2013年6月14日 星期五

聞所成地-4.因明處--4.3.論所依---4.3.8.現量


4.3.8.現量
現量者,謂有三種,一、非不現見;二、非已思應思;三、非錯亂境界。
[]什麼是現量?有三種,一、非不現見,這叫做現量。二、非已思應思,叫做現量。三、非錯亂境界,叫做現量。什麼是量?有兩個意思:一個意思以它爲準,合乎這個標準,那就是對,不合乎這個標準,那就是不對。第二個意思,量是知的意思,一切法裏面,這個心法它有知的作用,其他的一切法沒有知的作用,而這個知若是屬於現量的知,那就是屬於這個現量。pratyakṣaṃ katamat yad aviparokṣam anabhyūhitam anabhyūhyam avibhrāntam ca/
What is direct perception (pratyaksa)? What is not out-of-sight,not already inderred and not to be inferred, and non-delusory.

4.3.8.1.非不現見現量
非不現見現量者,復有四種,謂諸根不壞,作意現前,相似生故;超越生故;無障礙故;非極遠故。
[]什麼是非不現見現量?復有四種的不同。哪四種呢?眼識現前,要眼根不壞,還要有所緣境也合適,還要作意的心所去警覺它,這時候眼識才現前。相似生故,超越生故,無障礙故,非極遠故。aviparokṣaṃ katamat yac caturbhir ākārair veditavyam aparibhinnendriye pratyupasthite manaskāre 'nurūpotpattitaḥ samatikramopattito 'nāvaraṇato 'viprakarṣataś ca/
A. What is the not out-of-sight (aviparoksa)? It is to be understood by four aspects. Given that the senses are unimpaired and that attention ( manaskara) is present, it is A-1, because of occurrence in conformity; A-2, because of occurrence with transcendence; A-3, because of lack of obscuration; A-4, because of accessibility.

1)相似生者,謂欲界諸根於欲界境,上地諸根於上地境,已生、已等生,若生、若起,是名相似生。
[]什麼是相似生?就是欲界的人的眼、耳、鼻、舌、身的根,在欲界的色、聲、香、味、觸的境界上相對。色界是欲界以上的境界,他們的眼根、耳根、鼻根、舌根、身根,對他們的境界。識已生起,眼識生起見色,耳識生起聞聲音,乃至身識生起感覺到有觸,有觸覺,叫已生。已等生,是相續生,前一念生以後刹那滅,但是又相續的一刹那又現起,叫做相續生。若生,就是根沒有壞,依根而生起識,這叫生。若起,這個識的生起,還要依止作意,才能生起。若是識依根生,若是識依作意而起,這個識生起,是名相似生。就是欲界的根於欲界的境界,彼此是相似的;這個上地的諸根於上地的境界,彼此是相稱的,那麼就叫做相似生。anurūpotpattiḥ katamā kāmāvacarasyendriyasya kāmāvacaro viṣayaḥ ūrddhvabhūmikasyendriyasya ūrddhvabhūmiko viṣayo ya utpannaḥ samutpanno jātinirvṛttaḥ so 'nurūpotpattir ity ucyate/
A-1. What is occurrence in conformity ( anurupotpatti)? The realm ranging in desire for the senses ranging in desire, the realm of those in higher stages for the senses of those in higher stages, which has arisen, arisen together, been fulfilled in its jati (common origin). This is said to be occurrence in conformity.

2)超越生者,謂上地諸根,於下地境,已生等,如前說,是名超越生。
[]什麼是超越生?就是色界天的人,眼耳鼻舌身諸根,於欲界的境界相對,這五識
也會生起來。這個時候,或者已生,或者已等生,若生若起,但是這是叫做超越生,因爲上地的根,是超越這個境界。另一種是欲界的人,得到色界定,入定的時候,五根就有色界的四大,眼耳鼻舌身都不是欲界,這時候就等於是色界天的根,再去觀察欲界的色聲香味觸,這樣說也叫做超越生。
samatikramopattiḥ katamā ya ūrddhvabhūmikasyendriyasyādhobhūmiko viṣaya utpanna ity evam ādi samatikramopattir ity ucyate/
A-2. What is occurrence with transcendence (samatikramotpatti)? When the realm of those in lower stages has arisen for the senses of those in higher stages.

