2013年6月16日 星期日

聞所成地-4.因明處--4.3.論所依---4.3.10.正教量


4.3.10.正教量
正教量者,謂一切智所說言教,或從彼聞,或隨彼法。此復三種。一、不違聖言;二、能治雜染;三、不違法相。
[]什麼是正教量、合道理的言論、言語?具足廣大智慧的佛陀,所宣說出來的法語,教導我們不要迷惑、顛倒。或者親聞佛言教的聲聞弟子,他宣說出來。或佛的弟子說出來的佛法,與佛所說的法語是相隨順,沒有違背。這還有三種不同,哪三種呢?一是不違背聖言。二是能治雜染,這是它的作用。三是不違背法相,與法相隨順,沒有衝突,沒有矛盾。
《披尋記》五五七頁:
謂一切智所說言教等者:此說正教量有三種差別:若佛自說經教,展轉流布至今,名一切智所說言教,是為第一。若聖弟子從佛聽聞而有所說,名從彼聞,是為第二。或聖弟子依佛言教如理決擇而有所說,名隨彼法,是為第三。當知此中諸聖弟子,隨應當知凡聖有別。(攝事分)說:若於是處說有多聞諸聖弟子,當知此中是諸異生。若於是處唯說有其諸聖弟子,當知此中說已見諦。(陵本九十四卷十一頁) āptāgamaś katamaḥ/ yat sarvajñabhāṣitaṃ/ tato vā śrutvā tadanudharmam vā sa punas trividho draṣṭavyaṃ/ pravacanāvirodhataḥ/ saṃkleśapratipakṣataḥ lakṣaṇāvirodhataś ca/
What is the lineage of the masters ( aptagama)? What was expressed by the omniscient one, or was heard from him, or is a doctrine consistent therewith. Moreover, it should be observed as three kinds; resulting from compatibility with the sacred word, resuliting from the adversary to defilement, resulting from compatibility with the characteristic (of certainty).

1)不違聖言者,謂聖弟子說,或佛自說經教,展轉流布至今,不違正法,不違正義。
[]什麼是不違聖言?佛的弟子說出來的佛法,或是佛自己說的經教,展轉流布至今,應檢查它,不違背佛的正法,不違背佛說的正義,隨順趣向無漏,所以是正。正法,是在語言文字上說,義是語言文字所表達的道理;就是能詮的是正法,所詮的是正義。
pravacanāvirodhaḥ katamaḥ/ yaḥ śrāvaka-bhāṣito vā buddha-bhāṣito vā sūtrāntaḥ parasparāgataḥ/ tatra yo dharmāvirodhataḥ/ arthāvirodhataḥ/
A. What is compatibility with the sacred word (pravacanavirodha)? Whatever sutra passage that was expressed by the disciples (of the Buddha) or expressed by the Buddha, handed down in succession, therein the compatibility with the doctrine (dharma), the compatibility with its meaning ( artha).

2)能治雜染者,謂隨此法善修習時,能永調伏貪、瞋、癡等一切煩惱,及隨煩惱。
[]什麼是能治雜染?隨順這個法門,能善巧地聞思修的時候,能夠永久地調伏、消滅內心的污染,就是貪欲、瞋恚、愚癡等這一切的煩惱;從貪瞋癡裏邊,又演變出來各式各樣的輕微的煩惱,都能夠消滅。saṃkleśa-pratipakṣaḥ katamaḥ/ yo dharmo bhāvyamānaḥ rāgavinayāya saṃvartate/ dveṣavinayāya mohavinayāya/ sarva-kleśopakleśa-vinayāya saṃvartate/
B. What is the adversary to defilement (samklesapratipaksa)? Whatever dharma being contemplated (or cultivated) that conduces to the taming of lust, conduces to the taming of hatred, to the taming of delusion, to the taming of all defilements and secondary defilements.

3)不違法相者,謂翻違法相,當知即是不違法相。
[]什麼是不違法相?違法相把它翻過來,就叫做不違法相。lakṣaṇāvirodhaś katamaḥ lakṣaṇa-virodha-viparyayeṇa lakṣaṇāvirodho draṣṭavyaḥ/
C. What is the compatibility with the characteristic (of certainty) (laksanavirodha)? One should observe compatibility with the characteristic as the opposite of incompatibility with the characteristic.

