2012年11月17日 星期六

入行-8靜慮

第八靜慮品
一、勤勉修止
8.1
[梵] vardhayitvaivam utsāhaṃ samādhau sthāpayen manaḥ
vikṣiptacittas tu naraḥ kleśadaṃṣṭrāntare sthitaḥ // bca.8.1 //
[英譯] Upon developing zeal in that way, one should stabilize the mind in meditative concentration, since a person whose mind is distracted lives between the fangs of mental afflictions.
[天息災譯] 佛喜精進增,安住禪定意,愍彼散心人,煩惱芽間住。
[如石藏譯] 發起精進已,意當住禪定;心意渙散者,危陷惑牙間。
按照前一章的說法發起精進以後,接下來,就應該把心意安住禪定上;因為昏沉、掉舉而心意渙散的人,即使精進也會陷入煩惱巨獸的利齒之間,危機重重。
[梵文分析]
vardhayitvā evam utsāhaṃ samādhau sthāpayen manaḥ |
    增長已     如是     精進      禪定        應令住      意
vikṣipta-cittas tu naraḥ kleśa-daṃṣṭra-antare sthitaḥ ||
   渙散     心   然   人     惑        牙        中      住

8.2
[梵] kāyacittavivekena vikṣepasya na saṃbhavaḥ
tasmāl lokaṃ parityajya vitarkān parivarjayet // bca.8.2 //
[英譯] With bodily and mental seclusion, distraction does not arise. Therefore, upon renouncing the world, one should renounce discursive thoughts.
[天息災譯] 我今知身心,不生於散亂,是故遠世間,亦遠離疑惑。
[如石藏譯] 身心若遠離,散亂即不生;故應捨世間,盡棄諸俗慮。
如果身心遠離了塵囂和欲望,禪定的剋星——散亂就不會產生了;所以應該捨離俗家和親眷的牽纏,進而完全拋棄一切塵俗的思慮。
[梵文分析]
kāya-citta-vivekena vikṣepasya na saṃbhavaḥ |
  身     心     遠離         散亂      不       生
tasmāl lokaṃ parityajya vitarkān parivarjayet ||
    故     世間      已捨       諸尋       應捨

二、斷止逆緣要
(一)斷舍塵緣
1.認清貪著世間之因
8.3
[梵] snehān na tyajyate loko lābhādiṣu ca tṛṣṇayā
tasmād etat parityāge vidvān evaṃ vibhāvayet // bca.8.3 //
[英譯] On account of attachment and craving for gain and the like, one does not renounce the world. Thus, upon forsaking them, the wise should contemplate in this way.
[天息災譯] 利益行可愛,愛不離世間,智者乃思惟,是故此皆捨。
[如石藏譯] 貪親愛利等,則難捨世間;故當盡棄彼,隨智修觀行。
如果貪戀親友和愛著名利等俗事,那麼我們的內心就根本不可能捨離世間;所以我們應該仿效智者,完全捨離它們,並依循下面所說的原則去思惟修習。
[梵文分析]
snehān na tyajyate loko lābhādiṣu ca tṛṣṇayā |
    愛    不   被捨   世間     得等    與    貪
tasmād etat parityāge vidvān evaṃ vibhāvayet ||
    故     彼      棄         有智  如是       應修

2.如何斷除
(1)認清對治
8.4
[梵] śamathena vipaśyanāsu yuktaḥ kurute kleśavināśam ity avetya
śamathaḥ prathamaṃ gaveṣaṇīyaḥ sa ca loke nirapekṣayābhiratyā // bca.8.4 //
[英譯] Realizing that one who is well endowed with insight through quiescence eradicates mental afflictions one should first seek quiescence. Quiescence is due to detachment toward the world and due to joy.
[天息災譯] 依於奢摩他,尾缽奢曩等,如是而起行,破壞於煩惱,先求奢摩他,不藉世間行。
[如石藏譯] 有止諸勝觀,能滅諸煩惱。知已先求止,止由離貪成。
依靠禪定所生的勝觀才能滅盡煩惱的種子。明白這個道理以後,首先應當努力求得能令身心輕安的止,而想修成止,又須先使內心不貪著世間。
[梵文分析]
śamathena vipaśyanā-suyuktaḥ kurute kleśa-vināśam ity avetya |
      止              觀       善相應      作   煩惱       滅     謂   知已
śamathaḥ prathamaṃ gaveṣaṇīyaḥ sa ca loke nirapekṣayā abhiratyā ||
     止             先            應求       彼 與  世        不顧           喜