3)無障礙者,復有四種,一、非覆障所礙;二、非隱障所礙;三、非映障所礙;四、非惑障所礙。
[]什麼是無障礙?又有四種不同,一、非覆障所礙,二、非隱障所礙,三、非映障所礙,四、非惑障所礙。這個現量,要沒有這麼多的障礙才可以。
anāvaraṇaṃ katamat tad api caturbhir ākārair veditavyam avacchādanīyenāvaraṇenāntardhāyanīyenābhibhavanīyena saṃmohanīyenāvaraṇena yad anāvṛtaṃ tad anāvṛtam ity ucyate/
A-3. What is lack of obscuration ( anavarana)? It also has four aspects, namely, what is unobscured by an obscuration that veils, or by that which makes disappear, or that overpowers, or by those which confuse, are said to be unobscured.

覆障所礙者,謂黑闇、無明闇、不澄清色闇所覆障。
[]什麼是覆障所礙?眼所見的色有障礙,這時候是黑暗,肉眼不可以見,被障礙住。那個地方沒有日、月、星,也沒燈的光明,所見的色被障礙。不澄清色暗,就是不是特別的黑暗,譬如說太陽落下去,有高山遮住光的話,高山的影,就把這一片的大地遮住,這時候叫做不澄清色暗。不澄清色暗還是有多少明;無明暗就更重一點;黑暗是更重,就是有程度的不同。avacchādanīyam āvaraṇaṃ katamat/ tadyathā tamo 'ndhakāram avidyāndhakāraṃ rūpāntaraṃ cānaccham/
3a. What is the veiling obscuration ( avacchadaniya-avarana)? As follows---pitch-black darkness, darkness of nescience, and the unclearness [or lack of definition] within shape (or color).

隱障所礙者,謂或藥草力,或咒術力,或神通力之所隱障。
[]什麼是隱障所礙?或是藥草的力量,能使令身形隱沒。或者是咒術的力量。或神通力,能隱覆起來。antardhāyanīyam āvaraṇaṃ katamat/ tadyathā auṣadhibalaṃ vā mantrabalaṃ vārddhyanubhāvabalaṃ vā/
3b. What is the obscuration that makes disappear ( antardhayaniya-avarana)? As follows-the power of herbs, or the power of incantations, or the power of magical might.

映障所礙者,謂少小物爲廣多物之所映奪,故不可得。如飲食中藥,或復毛端,如是等類無量無邊。且如小光,大光所映,故不可得。所謂日光映星月等,又如月光映奪衆星。又如能治映奪所治,令不可得。謂不淨作意映奪淨相,無常、苦、無我作意映奪常、樂、我相,無相作意映奪一切衆相。
[]什麼是映障所礙?或者說這個東西少,或者這個東西小,爲廣大的東西,或者很多的東西所映奪,因此,看不到。如很少的藥,放在飲食裏面,就看不出來,就是映障所礙。或是微細毛的尖端,爲衆多物所障,也是看不清楚。這一類的事情太多,都屬於映障所礙。小小的光明,被大的光明奪去,所以就不見。就是日光的普照,就把星辰和月的光明奪去,就不明顯。又譬如月光映奪衆星,衆星辰的光也不顯現,只看見月亮的光明廣大。又如能對治的力量,能夠奪取所治的力量,使令所治的力量不見。就是不淨觀的作意,若不淨的相貌觀想出來的時候,就只看見不淨的境界,看不到清淨的境界。無常觀,對於常的執著就奪去。修苦的觀察,感覺到欲是樂的心情也沒有。修無我觀的作意,執著有我的這種錯誤,也就被奪去。若是得到禪定以後,修無相作意的時候,就能把一切相都排出去,心裏面就無相。abhibhavanīyam āvaraṇaṃ katamat/ tadyathā parīttaṃ prabhūtenābhibhūtam nopalabhyate bhojanapānī vā viṣaṃ keśāgram vā yad vā punar anyad evaṃbhāgīyaṃ/ tadyathā parīttatejā ugratejasābhibhuto nopalambhate/ ādityena vā candramasā vā/ tārakarūpāṇi/ tadyathā vipakṣeṇa pratipakṣo 'bhibhūto nopalabhyate/ aśubhāmanaskareṇa vā śubhatā anityaduḥkhānātma- manaskareṇa vā sukhatā animittamanaskareṇa vā sarvanimittāni/
3c. What is the obscuration that overpowers ( abhibhavaniya-avarana)? As follows-a tiny thing overpowered by a large thing, or not reaching food and drink, or the poison on a hair tip, or anything of the same category, to wit, a tiny radiance overcome by a fierce radiance and not apprehended, e.g. the forms of stars by the sun or moon; an adversary side (in the debate) overcome by the opponent and no longer apprehended; an appealing state by a mental orientation to the repulsive; a happy state by a mental orientation to impermanence, pain, and nonself; or any sign-source by a mental orientation to nonsign-sources.