何等名為違法相耶?謂於無相增為有相。如執有我、有情、命者、生者等類,或常或斷,有色無色,如是等類。或於有相減為無相。
[]什麼是違背佛法的道理,與佛法的道理、相貌不符合?就是本來是無相,加上一個有相,說這是佛法,這就違背佛法無相的道理。譬如說無我相,無我相、無人相、無衆生相、無壽者相,這就是無相。但是卻執著,在色受想行識裏面,有一個我。有情,就是在眼識、耳識、鼻識、舌識、身識、意識中有一個我。命者,就是現在這個生命體裏面有個我。生者等,有這個我,能發出來作用,或者作善事,或者是作惡事,或者是修學聖道。或者說色受想行識不是我,另外有常恒住的我,色受想行識死掉,我還是常住,這就是常見。或者認爲色受想行識就是我,但是色受想行識老病死,就沒有,就中斷,這是斷滅見。或者執著這個我是有色的,執著地水火風生理的組識,這個是我。或者執著這個我是沒有形色,這是執受想行識是我,或者執識爲我,那麼就是無色。就像這一類,就是違背法相。或者是有相的,又減爲無相。佛法是說一切法都是緣起,有善因就有善果,有惡因就有惡果;修學聖道,就會得聖道,得沙門果證;不修學聖道,就沒有。這些緣起,不是沒有,所以叫做有相。lakṣaṇa-virodhaś katamaḥ/ yathāpi tad asati lakṣaṇe salakṣaṇaṃ samāropayati/ tadyathā ātmā vā sat(t)vo vā jīvo vā jantur vety evam ādi/ śāśvato vā ucchidyate/ rūpī vārūpī vety evam ādi ca/
What is incompatibility with the characteristic ? As follows: "When there is no characteristic, one attributes (or superimposes) possession of a characteristic, to wit, self, or sentient being, or living being, or progenitor, and so on; that it is eternal though cut off, or that it has form though formless, and so forth.

或於決定,立為不定。如一切行皆是無常,一切有漏皆性是苦,一切諸法皆空無我,而妄建立一分是常,一分無常;一分是苦,一分非苦;一分有我,一分無我。於佛所立不可記法,尋求記別,謂為可記,或安立記 。
[]或是對於決定,卻立爲不決定,違背佛法的決定相。如一切有爲法,都是無常變易。一切有漏本身體性,就是苦惱。一切諸法都是空、無我。這樣的說法是決定,是一向。但是有人自作聰明,對於一切行皆是無常,卻分別說:發出來的作用是無常,體性是常。對於一切有漏皆性是苦,卻分別說:一分是苦,一分非苦。佛陀說一切諸法都是空、無我,卻分別說:一分是有我,一分是無我。對於佛陀所安立,這些問題是不回答,不加解釋。但是,卻在這裏面觀察思惟,認為還是可以解釋,可以去說明的。佛說不可記,就認爲可以記、可以講。可以記,就安立種種的名言,爲人解釋。
《披尋記》五五八頁:
於佛所立不可記法等者:謂有問言:世間常耶?此不應記,但言我說此不可記。乃至問言:如來死後有耶?無耶?此不應記,但言我說此不可記。如(決擇分)說。(陵本六十四卷七頁)如是等類,名佛所立不可記法。於如是事不如理思,謂為可記。或為他說,名安立記。sati lakṣaṇa ekāntiko 'naikāntikatāṃ vyavasthāpayati/ tadyathā anityāḥ sarva-saṃskārāḥ duḥkhāḥ sarva-sāśravāḥ sarva-dharmā anātmanaḥ ayaṃ caikatyaṃ nityaṃ vyavasthāpayati/ ekatyam anityam/ ekatyaṃ duḥkhaṃ vyavasthāpayati/ ekatyam aduḥkham/ ekatyam ātmā vyavasthāpayati/ ekatyam anātmā/ tathā yāny avyākṛtavastūni bhagavatā vyavasthāpitani/ ekāntena teṣāṃ vyākaraṇaṃ/ paryeṣate/ vyākaraṇataś ca vyavasthānaṃ pratyeti/
When there is the characteristic, though it is certain one posits uncertainty; to wit, (it is certain), All constructions are impermanent," "All fluxional things have suffering," "All natures (dharma) are devoid of self." And while this is (so), one posits certain (constructions) as permanent, and certain ones as impermanent; posits certain (fluxional things) to have suffering, and certain ones to lack suffering, posits certain (natures) to have a self, and certain ones to lack a self. Likewise, among which things the Lord established indeterminate given things (avyakrtavastuni), one searches for their determination byway of certainty; and trusts the establishment that is due to a determination.

