2013年6月17日 星期一

聞所成地-4.因明處--4.4.論莊嚴


4.4.論莊嚴
4.4.1.五種
論莊嚴者,略有五種,一、善自他宗;二、言具圓滿;三、無畏;四、敦肅;五、應供。
[]什麼是論莊嚴?簡單說有五種的莊嚴。哪五種?一、善自他宗,二、言具圓滿,三、無畏,四、敦肅,五、應供。vādālaṃkāraḥ katamaḥ/ sa pañcavidho draṣṭavyaḥ/ tadyathā svaparasamayajñatā/ vākkaraṇasampannatā/ vaiśāradyaṃ sthairyaṃ dakṣiṇyaṃ ca/
IV. THE DEBATE'S ORNAMENT
There are five kinds of ornament of the debate: A. Knowledge of one's and the other's context, B. Accomplishment of speech art, C. Confidence, D. Control, E. Nobility.

1)善自他宗者,謂如有一,若於此法、毘奈耶中,深生愛樂,即於此論宗旨,讀誦受持,聽聞思惟,純熟修行,已善、已說、已明 。若於彼法、毘奈耶中不愛不樂,然於彼論宗旨,讀誦受持,聞思純熟,而不修行,然已善、已說、已明。是名善自、他宗。
[]什麼是善自他宗?譬如說有一個人,若對於佛說的法和律,深深的有歡喜心。對於佛說的這個法和律的宗旨,讀誦它的文,還受持它的義。聽別人講解學習,自己內心還要專精思惟。道理純熟的時候,在奢摩他中用功修行。讀誦、受持就是已善,聽聞、思惟就是已說,純熟修行就是已明。若是對於外道、一切世間的學說,不愛樂,不歡喜。然而爲度化衆生,對於彼論也要讀誦、受持,聞思、純熟,但是不依彼而修行。然而對此,也能善巧的通違,也能宣說,也知道它是有過失。是名善巧自宗、他宗。svaparasamayajñatā katamā/ yathāpīhaikatyasya yo dharma-vinayaḥ/ abhirucito bhavaty asayābhipretaḥ/ tatra śāstre samaye siddhānte pāṭhato prītitaḥ śravaṇataḥ cintanataḥ paripākataḥ pratipattitaś ca/ kṛtakuśalo bhavati/ kṛtabhāṣyaḥ kṛtavidyaḥ/ yo vā punar dharma-vinayaḥ nābhipreto bhavati/ nābhirucitaḥ/ tatra paraśāstre parasamaye parasiddhānte pāṭhato prītitaḥ śravaṇataś cintanataḥ paripākato no tu pratipattitaḥ kṛtakuśalo bhavati/ kṛtabhāṣyaḥ kṛtavidyaḥ/ iyam ucyate svaparasamayajñatā/
A. What is knowledge of one's own and the other's context (svapara- samayajnata)? Now, there is someone here whom the doctrine-discipline (dharma-vinaya) has attracted and delighted; whohas made oneself skilled, made for oneself the words, made for oneselfthe knowledge, in the treatise, the context, the special tenets-through rehearsal, satisfaction in, hearing, pondering, getting mature in, and accomplishing. And there is someone else here whom the doctrine-discipline has not attracted or delighted; who has not made oneself skilled, or made for oneself the words, or made for oneself the knowledge, in the treatise of the other, the context of the other, the special tenets of the other-through rehearsal, satisfaction in, hearing, pondering, getting mature in, and accomplishing. This is called the knowledge of one's own and the other's context.