惑障所礙者,謂幻化所作,或色相殊勝, 或復相似。或內所作,目眩、惛、夢、悶、醉、放逸,或復顛狂,如是等類,名為惑障。若不為此四障所礙,名無障礙。
[]什麼是惑障所礙?就是有幻術的人,會變化出來東西,令人迷迷糊糊,這是幻化所作。或者色相是特別的殊勝,其他的色相就被障礙。或者彼此相似,相似的境界。總而言之,幻化的境界,就是變化各式各樣的境界出來,用假變成真,像真的,以假亂真。或者是內四大不平衡的時候,人的生理有點混亂。目眩,就是看什麼東西,看的迷迷糊糊,眩亂。或者是惛昧,不覺知。或者是作夢,沒有的事情,看成是有,有的事情,看成是沒有。或者是悶覺,什麼都不知道。或者是醉,飲酒多,就醉。或者是因爲放逸,這個身體有大的變化。或復顛狂,神經錯亂。如是等類名爲惑障。若是五根對五境認識,沒有這四種障礙的時候,就叫做無障礙。就符合這現量的規則。saṃmohāvaraṇaṃ katamat/ tadyathā māyākarma rūpanimittaviśeṣo vānusādṛśyam vā ādhyātmaṃ vā pratyātmaṃ vā taimirikaṃ vā svapna-mūrcchā-māda-pramāda-unmādaś ceti/ yadvā punar anyat tv evaṃbhāgīyaṃ āvaraṇaṃ idam ucyate saṃmohāvaraṇaṃ/
3d. What is obscuration that confuses ( sammohavarana)? As follows---a work of illusion ( mayakarma), the diverse signsources of form, a similitude ( anusadrsya), the inferior ( adhyatma), what is back inside (pratyatma), cauls (of the eyes), sleep, faint, intoxication, heedlessness, derangement; or some other obscuration of the same cateyory. This is called the obscuration that confuses.

4)非極遠者,謂非三種極遠所遠。一、處極遠;二、時極遠;三、損減極遠。如是一切,總名非不現見,非不現故,名為現量。
[]什麼是非極遠?就是沒有三種極遠的那種遠。哪三種呢?一、處所的極遠,距離的很遠。二、時間上的極遠。三、損減的極遠,指極微色,分析地水火風的諸色法至最後邊,就叫做損減極遠。損減極遠太微細,不是五根識所能見。這樣,相似生、超越生、無障礙、非極遠,總合起來就叫做非不現見。不是不現前,若是不現前,不符合現量的含義,一定要現前,所以叫做現量。aviprakarṣaḥ katakaḥ trividhena viprakarṣeṇa yad aviprakṛṣṭaṃ deśaviprakarṣataḥ kālaviprakarṣato 'pacayaviprakarṣataś ca/ tad etat sarvam abhisamayasyāviparokṣam aviparokṣataḥ pratyakṣaṃ pramāṇaṃ draṣṭavyam/
A-4. What is accessibility ( aviprakarsa)? In consideration of three kinds of inaccessibility, there is accessibility, namely inaccessibility of place ( desaviprakarsa), inaccessibility of time ( kalaviprakarsa), and inaccessibility through metaphysical nature ( apacayaviprakarsa).
Taking together all those (kings of) 'not out-of-sight'for direct vision, one may observe the 'direct perception' authority by way of 'not out-of-sight'.