(2)生對治之法
Ⅰ、斷舍親友愛
(Ⅰ)思貪親友過患
8.5
[梵] kasyānityeṣv anityasya sneho bhavitum arhati
yena janmasahasrāṇi draṣṭavyo na punaḥ priyaḥ // bca.8.5 //
[英譯] For what impermanent person, who will not see his loved ones again in thousands of births, is it appropriate to be attached to impermanent things?
[天息災譯] 無常而恒有,於愛何得要,若見於千生,不復起愛著。
[如石藏譯] 自身本無常,猶貪無常人,縱曆百千生,不見所愛人。
須知:人的生命本來就十分短暫無常,如果再因為貪愛無常的親友而造罪,那麼縱使在惡道中轉生千百次,也沒有機會遇見任何他喜愛的人。
[梵文分析]
kasya anityeṣv anityasya sneho bhavitum arhati |
  誰       無常       無常       貪        是        應
yena janma-sahasrāṇi draṣṭavyo na punaḥ priyaḥ ||
  若      生         千         應見    不     復    所愛

8.6
[梵] apaśyann aratiṃ yāti samādhau na ca tiṣṭhati
na ca tṛpyati dṛṣṭvāpi pūrvavad bādhyate tṛṣā // bca.8.6 //
[英譯] Failing to see them, one does not find joy nor does one abide in meditative concentration. Even upon seeing them, one does not become satisfied but is tormented by strong desire, just as before.
[天息災譯] 不樂尾缽捨,亦不住等持,見已不止足,是患過去渴。
[如石藏譯] 未遇則不喜,不能入等至;縱見不知足,如昔因愛苦。
如果不能親近所愛的人,心裏就悶悶不樂;這樣,當然不能平穩地進入三摩地。即使見了面,也不會知足;因此,仍然像從前一樣,因不得所愛而痛苦不堪。
[梵文分析]
apaśyann aratiṃ yāti samādhau na ca tiṣṭhati |
   未見      不喜    趣     三昧     不 與    住
na ca tṛpyati dṛṣṭvā api pūrvavad bādhyate tṛṣā ||
不 與  知足   見已   雖     如昔       所苦      渴

8.7
[梵] na paśyati yathābhūtaṃ saṃvegād avahīyate
dahyate tena śokena priyasaṃgamakāṅkṣayā // bca.8.7 //
[英譯] One does not perceive reality and loses disillusionment with the cycle of existence. One is consumed by that grief-desire for the company of the beloved.
[天息災譯] 如實而不見,安得盡煩惱,意緣於愛集,被煩惱燒然。
[如石藏譯] 若貪諸有情,則障實性慧,亦毀厭離心,終遭愁歎苦。
如果貪著虛幻無常的有情,將會障蔽我們徹見諸法真實性的慧觀,也會破壞導向解脫的厭離心,最後只能淪落在三界中受苦。
[梵文分析]
na paśyati yathābhūtaṃ saṃvegād avahīyate |
不    見           如實            厭離         退
dahyate tena śokena priya-saṃgama-kāṅkṣayā ||
  被燒     此     憂      所愛     相遇        願求

8.8
[梵] taccintayā mudhā yāti hrasvam āyur muhur muhuḥ
aśāśvatena mitrena dharmo bhraśyati śāśvataḥ // bca.8.8 //
[英譯] Because of thinking of that person, life ever so swiftly passes in vain. Due to a transient entity, the eternal Dharma is lost.
[天息災譯] 思惟彼下墮,短命須臾住,善友不長久,堅固法不成。
[如石藏譯] 若心專念彼,此生將虛度;無常眾親友,亦壞真常法。
如果只知一心思念所愛的人,今生將毫無意義地虛度過去;而且終須別離的無常眾親友,還會破壞我們修證永恆真理的機緣。
[梵文分析]
tac-cintayā mudhā yāti hrasvam āyur muhur muhuḥ |
 彼     思      虛度   趣      短        壽    須臾   須臾
aśāśvatena mitrena dharmo bhraśyati śāśvataḥ ||
     無常         友        法          壞           常