2)言具圓滿者,謂如有一凡有所說,皆以其聲,不以非聲。何等為聲?謂具五德、乃名為聲。一、不鄙陋;二、輕易;三、雄朗;四、相應;五、義善 。不鄙陋者,謂離邊方、邊國鄙俚言詞。輕易者,謂有所說,皆以世間共用言詞。雄朗者,所謂依義建立言詞,能成彼義,巧妙雄壯。相應者,謂前後法義,相符不散。義善者,謂能引發勝生、定勝,無有顛倒。
[]什麼是言具圓滿?辯論的時候,說的語言,無所缺少,能顯示出圓滿的道理。就是有一位很有學識,所有說出來的語言,皆以其聲,而不以非聲。什麼叫做聲呢?他的語言的音聲,具足五種功德,才叫做聲。哪五種呢?一、不鄙陋,二、輕易,三、雄朗,四、相應,五、義善。什麼是不鄙陋?與對方辯論的時候,發出來的語言,沒有邊地、邊國的粗俗語言。什麼是輕易?他有所說的語言,就是世間上通行,大家共同使用的這種語言,大家容易明白,所以叫做輕易。什麼是雄朗者?就是根據道理,發出語言,用這樣的語言,來成立所建立的道理。這個語言、這個道理非常的巧妙、善好,很有力量,很堅定,不可動搖。什麼是相應?就是前一段說的法、義,後一段的法、義,都是互相符合,有組識,有次第。什麼是義善?所說的義,也是特別好。有兩種好處:一個是能引發勝生,就是增上生道。一個是能引發定勝,就是決定勝道,不會引發出來錯誤的思想。vākkaraṇasampannatā katamā/ yathāpīhaikatyaḥ śabdena vaktā bhavati/ nāpaśabdaiḥ/ śabdaḥ katamaḥ pañcabhir guṇair yukto veditavyaḥ/ agrāmyo bhavati/ laghur bhavati/ tejasvī bhavati/ sambadho bhavati/ svarthaś ca bhavati/ katham agrāmyo bhavati/ kudeśarāṣṭra-kujanapada-bhāṣāvarjanatayā/ kathaṃ laghur bhavati/ loka-pratīyayuktatara-bhāṣā-prayuktayā/ kathaṃ tejasvī bhavati/ yasyārthakathā viprakṛta bhavati/ tasyārthasya siddhaye suprayukta- balavattayā/ kathaṃ sambaddho bhavati/ paurvaparyeṇa dharmārtha- viśiṣṭatayā/ kathaṃ svartho bhavati/ abhyudayaṃ niḥśreyasaṃ cārabhyāviparyastatayā/
B. What is accomplishment of speech arts (vakkaranasampannata)? Now, someone here has become a speaker with words, avoiding vulgar words. Speech here should be understood as endowed with five merits: It is not rustic, (rather) of easy style, inspired, coherent, and significant.
B-l. How is it nonrustic (agramya)? By being free from the expressions of a bad district or bad countryside, or bad country.
B-2. How is it of easy style (laghu)? By endowment with expressions current in the world and very fit.
B-3. How is it inspired (tejasvin)? Of which the discourse of meaning has begun (and is not yet completed), so as to perfect its meaning (namely,) by having the power of the well-expressed.
B-4. How is it coherent (sambaddha)? By a distinguished (or, preeminent) meaning of dharma in the sense of prior and posterior.
B-5. How is it significant (svartha)? Having started in an elevated and excellent manner, by not reversing (the standard).

又此聲論,由九種相,言具圓滿。一、不雜亂;二、不麤獷;三、辯了;四、限量;五、與義相應;六、以時;七、決定;八、顯了;九、相續。如是一切相,總名言具圓滿。
[]又這個聲論,由九種的相貌,令言語具足、圓滿。哪九種?一、不雜亂,二、不麤獷,三、辯了,四、限量,五、與義相應,六、以時,七、決定,八、顯了,九、相續。如是這九種相,加上五種功德,總名爲言具圓滿。tac caivaṃ śabdavādinaḥ navabhir ākāraiḥ sampannaṃ vā karaṇaṃ veditavyam/ anākulam asaṃrabdhaṃ/ gamakam mitam/ arthayuktaṃ kalena sthiraṃ dīptaṃ prabaddhaṃ ca/ tad etat sarvam abhisamasya vākkaraṇa-sampad ity ucyate/ iyam ucyate vākkaraṇa-sampat/
B-6. And the composition (karana) by the speaker of the words should be understood as peifect by nine aspects as follows: It is not confused (anakula), not violent (asamrabdha), understandable (gamaka), or proper length (mita), cogent (arthayukta), right-timed (kalana), held to the point (sthira), clear ( dipta), continuous (prabaddha). Taking all the foregoing together, there is 'accomplishment of speech arts'. This is called vakkaranasampat.