4.3.8.2.非已思、應思現量
非已思、應思現量者,復有二種。一、纔取便成取所依境,二、建立境界取所依境。
1)纔取便成取所依境者,謂若境能作,纔取便成取所依止。猶如良醫授病者藥,色香味觸,皆悉圓滿,有大勢力,成就威德。當知此藥,色香味觸纔取,便成取所依止,藥之所有大勢威德,病若未愈名為應思;其病若愈名為已思。如是等類,名纔取便成取所依境。
[]什麼是非已思應思現量?復有二種不同,一、纔取便成取所依境。二、建立境界取所依境。什麼是纔取便成取所依境?就是根識與境界一接觸的時候,叫做纔取。這個所取的境界,就成為根識的所依境。就是所緣境一接觸的時候,它就能作為根識的所緣境,根識就以此爲依止,爲所緣境。譬如良醫,授與能治病人的藥。這個藥有色,還有香,還有味,還有觸都具足,無所缺少。這個色香味觸的藥,有大勢力,因為有威力能夠治病。這個不是現見,吃藥以後,看看能不能治病才知道。但是色香味觸是現成。當知此藥色香味觸,纔取便成取所依止,就是這個意思,這個緣色香味觸的根識,那就是現量。藥之所有大勢威德,這一件事不是現見,爲什麼呢?那是要治病,才知道它有沒有大勢威德。若吃這個藥,病還沒有好,這時候就叫做應思。這個人有個希望未來能好。這個境界是在未來,不是現前的,它這個威德力是在未來。若吃藥以後,好的時候,大勢威德的力量,就顯現出來,這時候病痛好了,已經過去,名爲已思。已思和應思,這個境界都不是現前,不能說是現量。由於這非量,就顯示出來是現量,所以名纔取便成取所依境。
《披尋記》五五○頁:
猶如良醫授病者藥等者此中舉藥為喻:謂彼藥物,若受用已正消變時,名為纔取。即於爾時病勢損減增長安樂,是名取所依止。當知此中藥之色香味觸,為其所取;身受安樂,是其能取,由是喻成現量境界。病未愈時,此藥於病,名應思惟;病若愈已,此藥於病,名已思惟。唯是尋求推度境界,故非現量。anabhyūhitam anabhyūhyam pratyakṣaṃ katamat/ yo grahaṇamātraprasiddhopalabdhy- āśrayo viṣayaḥ/ yaś ca viṣayapratiṣṭhitopalabdhyāśrayo viṣayaḥ/ grahaṇamātraprasiddhopalabdhyāśrayo viṣayaḥ katamaḥ/ yo viṣayo grahaṇamātraprasiddhāyā upalabdher āśrayakṛtyaṃ karoti/ tadyathā bhiṣag āturāya bhaiṣajyaṃ dadyād varṇagandharasasparśasampannam mahāvīryavipākaprabhāvaṃ ca/ tasya varṇagandharasasparśā grahaṇamātraprasiddhāyā upalabdher āśrayabhūtā draṣṭavyā/ mahāvīryavipākaprabhāvas tv akṛta ārogyo 'nabhyūhyo bhavati/ kṛte 'nabhyūhita ity ayam evaṃbhāgīyo grahaṇamātraprasiddhopalabdhyāśrayo viṣayo veditavyaḥ/
B. What is direct perception that is not already inferred and not to be inferred? The sence object which is a basis for acknowledged apprehension consisting of perceiving-only; and the sense object which is a basis established for apprehension of the sense object.
B-l. What is the sense object which is a basis for acknowledged apprehension consisting of perceiving-only (grahanamatraprasiddho-palabdhyasrayo visaya)? The sence object which performs the function of apprehension acknowledged as perceiving-only, e.g. (Suppose) a physician would prescribe for an illness a medicine perfect in color, odor, taste, and touch, and having great effectiveness, result, and potency. Its color, odor, taste, and touch are observable as a basis by apprehension acknowledged as perception-only. Given that there are the great effectiveness, result, and potency-still, before being brought about, health is not to be inferred; and after being brought about, is not already inferred. And one should understand the sense object that is the basis of apprehension acknowledged as preceiving-only to be of like category.