8.9
[梵] bālaiḥ sabhāgacarito niyataṃ yāti durgatim
neṣyate viṣabhāgaś ca kiṃ prāptaṃ bālasaṃgamāt // bca.8.9 //
[英譯] One who acts in the same manner as foolish people definitely goes to a miserable state of existence. They do like someone who is different. What is gained from association with fools?
[天息災譯] 行與愚迷同,決定墮惡趣,何得同愚迷,以毒分牽故。
[如石藏譯] 行為同凡愚,必墮三惡趣;心欲赴聖境,何需近凡愚?
如果我們的作為和愚癡的凡夫一樣,那麼必定會墮向三惡趣;如果我們努力的目標是解脫的聖境,那麼又何必親近愚癡凡夫而增加逆緣呢?
[梵文分析]
bālaiḥ sabhāga-carito niyataṃ yāti durgatiṃ |
   愚         同     所行       必     墮     惡趣
na iṣyate viṣabhāgaś ca kiṃ prāptaṃ bāla-saṃgamāt ||
不    欲       不同      與  何      得      愚        相遇

8.10
[梵] kṣaṇād bhavanti suhṛdo bhavanti ripavaḥ kṣaṇāt
toṣasthāne prakupyanti durārādhāḥ pṛthagjanāḥ // bca.8.10 //
[英譯] One moment they are friends, and the next moment they are enemies. On an occasion for being pleased, they become angry. Ordinary people are difficult to gratify.
[天息災譯] 而於自眷屬,刹那獲怨恨,凡夫性異生,喜怒而無定。
[如石藏譯] 刹那成密友,須臾復結仇,喜處亦生瞋;凡夫取悅難!
情投意合的時候,刹那間成為密友;一不小心得罪了,須臾間又變成仇敵;對於本應歡喜信受的善行竟然也會不高興;唉!一般的凡夫真難侍候啊!
[梵文分析]
kṣaṇād bhavanti suhṛdo bhavanti ripavaḥ kṣaṇāt |
  刹那        是      善友        是        仇      須臾
toṣa-sthāne prakupyanti durārādhāḥ pṛthagjanāḥ ||
 喜      處          生瞋         難取悅          凡夫

8.11
[梵] hitam uktāḥ prakupyanti vārayanti ca māṃ hitāt
atha na śrūyate teṣāṃ kupitā yānti durgatim // bca.8.11 //
[英譯] When given good advice, they become angry; and they turn me away from good advice. If they are not listened to, they become angry and go to a miserable state of existence.
[天息災譯] 多瞋承事難,遠離於善利,下劣心自讚,縛著憎愛罪。
[如石藏譯] 忠告則生瞋,反勸離諸善;若不從彼語,瞋怒墮惡趣。
進獻忠言的時候,有些親友不但會瞋恨,還會反勸我們放棄各種有益的善行;如果不聽從他們的無理之言,又擔心他們因瞋恨而墮入惡趣。唉!真難!
[梵文分析]
hitam uktāḥ prakupyanti vārayanti ca māṃ hitāt |
  益     所說        生瞋       阻止    與    我    益 
atha na śrūyate teṣāṃ kupitā yānti durgatiṃ ||
  若  不    聽        彼    瞋已    趣       惡趣

8.12
[梵] īrṣyotkṛṣṭāt samād dvandvo hīnān mānaḥ stuter madaḥ
avarṇāt pratighaś ceti kadā bālād dhitaṃ bhavet // bca.8.12 //
[英譯] They feel envy toward a superior, competitiveness with a peer, arrogance toward one who is inferior, conceit due to praise, and anger due to reproach. When could there be any benefit from a fool?
[天息災譯] 彼不捨於瞋,當墮於惡趣,迷愚不攝心,爲此無功德。
[如石藏譯] 妒高競相等,傲卑讚復驕,逆耳更生瞋,處俗怎得益?
遇好就嫉妒,棋逢敵手又要競爭,對卑微寒士就傲慢,受稱讚又驕矜自滿,聽到逆耳之言更是怒氣衝衝,何時才能從這些庸俗之輩獲益呢?
[梵文分析]
īrṣyā utkṛṣṭāt samād dvandvo hīnān mānaḥ stuter madaḥ |
   妒     高       相等      競        卑        傲      讚     驕
avarṇāt pratighaś ca iti kadā bālād dhitaṃ bhavet ||
 責備         瞋     與 謂 何時   凡       益      應是