3)無畏者,謂如有一處在多眾、雜眾、大眾、執眾、諦眾、善眾等中,其心無有下劣憂懼,身無戰汗,面無怖色,音無謇吃,語無怯弱。如是說者,名為無畏。
[]什麼是無畏?譬如有一類人,在很多的人衆、雜衆、大衆、執衆、諦衆、善衆等中,其心沒有下劣的憂懼,身體也沒有恐怖,沒有戰汗,面容也沒有恐怖的容色,發出來的語言,也是很流利、很流暢,不會口吃,語言上也沒有怯弱的現象。如是說者,名爲無畏。
《披尋記》五六二頁:
處在多衆雜衆等者:如前已說六種處所,今應配釋:處多衆中,謂於大衆,如說四方人衆聚集處,名大集中故。(陵本八卷十一頁)處雜衆中,謂於樂法義者前。處大眾中,謂於王家,有大威力,名為大故。處執眾中,謂於執理家。處諦眾中,謂於賢哲者前。處善眾中,謂於善解法義沙門婆羅門前。其心無有下劣憂懼,謂意表業;身無戰汗,面無怖色,謂身表業;音無謇吃,語無怯弱,謂語表業。由此諸相,當知無畏。
vaiśāradyaṃ katamat/ yathāpīhaikatyo bahunaikāyikāyām api parṣadi vicitra-naikāyikāyām apy audārika-naikāyikāyām apy abhiniviṣṭanaikāyi- kāyām api sabhā-naikāyikāyām api kuśala-naikāyikāyām api/ alīnacittaḥ/ adīnacittaḥ/ abhītacittaḥ/ asaṃsvinna-gātraḥ/ apāṇḍumukhaḥ/ agadgada- svaraḥ/ ahīna-vākyo vācam udāharati/ idam ucyate vaiśāradyam/
C. What is confidence (vaisaradya)? Now, there is here someone who, in an assembly, whether in a large group, or in a variegated group, or in a coarse group, or in a group of determined persons, or in a group of official gathering, or in a group of experts (on the topic), utters words with one's mind not timid, mind not depressed, mind not fearful, body not perspiring, face not turning pale, without stammering, without a loss for words. This is called 'confidence'.

4)敦肅者,謂如有一,待時方說,而不嚵速 ,是名敦肅。
[]什麼是敦肅?就是有一個智慧的人,在大衆裏,等待那個時候,才說話,而且不會打斷別人的話。說話的時候,慢慢的一句一句講,不要說太快。sthairyaṃ katamat/ yathāpīhaikatyaḥ kālaprāpto 'tvaramāṇo vācaṃ bhāṣate/ na tvaramāṇaḥ/ idam ucyate sthairyam/
D. What is control (sthairya)? Now, there is here someone who, the time having arrived (for speaking), speaks words that are not hasty. Being not hasty, this is called 'control'.

5)應供者,謂如有一為性調善,不惱於他,終不違越諸調善者,調善之地,隨順他心而起言說,以時如實能引義利,言詞柔軟如對善友,是名應供。
[]什麼是應供?如有一類人,性格調柔,不會惱亂人。若遇到另一個性格調柔,他
也不欺負別人。為何呢?因為心地調柔,能隨順他人的心意,而發出言論。隨順時機,說真實語,而且和善,向他說,就能夠有效果,引出功德。言詞柔軟,就像和一個好朋友,見面談話似。具足這樣的功德,說這個人真是好,我應該供奉、供養他。
《披尋記》五六二頁:
以時如實能引義利等者:(有尋有伺地)說:於邪舉罪時,有五種邪舉罪者:言不應時故,名非時語者;言不實故,名非實語者;言引無義故,名非義語者;言麤獷故,名非法語者;言挾瞋恚故,名非靜語者。(陵本八卷十三頁)今於此中,亦說五相,如次翻釋應知。dakṣiṇyaṃ katamat/ yathāpīhaikatyaḥ sūrato bhavati/ pareṣām aviheṭhana-jātīyaḥ/ sa yā sūratānāṃ sūratabhūmiḥ tāṃ nābhivṛtya paracittānivarttī vācaṃ bhāṣate/ tac ca kālena bhūtenārthopasaṃhitena ślakṣṇena mitravarttayā/ idam ucyate dakṣiṇyam/
E. What is nobility (daksinya)? Now, there is here someone who is kindly (surata), whose nature does not lend itself to scoff at others. Whatever be the level of kindness of kind people, one does not oppose it; and solicitous for the mind of the other, utters words in a manner timely, true, meaningful, gentle, and friendly. This is called 'nobility'.