2)建立境界取所依境者,謂若境能為建立境界取所依止。
[]什麼建立境界取所依境?這個境界原來是沒有,現在才建立,現在才出現這個境界。怎麼出現的呢?是取,就是內心裏面的這個想,把這個境界想出來,所以稱為建立境界的取。取建立這個境界之後,這個境界又能夠爲這個取作所依止,又作它攀緣的地方。
《披尋記》五五○頁:
若境能爲建立境界取所依止者:想所取相,此名爲境;能取境想,此名為取。
[]若境能爲建立境界取所依止者,內心的想所攀緣的相貌,就叫做所緣境。能取境界的想叫做取,所想的叫做境。viṣayapratiṣṭhitopalabdhyāśrayo viṣayaḥ katamaḥ/ viṣayapratiṣṭhitāyā upalabdher āśrayakṛtyaṃ karoti /
B-2. What is the sense object which is a basis established for apprehension ofa sense object ( visayapratisthitopalabdhyasrayo visaya)? The one that performs the function of a basis for apprehension which is established upon the sense object.

如瑜伽師於地,思惟水、火、風界。若住於地,思惟其水,即住地想,轉作水想。若住於地,思惟火風,即住地想,轉作火風想。此中地想,即是建立境界之取。地者即是建立境界取之所依。如住於地、住水火風,如其所應,當知亦爾。是名建立境界取所依境。
[]譬如修禪坐的人,在三摩地裏邊以地爲所緣境,已經現前。又去思惟水、思惟火、
思惟風界這四界。若這個禪師,安住在地界,但是又轉變思惟起水。那就是在三摩地,先安住在地的所緣境,然後勝解力又轉變,去想水。住地想,地已經現前,是現前的境界,這是現量。住在地想去想水的時候,初開始想,水還沒現前,那不是現量,因爲這境界沒現前。若住於地,思惟火風,這樣子即住地想,轉變成火想,轉變成風想。這個地想是建立境界之取。這個取,能把那個境界建立出來,能把它想出來,又是以此爲依止。這個地是取想所現,而又爲想之所依,這個時候就叫做現量。如住於地是這樣子,住水火風,如其所應,當知也是這樣子。是名建立境界取所依境。
tadyathā yogācārsya pṛthivyām āpastejovāyudhātūn abhyūhya pṛthivīm āpo 'dhimucyamānasya pṛthivīsaṃjñaivāvatiṣṭhate vyāvartate/ āpsaṃjñā pṛthivītejovāyum adhimucyamānasya pṛthivīsaṃjñaivāvatiṣṭhate vyāvartate/ tejovāyusaṃjñā tasya yā pṛthivīsaṃjñā sā viṣaya-pratiṣṭhitā upalabdhiḥ/ yā pṛthivī sā viṣaya-pratiṣṭhitāyā upalabdher āśrayaḥ yathā pṛthivī evam āpastejovāyur yathāyogaṃ draṣṭavyaḥ/ ayam ucyate viṣaya-pratiṣṭhitāyā upalabdher āśrayo viṣayaḥ/
To wit-When there is the yoga-practitioner's inferring of water, fire, and wind element in earth; then may that one (mentally) change the earth to water, still. just the idea of earth persists while the idea of water goes away. And may one (mentally) change the earth into fire or wind, still just the idea of earth persists while the idea of fire or wind goes away. Whatever is one's idea of earth, it is an apprehension founded on the (actual) sense object. Whatever is earth (as an object), it is a basis of the apprehension founded upon a sense object. Just as is earth, so also water, fire, and wind are to be observed according to the circumstance. This is said to be a sense object which is the basis of an apprehension founded upon a sense object. And it (the sense object) is not already inferred and not to be inferred. But the elements are to be inferred when the (mental) change of them still has not succeeded, and were already inferred when the (mental) change of them has succeeded.

