何等為九?一、雜亂;二、麤獷;三、不辯了;四、無限量;五、非義相應;六、不以時;七、不決定;八、不顯了;九、不相續。
[]什麼是言論有過失?立論者,為九種過污染他的語言,所以叫做言過。哪九種?一、雜亂,二、麤獷,三、不辯了,四、無限量,五、非義相應,六、不以時,七、不決定,八、不顯了,九、不相續。kathādoṣaḥ katamaḥ/ navabhir doṣai raktā kathā / kathādoṣa ity ucyate / navadoṣāḥ katame tadyathā ākulaṃ vacanaṃ saṃrabdham; agamakam; amitam; anarthayuktam; akālena; asthiram; adīptam; aprabaddhaṃ ca vacanam /
C. What are the faults of the discussion (kathadosa)? The discussion is discolored with nine faults, called 'faults of the discussion'. What are the nine faults? As follows: The discussion 1. has confused language; 2. is violent; 3. is incomprehensible; 4. is inordinate; 5. is fallacious; 6. is mistimed; 7. oscillates; 8. is purblind; 9. is faltering.

1)雜亂者,謂捨所論事,雜說異語。
[]什麼是雜亂?把所議論的宗、因、喻,乃至正教量,現在棄捨,雜說其它不同的一些話,這叫做雜亂。這樣子不合道理,這是有過失。ākulaṃ vacanaṃ katamat/ yad adhikāram utsṛjya vicitrakathā-pratānam/
C-1. What is confused (akula) language? Having given up the authorized topic (adhikara), to have a prolixity (pratana) of variegated discussion.

2)麤獷者,謂憤發掉舉,及躁急掉舉。
[]什麼是麤獷?對他不利益的事情,受不了,內心浮動,想這個想那個,是名憤發掉舉。不合道理的分別心,內心很急的在活動,由是躁急,令心掉舉,是名躁急掉舉。saṃrabdham vacanaṃ katamat / yat kopoddhataṃ dravod-dhataṃ ca/
C-2. What is violent (samrabdha) language? That which is exaggerated in fury and that which is exaggerated in sport.

3)不辯了者,謂若法、若義,眾及對論所不領悟。
[]什麼是不辯了?說出來的法、義,所表示的道理,大眾和對論人,不知道你說什麼,你說得不明了。agamakaṃ vacanaṃ katamat/ yad dharmato 'rthataś ca parṣadvādibhyām agṛhītam/
C-3. What is incomprehensible (agamaka) language? That which cannot be understood by one's retinue and the respondent from the standpoint of doctrine (dharma) and its meaning (artha).

4)無限量者,謂所說義,言詞復重,或復減少。
[]什麼是無限量?表達道理的言詞,重復說,或者是應該說而沒有說,說得太少。
amitaṃ vacanaṃ katamat/ yad adhikaṃ punar uktārthaṃ nyūnārthaṃ ca/
C-4. What is inordinate (amita) language? Whose expressed meaning is excessive or whose meaning is deficient.

5)非義相應者,當知有十種,一、無義;二、違義;三、損理;四、與所成等;五、招集過難;六、不得義利;七、義無次序;八、義不決定;九、成立能成; 十、順不稱理諸邪惡論。
[]什麼是非義相應?當知有十種。哪十種?一、無義,二、違義,三、損理,四、與所成等,五、招集過難,六、不得義利,七、義無次序,八、義不決定,九、成立能成,十、順不稱理諸邪惡論。
《披尋記》五六五頁:
非義相應等者:引不可愛生,是名無義。不引可愛生,是名違義。不順道理,是名損理。因喻相違,非所極成,是名與所成等。引他徵詰,是名招集過難。空無自義,是名不得義利。以餘因喻,成此因喻,是名成立能成。餘文易知。anarthayuktam vacanaṃ katamat/ tad daśākāram draṣṭavyam/ nirarthakam; apārthakam; yuktibhinnaṃ; sādhyasamam; aticchalām asaṃhitaṃ ca; arthānupalabdhitaḥ asambaddhārthatas; anekāntikaṭaḥ; sādhanasyāpi sādhyatas; ayoniśo sādhya-sarva-vādānugamataś ca/
C-5. What is fallacious (anarthayukta) language? It is of ten aspects, to wit: (1) meaningless (nirarthaka), because (6) not observing meaning (arthanupalabdhi); (2) departed from meaning (aparthaka), because (7) not connected in meaning (asambaddhartha); (3) unsound of reason (yuktibhinna), because (8) uncertain (anekantika); (4) identical with the thesis (sadhyasama), because (9) the thesis is also within the proving (sadhanasyapi sadhya); (5) equivocal (aticchala) and irrelevant (asamhita), because (10) pursuing all debate of the thesis in an improper manner (ayoniso sadhyasarvavadanugama).

6)非時者,謂所應說,前後不次。
[]什麼是非時?就是所應該說的言論道理,前面後面沒有次第。
akalena vacanaṃ katamat/ yad pūrvaṃ vaktavyaṃ paścād abhihitaṃ/ paścād vaktavyaṃ pūrvam abhihitam/
C-6. What is mistimed (akalena) language? What should have been said earlier is said later; what should have been said later is said earlier.

7)不決定者,謂立已復毀,毀而復立,速疾轉換難可了知。
[]什麼是非時?自己立出來一個道理,後來又把它否認,破壞以後,還要再立這個理。很快地就把自己所立的道理,又變動,自己都不決定。asthiraṃ vacanaṃ katamat/ yat pratijñāyā avajñātam avajñaya-pratijñātam atitvaramāṇatayā ca / avyaktam/
C-7. What is oscillating (asthira) language? Any one that shows contempt for the thesis; and after rejecting it, agrees with it. And (the position of the language) is undetermined (avyakta), due to the excessive haste [of the oscillating].

8)不顯了者,謂言招譏弄,不領而答,先為典語,後為俗語,或先俗語,後復典語。
[]什麼是不顯了?就是說出來的言論,會引起對方的譏嫌、戲弄。對方,敵對的人,說出來話,還沒有明白,就去回答。剛開始能夠說出法語,後來就說一些庸俗的一些語言。或先俗語,後復典語。adīptaṃ vacanaṃ katamat/ yac chando lakṣaṇena viruddham/ apūrnvavacanottara-vihitaṃ/ saṃskṛta-bhāṣaṇenārabhya prākṛta-bhāṣaṇena paryavastiṃ/ prākṛta-bhāṣaṇeārabhya / saṃskṛta- bhāṣaṇena paryavasitam/
C-8. What is purblind (adipta) language? What is prohibited by the definition of word order (chando-laksana), e.g. replying to what was not asked; having started with the Sanskrit language, to end up with a vernacular; or having started with a vernacular, to end up with the Sanskrit language.

9)不相續者,謂於中間,言詞斷絕。凡所言論犯此九失,是名言過,墮在負處。
[]什麼是不相續?中間有些地方沒有話好說。所說的所有的言論,犯這九種過失,是名言過,墮在負處。aprabaddhaṃ vacanaṃ katamat/ yad antarādhiṣṭhita- vicchinnaṃ vāk-pratibhāna-vicchinnaṃ/ navabhir doṣai raktā kathā/ iyam ucyate/ ayam ucyate kathādoṣaḥ nigrahasthānaṃ/
C-9. What is faltering (aprabaddha) language? What interrupts control in the middle, and interrupts the eloquence of words. What is referred to as the language discolored by those nine faults is called 'faults of the discussion'. The foregoing is points of defeat in the debate.

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