4.4.2.二十七種稱讚功德
若有依此五論莊嚴興言論者,當知復有二十七種稱讚功德 。何等名為二十七種?一、眾所敬重;二、言必信受;三、處大眾中都無所畏;四、於他宗旨,深知過隙;五、於自宗旨,知殊勝德;六、無有僻執,於所受論情無偏黨;七、於自正法及毘奈耶,無能引奪;八、於他所說,速能了悟;九、於他所說,速能領受;十、於他所說,速能酬對;十一、具語言德,令眾愛樂;十二、悅可信解此明論者;十三、能善宣釋義句文字;十四、令身無倦;十五、令心無倦;十六、言不謇澀;十七、辯才無盡;十八、身不頓瘁;十九、念無忘失;二十、心無損惱;二十一、咽喉無損;二十二、凡所宣吐,分明易了;二十三、善護自心,令無忿怒;二十四、善順他心,令無憤恚;二十五、令對論者,心生淨信;二十六、凡有所行,不招怨對;二十七、廣大名稱,聲流十方,世咸傳唱,此大法師處大師數。
[]假設有這麼一個人,依此五種論的莊嚴,發出言論。應當知道還有二十七種的不同,來稱讚這個論莊嚴的功德。哪二十七種?
一、衆所敬重。為大家所敬重,雖尚未說話,但是大家恭敬。
二、言必信受。說的理論,大家容易接受、相信。
三、處大衆中,都無所畏。在大衆裏面,一點恐懼也沒有。
四、於他宗旨,深知過隙。對於他人所學習的這些學問,深深的知道它的過失。
五、於自宗旨,知殊勝德。對於自己所學習的佛法,知道是特別殊勝的地方,是一切外道,一切世間的知識所不能及的地方。
六、無有僻執,於所受論情無偏黨。就是沒有邪僻的執著,對於其他的人的學問,接受、領解以後,不要有偏愛,外道所說合理的地方,也應該承認。一定要公平,不能偏愛。
七、於自正法及毘奈耶,無能引奪。對於自己的佛法、律,所得到的見地,沒有人可以動搖。
八、於他所說,速能了悟。對於對方說出什麼話,很快的就明白。
九、於他所說,速能領受。對於對方說出什麼話,很快的就能掌握到、記得住。
十、於他所說,速能酬對。對於對方說出什麼話,很快的就能回答。
十一、具語言德,令衆愛樂。把對方的錯誤指出來,對方還感覺到你很愛護。
十二、悅可信解,此明論者。能信解這個智慧論。
十三、能善宣釋義句文字。能夠善巧的宣揚、解釋義句的文字。
十四、令身無倦。十五、令心無倦。
十六、言不謇澀。說出來的話,非常流暢。
十七、辯才無盡。
十八、身不頓蝁。身體不困乏委悴憔悴,沒有疲勞的樣子。
十九、念無忘失。記憶力特別強,不忘。
二十、心無損惱。心裏沒有損惱,對方怎麼樣不講道理,怎麼樣觸惱,心裏面平靜。
二十一、咽喉無損。
二十二、凡所宣吐,分明易了。宣說是容易明白。
二十三、善護自心,令無忿怒。能善巧的保護自己的心,不忿怒,平和。
二十四、善順他心,令無憤恚。能夠隨順對方的心情,也令對方不憤恚。
二十五、令對論者,心生淨信。使令對方能生出清淨的信心。
二十六、凡有所行,不招怨對。表現於外的身口,都不會引來怨恨。
二十七、廣大名稱,聲流十方,世咸傳唱,此大法師,處在師數。
asya khalu pañcavidhasya vāgālaṃkārasyaivaṃ viprakṛtasya saptaviṃśatir anuśaṃsā veditavyā/ katame saptaviṃśatiḥ/ saṃmatataro bhavati/ ādeyavacanataro bhavati/ parṣatsu nirbhayataro bhavati/ parasamaya- doṣajño bhavati/ svasamaya-viśeṣajño bhavati/ anabhiniviṣto bhavati/ apakṣarāgī śāstraparigraho bhavati/ svakād dharmavinayāt pareṇokte āśutaraṃ pratipadyate/ pareṇoktam āśutaram udgṛhnāti/ pareṇokte āśutaraṃ uttaram pratipadyate/ vāgguṇaḥ ca parṣadaṃ rañjayate/ tadvidyādhimuktaṃ cārādhayati/ niruktam artha-pada-vyañjanaṃ karoti/ avyathito bhavati/ kāyena; avyathito bhavati/ manasā vā/ na sajjate/ vadataḥ; na pratibhānaṃ paryādīyate/ na kāyaḥ klāmyati/ na smṛtir muṣyate/ na cittam upahanyate/ na kaṇṭhaṃ kṣiṇtoti/ vispaṣṭaṃ vijñeyaṃ bhavaty asya bhāṣitam/ ātmānurakṣī svayaṃ na kupyati/ paracittānuvarttī paraṃ na kopayati/ prativādinaś cittam abhiprasādayati/ avaira-sapatna- vartmanī pratipadaṃ pratipanno bhavati/ digvidikṣūdaro varṇakīrtiśabda- śloko 'bhyudgacchati/ mahācāryo mahācāryo iti saṃkhyaṃ gacchati vighuṣṭaśabdo bhavati loke/
Now, it should be recognized that of those five kinds of speech ornaments thus inaugurated (viprakrta ) there are twentyseven benefits. What are the twenty-seven? (1) In the assembly (parsatsu), one becomes more esteemed, receives nicer words. (2) One becomes completely fearless. (3) One knoes the faults of the other's context. ( 4) One knows the distinguishing character of one's own context. (5) One becomes not clinging. (6) One follows the sastra without attachment to a 'side'. (7-9) Out of one's own doctrine-discipline, one quickly understands when another speaks, is able to grasp quickly what is said by another, and is able to reply quickly when someone has spoken. (10-11) The speech merit charms the assembly, and gratifies those convinced of one's clear vision. (12) One composes words and sentences with good words that are certain in meaning. (13-14) One is not disturbed in body, and not disturbed in mind. (15) One is not impeded in speech. (16) One's eloquence is not exhausted. (17) One's body does not get weary. (18) One's memory does not fail. (19) One's mind is not afflicted. (20) One's throat does not grow slack. (21) One'sspf'cch is clear and comprehensible. (22) Guarding oneself, one is not stirred up. (23) Solicitous for another's mind, one does not anger the other person. (24) One instills belief in the opponent's mind. (25) One pursues a path that proceeds without enmity or rivalry. (26) One gains widespread words and verses of praise and fame in the cardinal and intermediate directions. (27) One becomes reckoned, gets resounding words in the world, "the great teacher the great teacher."