此中建立境界取所依境,非已思惟,非應思惟。地等諸界,解若未成,名應思惟;解若成就,名已思惟。
[]這個建立境界取所依境,不是已思惟,也不是應思惟,所以就叫做現量。地水火風諸界,在入定的時候,這個境界是沒有。由毘缽捨那的勝解力,想出來。勝解的力量還沒成就的時候,名應思惟。繼續想,才現出來,叫做已思惟,就是過去。由應思惟、已思惟的非量,就顯示出來那個非應思、非已思的現量的相貌,如是名爲非已思應思現量。就是境界現前,而心裏面沒有名言,這個時候叫做現量。
《披尋記》五五○頁:
修瑜伽者,於三摩地所行境界中,由種種想安立諸相以為所緣,是故彼想,名建立境界取;境事為依取方得生,是故彼境,名為取所依止。
[]坐禪的人,在三摩地的境界裏,由種種想安立諸相以爲所緣,本來沒有這種事情,就是心安立這個所緣境,這個境界是取所建立,也就是想所建立。而這個境事,就是所建立的這個境界的因緣事,這個事作依止,這能緣的想才能現起,也就是能觀察的想,才能生起。是故彼境,名爲取所依止。asau 'nabhyūhito 'nabhyūhyaḥ/ dhātavas tv aniṣpannāyām adhimuktāv abhyūhyā vidyanata iti/ niṣpannāyām tv abhyūhitā/ idam ucyate 'nabhyūhitam anabhyūhyam/ pratyakṣaṃ pramāṇam/
The foregoing is said to be the 'direct perception' authority as not already inferred, and not to be inferred.

4.3.8.3.非錯亂境界現量
非錯亂境界現量者,謂或五種,或七種。五種者,謂非五種錯亂境界。何等為五?一、想錯亂;二、數錯亂;三、形錯亂;四、顯錯亂;五、業錯亂。七種者,謂非七種錯亂境界。何等為七?謂即前五,及餘二種遍行錯亂,合為七種。何等為二?一、心錯亂,二、見錯亂。
[]什麼是非錯亂境界現量?沒有錯亂的境界,那時候才算是現量。或者說五種,或者說七種。五種不是錯亂的境界。哪五種呢?一、想錯亂,二、數錯亂,三、形錯亂,四、顯錯亂,五、業錯亂這是五種錯亂。七種不是錯亂境界。哪七種?和前面五個一樣,剩餘的還有兩種,就是遍行錯亂。哪二種呢?一、心錯亂,二、見錯亂。
avibhrānto viṣayaḥ pratyakṣaṃ katamat/ tat pañcavidhaṃ draṣṭavyaṃ saptavidhaṃ vā/ pañcavidhaṃ katamat pañcavidhā bhrāntiḥ pañcavidhā bhrāntiḥ katamā saṃjñābhrāntiḥ saṃkhyābhrāntiḥ saṃsthānabhrāntiḥ/ varṇabhrāntiḥ/ karmabhrāntiś ca/ saptavidhā bhrāntiḥ katamā asyām eva pañcavidhāyāṃ bhrāntau sarvatragaṃ dvividhaṃ bhrāntir miśrayitvā saptavidhā bhrāntir bhavati dvividhā bhrāntiḥ katamā cittabhrāntir dṛṣṭibhrāntiś ca/
C. What is the direct perception when the sense object is nondelusory? [Not] the five kinds, or the seven kinds. What are the five kinds? There are five kinds of delusion ( bhranti), namely, delusion of idea, delusion of number, delusion of shape, deusion of color, delusion of activity. What are the seven kinds of delusion? There are two delusions that pervade the five kinds. When one adds (to the list) the two kinds of delusion, there are seven kinds. The two kinds of delusion are delusion of thought and delusion of view.

1)想錯亂者,謂於非彼相,起彼相想。如於陽焰、鹿渴相中,起於水想。
[]什麼是想錯亂?不是那件事的相貌,但是生起來是那件事的相貌。就像陽焰似的,鹿渴,看見陽焰,而認爲是水。saṃjñābhrāntiḥ katamā/ yā 'tallakṣaṇā tatsaṃjñā tadyathā marīcikānimittāyāṃ mṛgatṛṣṇikāyām āpsaṃjñā/
C-1. What is delusion of idea ( samjnabhranti)? Any idea of something where there is no such characteristic; for example, the idea of water when there is the fancied appearance constituting a mirage-sign.