8.13
[梵] ātmotkarṣaḥ parāvarṇaḥ saṃsāraratisaṃkathā
ityādy avaśyam aśubhaṃ kiṃcid bālasya bālataḥ // bca.8.13 //
[英譯] Between one fool and another, something non-virtuous is inevitable, such as glorification of one's own self, speaking ill of others, and conversation about the pleasures of the cycle of existence.
[天息災譯] 自讚毀謗他,輪迴樂自得,愚迷之所持,住是等不善。
[如石藏譯] 伴愚必然生自讚毀他過,好談世間樂,無義不善事。
如果經常和這些愚稚的親友交往,我必定會做出許多自讚毀他的罪行,並且喜好閒談世間歡樂的盛事,和一些無聊與傷道敗德的事情。
[梵文分析]
ātma-utkarṣaḥ para-avarṇaḥ saṃsāra-rati-saṃkathā |
  自       讚        他     毀         輪迴    樂      談論
ityādy avaśyam aśubhaṃ kiṃcid bālasya bālataḥ ||
 謂等     必定        不善     某些      愚          愚

8.14
[梵] evaṃ tasyāpi tatsaṅgāt tenānarthasamāgamaḥ
ekākī vihariṣyāmi sukham akliṣṭamānasaḥ // bca.8.14 //
[英譯] Thus, on account of one's association with someone else, one encounters adversity. I shall happily live alone with a non-afflicted mind.
[天息災譯] 不善不和合,彼事皆獲得,一身我所樂,而意無所貪。
[如石藏譯] 是故近親友,徒然自招損。彼既無益我,吾亦未利彼。
總之,和愚稚的親友交往過密,只會使我徒然蒙受損失而已。他們對我的修行既沒有什麼利益可言,我也不能給他們什麼真正的好處。
[梵文分析]
evaṃ tasya api tat-saṅgāt tena anartha-samāgamaḥ |
 如是   彼    雖  彼  相聚   彼     無益         遇
ekākī vihariṣyāmi sukham akliṣṭa-mānasaḥ ||
  獨        我將住         樂     無染       心

(Ⅱ)捨離之方式
8.15
[梵] bālād dūraṃ palāyeta prāptam ārādhayet priyaiḥ
na saṃstavānubandhena kiṃ tūdāsīnasādhuvat // bca.8.15 //
[英譯] One should flee far from a fool. One should gratify the encountered person with pleasantries, not with the intention of intimacy but in the manner of a kind and impartial person.
[天息災譯] 遠離於愚迷,當得愛承事,不爲於讚歎,住於何善事。
[如石藏譯] 故應遠凡愚,會時喜相迎,亦莫太親密,善系君子誼。
因此,應該遠離愚稚凡夫俗情的糾纏,一旦遇上了,就和顏悅色地善待他們,但是也不要太過於親密;最好審慎維持淡淡的君子之誼。
[梵文分析]
bālād dūraṃ palāyeta prāptam ārādhayet priyaiḥ |
凡愚      遠      應離      會時       應敬        喜
na saṃstava-anubandhena kiṃ tu udāsīna-sādhuvat ||
不     親密         意圖          何 然   處中      和善

8.16
[梵] dharmārthamātram ādāya bhṛṅgavat kusumān madhu
apūrva iva sarvatra vihariṣyāmy asaṃstutaḥ // bca.8.16 //
[英譯] Taking only what benefits Dharma, like a bee taking nectar from a flower, I shall live everywhere without acquaintance, as if I had not existed before.
[天息災譯] 略如蜂造蜜,寂靜得成就,我行一切處,如未曾有者。
[如石藏譯] 猶如蜂采蜜;為法化緣已,如昔未謀面,淡然而處之。
就像蜜蜂只專心采蜜而漠視花朵一般,同樣,方外之士也只該為修法而外出化緣;取得所需的衣食之後,便如同素昧平生,以平常心和他們和睦相處,切莫攀緣。
[梵文分析]
dharma-artha-mātram ādāya bhṛṅgavat kusumān madhu |
   法       義       唯       取已     如蜂          花         蜜
apūrva iva sarvatra vihariṣyāmy asaṃstutaḥ ||
未曾有 如    處處        我將住       不熟識