或於不定,建立為定。如執一切樂受,皆貪所隨眠,一切苦受,瞋所隨眠,一切不苦不樂受,癡所隨眠;一切樂受,皆是有漏,一切樂俱故思造業,一向決定受苦異熟,如是等類。
[]或者說這件事是不肯定,但卻認爲是決定,就違背佛陀的意思。如固執的認爲一切的樂受,都是貪心在活動,增長貪心的隨眠種子。固執的認爲一切的苦受,瞋所隨眠。固執的認爲一切的不苦不樂受,愚癡的心在動,熏習它的種子。又執著樂受都是有煩惱。心裏面快樂的時候,心和樂在一起,主動的、歡喜、計劃,然後採取行動做一件事,這樣子造業。造生死業,決定得到一個苦惱的果報。一切樂受,一切苦受,一切不苦不樂受,是貪瞋癡所隨眠,這件事是不決定。怎麼不決定呢?若修四念處,樂受、苦受、不苦不樂受來的時候,有如理作意,就不會熏習貪瞋癡的煩惱,而是熏習戒定慧的功德,所以這地方不決定。若是不如理作意,樂受生起,貪心隨眠。苦受來的時候,就有瞋隨眠。不苦不樂受來,就有愚癡的隨眠。一切樂受皆是有漏,這個又不決定。若修如理作意,樂受可能不起煩惱。一切樂俱故思造業,一向決定受苦異熟,這也不決定。學習戒定慧,或者懺悔,或者修學止觀,觀一切法空、無我、無我所,就不是決定受苦報。雖然以前造過業,由現在正憶念止觀,或者懺悔,能轉變,不一定受苦報。anaikāntikam apy ekāntikena vyavasthāpayati/ tadyathā sarvasyāṃ sukhāyāṃ vedanāyāṃ rāgo 'nuṣeta iti/ sarvasyāṃ duḥkhāyāṃ dveṣaḥ/ sarvā sukhavedanā sāśravaikāntena sukheti/ sāṃcetanīyasya karmaṇaḥ/ ekāntena duḥkham eva vipākaṃ pratisaṃvedayatīti evam ādi/
C. (continued). One also posits what is not certain as certain, to wit, "Lust is enhanced through all pleasant feeling;" "Hatred (is enhanced) through all painful feeling;" "All pleasant feeling that is fluxional is, to be sure, pleasure;" "From volitional karma, to be sure, one reaps just suffering maturation;" and so on.

或於有相法中無差別相,建立差別,有差別相立無差別。如於有為無差別相,於無為中亦復建立;於無為法無差別相,於有為法亦復建立。如於有為無為,如是於有色無色、有見無見、有對無對、有漏無漏,隨其所應,皆當了知。
[]或是對於有相法中無差別相,建立差別。有相法,就是有爲法,有生、住、異、滅的相貌,就是有相。所有的有爲法,都是這樣,沒有不同,是無差別相,無常相。卻有人在有爲法上建立一個常住,無生、住、異、滅相。什麼是有差別相,立無差別?有爲法都是因緣所生,都是有生、住、異、滅;無爲法就是沒有生、住、異、滅,不是因緣所生,這樣無爲和有爲,是有差別。卻有人說,有爲和無爲無差別相。譬如說有爲法有生、住、異、滅;卻說這無爲法中也有生、住、異、滅。於無爲法裏邊是沒有生、住、異、滅的差別,但是在有爲法上,建立無爲法的相貌,沒有生、住、異、滅。如同在有爲、無爲,有這種違背法相的建立,這樣,有色法和無色法,也是有色中有無色,無色中有有色,使令這個法相混亂。有見中有無見,無見中還有有見;有對中有無對,無對中也有有對;有漏中有無漏,無漏中有有漏。隨其所應皆當了知,這樣使令法相不清楚,不分明。sati lakṣane yad aviśiṣṭalakṣanaṃ tad viśeṣato vyavasthāpayati/ tadyā viśiṣṭalakṣanaṃ tad aviśeṣato vyavasthāpayati/ tadyathā yat saṃskṛte viśiṣṭalakṣanaṃ tad asaṃskṛte 'pi vyavasthāpayati/ yad asaṃskṛte 'viśiṣṭalakṣanaṃ tat saṃskṛte 'pi vyavasthāpayati/ yathā saṃskṛtāsaṃskṛte evam rūpiṣv aṛupiṣu sanidarśeṣv anidarśaneṣu sapratigheṣv apratigheṣu sāśraveṣv anaśraveṣv ity evam ādi yathāyogam veditavyaṃ/
C. (continued). When there is a characteristic (of certainty), what is an unqualified characteristic one posits by way of a qualification; and what is a qualified characteristic one posits by way of nonqualification. For example, given a qualified characteristic in the case of a constructed (nature), one posits it also for a nonconstructed (nature). Or, given an unqualified characteristic in the case of an unconstructed (nature), one posits it also in the case of a constructed (nature). Just as in the cases of the constructed and the unconstructed (natures), so it also in the cases of those with form and those without form, those shown and those not shown, those impeding and those unimpeding, those with flux and those wihtout flux, and m forth, one may understand according to circumstances (the same improper attribution).