2)數錯亂者,謂於少數起多數增上慢。如醫眩者,於一月處見多月像。
[]什麼是數錯亂?對於少數,起多數的增上慢。如眼睛長白膜、眼睛花。對於天
上的月亮,看成是兩個,或者是多數的月亮。
saṃkhyābhrāntiḥ katamā/ yo 'lpe bahvabhimānaḥ/ tadyathā taimirikasya/ ekasmiṃś candre bahucandradarśanaṃ/
C-2. What is delusion of number (samkhyabhranti)? The false confidence ( abhimana) of numerous when there is few, for example, for the person with an eye-caul, to see many moons when there is one moon.

3)形錯亂者,謂於餘形色,起餘形色增上慢。如於旋火,見彼輪形。
[]什麼是形錯亂?對於其餘形相的顏色,發起另外的形色,這也是增上慢。譬如以火把旋轉的時候,別人看來好像是一圈光線。saṃsthānabhrāntiḥ katamā/ yo 'nyasaṃsthāne tadanyasaṃsthānābhimānaḥ/ tadyathā alāta-cakra-saṃsthānadarśanaṃ/
C-3. What is delusion of shape (samsthanabhranti)? The false confidence that there is a certain shape when there is a different shape: for example, to see the shape of the whirling fire-brand.

4)顯錯亂者,謂於餘顯色,起餘顯色增上慢。如迦末羅病 ,損壞眼根,於非黃色,悉見黃相。
[]什麼是顯錯亂?對於其餘的顯色,生起另一種顯色的增上慢。如黃病,損壞眼根,對於不是黃的顏色,都看見都是黃。varṇabhrāntiḥ katamā/ yo 'nyavarṇe tadanyavarṇābhimānaḥ/ tadyathā kāmalena yādhinopahitendriyasyāpīte rūpe pītarūpadarśanaṃ/
C-4. What is delusion of color ( varnabhranti)? The false confidence that there is a certain color when there is a different color; for example, the seeing of a yellow color when the color is not yellow, by a sense organ deceived ( upahita) by the 'yellow eye' illness.

5)業錯亂者:謂於無業事,起有業增上慢。如結拳馳走,見樹奔流。
[]什麼是業錯亂?就是沒有那件事,但是生起有那件事,這也叫做增上慢。如握著拳頭,很快的在跑,就看見好像樹在跑。karmabhrāntiḥ katamā/ yo 'karmake sakarmakatvābhimānaḥ/ tadyathā gāḍhaṃ muṣṭim ūrddhvadhārato vṛkṣānuvrajadarśanaṃ/
C-5. What is delusion of activity (karmabhranti)? The false confidence that there is activity when there is no activity; for example, to see a tree moving alongside while holding up a tight fist.

6)心錯亂者,謂即於五種所錯亂義,心生喜樂。
[]什麼是心錯亂?看見這五種反常的境界,心裏很歡喜。不知道這是錯亂的境界,不正常的境界,但是他心裏很歡喜。cittabhrāntiḥ katamā/ anayaiva pañcavidhayā bhrāntyā vibhrānte 'rthe cittabhrāntiḥ/
C-6. What is delusion of thought (cittabhranti)? The delight of consciousness in the entity mistaken by reason of precisely those five kinds (C-1 through-5) of delusion.

7)見錯亂者,謂即於五種所錯亂義,忍受顯說,生吉祥想、堅執不捨。若非如是錯亂境界,名為現量。
[]什麼是見錯亂?就是對於五種所錯亂的境界,接受這件事,然後把它很明顯的說出來,心裏面有個吉祥的想法,認爲這是很快樂的事情。執著的很堅固,不棄捨,認爲是對。若不是這樣錯亂的境界,就符合現量。dṛṣṭibhrāntiḥ katamā/ yā pañcavidhayaiva bhrāntyā vibhrānte 'rthe rocanā-dīpanā-vyavasthāpanā- maṅgala-saṃjñābhiniveśaḥ/
C-7. What is delusion of view (drstibhranti)? The idea of, and the clinging to satisfaction, stimulation, encouragement, and auspiciousness, in regard to the entity mistaken by reason of precisely those (same) five kinds of delusion.