如受欲者,以末尼、真珠、琉璃等寶,廁環釧等寶莊嚴具以自莊嚴,威德熾盛光明普照;如是論者以二十七稱讚功德,廁此五種論莊嚴具以自莊嚴,威德熾盛,光明普照,是故名此為論莊嚴。是名論莊嚴。
[]就像在世間上享受五欲的人,用如意寶物,或者真珠琉璃等寶物,戴著環、釧等寶莊嚴具,莊嚴自己的身體。於是他的威德,更加倍的好、殊勝,尤如光明普照。如是論者,用二十七種值得稱讚的功德,參在那五種論莊嚴具裏面,以自莊嚴,威德熾盛,光明普照,是故名此爲論莊嚴,是名論莊嚴。tadyathā kāmopabhogī matṇi-mukti-vaiḍūryādiracitair harṣakaṭakakeyūrādibhir ābharaṇair atyarthaṃ bhāsate/ tapati virocayate/ evam eva vādy ebhiḥ sapta-viṃśaty- ānuśaṃsaiḥ pratyarpitena pañcavidhena vādālaṃkārenātyarthaṃ bhāsate tapati virocayate/ tasmād vādālaṃkāra ity ucyate/ ayam ucyate vādālaṃkāraḥ/
[The meaning of 'ornament' (alamkara]. For example, one enjoying pleasures shines, blazes, illumines even more with such adornments as necklace, wrist and arm bracelets that are studded with gems, pearls, lapis lazuli, and so on. Likewise, the first speaker (vadin) shines, blazes, illumines even more with the five kinds of debate ornaments that are fastened with the twenty-seven benefits. Therefore, one calls them 'debate ornaments'.

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