又於有相,不如正理立因果相。如立妙行,感不愛果,立諸惡行,感可愛果。
[]又,這些有爲法相,不如正理的建立因果的相貌。如安立修妙行,會招感不可愛的果報。建立做不合道理的事情,能得到可愛的果報。sati eva lakṣane 'yogapatitaṃ hetuphalato lakṣanaṃ vyavasthāpayati/ tadyathā sucaritasyāniṣṭaṃ phalaṃ duścaritasyeṣṭaṃ durākhyāte
C. (continued). Only when there is the (correct) characteristic, may one establish by way of cause and effect the characteristic that belongs to false (even-perverse) positions, e.g. that good conduct has an undesirable fruit, while bad conduct has a desirable fruit;

計惡說法、毘奈耶中,習諸邪行,能得清淨,於善說法、毘奈耶中,修行正行,謂為雜染。於不實相,以假言說立真實相,於真實相,以假言說種種安立。如於一切離言法中,建立言說,說第一義。如是等類,名違法相。與此相違,當知即是不違法相。是名正教。
[]執著惡說的法,惡說的毘奈耶中,就是不合乎正理的法和律,修學這樣不合道理的邪行,能夠得清淨。對於善說法、毘奈耶中,修行正行,卻認爲是雜染。對於虛妄的境界,以假的言說,不真實的話,說這是真實,這是第一義諦。對於佛所開導的真實相,卻以種種的言說,而安立。譬如在一切法中,可分兩類:一個是可以言說的,一個是沒有言說的。對於離言說法中,沒有名言,卻又建立言說,來說第一義。如是等類,名違法相。與前面相違反,應該知道,就是不違法相。這就是正教量。
dharmavinaye mithyāpratipattito viśuddhiṃ svākhyāte dharmavinaye samyakpratipattitaḥ/ saṃkleśaṃ vyavasthāpayati/ apariniṣpanne lakṣane prajñaptivādena pariniṣpannaṃ lakṣanaṃ/ prajñaptivādena vyavasthāpayati/ tadyathā nirabhilapyeṣu sarvadharmeṣu/ abhilāpataḥ paramārtha-vyavasthānaṃ/ ity evaṃbhāgīyo lakṣana-virodho veditavyaḥ/ etad viparyayeṇāvirodhaḥ/ ayam ucyate/ lakṣanāvirodho 'yam ucyate āptāgamaḥ/
that in the badly expressed dharma and vinaya there is purity through deviant accomplishment, while in the well-expressed dharma and vinaya one establishes defilement through right accomplishment.
C. (concluded). When the characteristic is not perfect according to the position of worldly convention, one establishes it as a perfect characteristic according to the position of worldly convention, e.g. given that all dhartttas are inexpressible, (claiming) there is the absolute (paramartha) establishment (taking them) in terms of expression. Whatever agrees with this category (as illustrated by the foregoing wayward and/or perverse examples) should be understood as incompatible with the (correct) characteristic. The compatibility which is its opposite is said to be the compatibility with the characteristic (of certainty). The foregoing is said to be the lineage of the masters.

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