4.3.8.4.問答
問:如是現量誰所有耶?
答:略說四種所有。一、色根現量;二、意受現量;三、世間現量,四;清淨現量。
[]問:這個現量是誰有的?誰有這個現量?答:四種情況有這個現量。一、色根的現量,就是前五色根,眼根、耳根、鼻根、舌根、身根有這個現量。二、意受現量,三、世間現量,四、清淨現量。tad etat pratyakṣaṃ kasya pratyakṣaṃ vaktavyaṃ/ samāsataś caturṇāṃ rūpīndriyaṃ pratyakṣaṃ mano 'nubhavapratyakṣaṃ lokapratyakṣaṃ śuddhapratyakṣaṃ ca/
Now this direct perception is a direct-perception concern of what? In short, of four, namely direct perception belonging to the formal sense organs, direct perception belonging to mental experience, direct perception belonging to the world, and pure direct perception.

1)色根現量者,謂五色根所行境界,如先所說現量體相。
[]什麼是色根現量?就是前五根都是有色根,第六根是非色根。這個五根所行境界,像前面說過的,這都是現量的體相。
《披尋記》五五二頁:
謂五色根所行境界等者:如先所說三現量中,諸根不壞,纔取便成取所依境,及非五種錯亂境界,是名色根現量體相。rūpīndriyapratyakṣaṃ katamat/ rūpiṇāṃ pañcānām indriyāṇāṃ yo gocaraviṣayo yathānirdiṣṭena pratyakṣalakṣaṇena/
a. What is direct perception belonging to the formal sense organs? The sense object(s) for ranging (or, scope) of the five formal sense organs, according to the characteristic of direct perception, as was pointed out.

2)意受現量者,謂諸意根所行境界,如先所說現量體相。
[]什麼是意受現量?意根所行境界,像前面說過的現量的體相,就是意根的現量。意根與境界相接觸,叫意受。
《披尋記》五五三頁:
謂諸意根所行境界等者:如先所說三現量中,作意現前建立境界取所依境,及非心見二種錯亂境界,是名意受現量體相。mano 'nubhavapratyakṣaṃ katamat/ yo manogocaro viṣayo yathānirdiṣṭena pratyakṣalakṣaṇena/
b. What is direct perception belonging to mental experience? The sense. object which is the range of mind, according to the characteristic of direct perception as was pointed out.

3)世間現量者,謂即二種,總說為一世間現量。
[]什麼是世間現量?就是色根現量,與意受現量,總合起來,就是世間的現量。
lokapratyakṣaṃ katamat/ tad ubhayam ekadhyam abhisaṃkṣipyaṃ lokapratyakṣaṃ ity ucyate/
c. What is direct perception belonging to the world? Taking the foregoing two together as one, there is 'direct perception belonging to the world'.

4)清淨現量者,謂諸所有世間現量,亦得名為清淨現量。或有清淨現量,非世間現量。謂出世智於所行境,有知為有,無知為無;有上知有上,無上知無上,如是等類,名不共世間清淨現量。
[]什麼是清淨現量?世間上的現量,也可以名爲清淨現量。因爲這個善、無記,就可以名之爲清淨,染污就不能說是清淨。或有清淨現量,不是世間現量,就叫做出世間的現量。成就出世間的無漏的智慧,在所緣境的時候,有知爲有,無知爲無;有上知有上,無上知無上,那個無分別境界是現量。如是等類,名不共世間清淨現量。
śuddhapratyakṣaṃ katamat/ yat tu tal lokapratyakṣaṃ śuddhapratyakṣaṃ api tat/ syāt tu śuddhapratyakṣaṃ na lokapratyakṣaṃ yo lokottarasya jñānasya gocaraviṣayo/ sac ca sato 'sac cāsataḥ sottaraś ca sottarataḥ/ asādhāraṇaṃ laukikaiḥ/ idam ucyate pratyakṣaṃ pramāṇam/
d. What is pure direct perception? There is a pure direct perception that is the foregoing direct perception belonging to the world. But there can be a pure direct perception that is not a direct perception belonging to the world, namely the sense object which is the range of supramundane knowledge. And the knowledge of the existence of the existent, the nonexistence of the nonexistent, the superiority of what is superior, is the 'direct perception authority' not shared by worldlings.

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