Ⅱ、斷捨利敬貪
8.17
[梵] lābhī ca satkṛtaś cāham icchanti bahavaś ca mām
iti martyasya saṃprāptān maraṇāj jāyate bhayam // bca.8.17 //
[英譯] A mortal who thinks, "I am rich and respected, and many like me," experiences fear of approaching death.
[天息災譯] 恒得於多人,讚歎而敬愛,若迷於處處,得意樂快樂。
[如石藏譯] 吾富受恭敬,眾人皆喜我。若持此驕慢,歿後定生懼。
我的利養很豐富,又受人尊重,很多人都喜歡我。如果因為貪著利敬而生起這種驕慢的想法,那麼死後一定會墮落惡趣,頻生恐懼!
[梵文分析]
lābhī ca satkṛtaś ca aham icchanti bahavaś ca mām |
有得 與    受敬  與   我         喜         多    與   我
iti martyasya saṃprāptān maraṇāj jāyate bhayaṃ ||
謂      人           已得            死       生        懼

8.18
[梵] yatra tatra ratiṃ yāti manaḥ sukhābhimohitam
tattatsahasraguṇitaṃ duḥkhaṃ bhūtvopatiṣṭhati // bca.8.18 //
[英譯] Wherever the mind, infatuated by pleasures, finds enjoyment, there a thousand-fold suffering arises and falls to one's share.
[天息災譯] 以此於世間,得生死怖畏,是故彼智者,怖畏於生死。
[如石藏譯] 故汝愚癡意,無論貪何物,定感苦果報,千倍所貪得。
因此,利害莫辨的糊塗意識啊!今生無論你貪圖名利恭敬等任何事物,將來所感得的痛苦報應,一定超過今生所貪得事物的一千倍。
[梵文分析]
yatra tatra ratiṃ yāti manaḥ sukha-avimohitam |
  若   彼處   喜    趣     意      樂         所迷戀
tat tat sahasra-guṇitaṃ duḥkhaṃ bhūtvā upatiṣṭhati ||
彼 彼     千          倍         苦        已生       近住

8.19
[梵] tasmāt prājño na tam icched icchāto jāyate bhayam
svayam eva ca yāty etad dhairyaṃ kṛtvā pratīkṣatām // bca.8.19 //
[英譯] Hence, the wise should not desire it. Fear arises from desire, yet it passes away by itself. Generate fortitude and look at it with indifference.
[天息災譯] 知千種苦惱,住之決定受,若於刹那頃,自修於精進。
[如石藏譯] 故智不應貪,貪生三途怖。應當堅信解:法性本應捨。
所以有智慧的人千萬不要貪著,貪著名利將會引生墮落三惡道的恐懼。我們應該堅定信念並透徹瞭解:從性質上來看,這些事物本來就不屑一顧。
[梵文分析]
tasmāt prājño na tām icched icchāto jāyate bhayam |
   故       智    不  彼   應欲      欲       生       怖
svayam eva ca yāty etad dhairyaṃ kṛtvā pratīkṣatām ||
   本質   實  與  趣    此       堅       已作       觀察

8.20
[梵] bahavo lābhino 'bhūvan bahavaś ca yaśasvinaḥ
saha lābhayaśobhiste na jñātāḥ kva gatā iti // bca.8.20 //
[英譯] Many have become wealthy and many have become famous, but no one knows where they have gone with their wealth and fame.
[天息災譯] 獲得好名稱,亦復多利養,以彼同利人,毀我非功德。
[如石藏譯] 縱吾財物豐,令譽遍稱揚,所集諸名利,非隨心所欲。
就算我財物的收入很豐富,美名也傳遍十方,但是今生努力聚集的名利,卻無法隨心所欲地伴我到來生。
[梵文分析]
bahavo lābhino ’bhūvan bahavaś ca yaśasvinaḥ |
    多       有財    是(aor.)     多    與     有名稱
saha lābha-yaśobhis te na jñātāḥ kva gatā iti ||
 與     財         名     彼 非 所知   何   去   謂

8.21
[梵] mām evānye jugupsanti kiṃ prahṛṣyāmy ahaṃ stutaḥ
mām evānye praśaṃsanti kiṃ viṣīdāmi ninditaḥ // bca.8.21 //
[英譯] If others despise me, why should I rejoice when praised? If others praise me, why should I be despondent when reviled?
[天息災譯] 若此加毀謗,我謂讚歡喜,雖毀謗不瞋,稱讚亦不喜。
[如石藏譯] 若有人毀我,讚譽何足喜?若有人讚我,譏毀何足憂?
如果有人譭謗我,那麼再多的讚美怎值得我高興呢?如果有人讚美我,那麼讒言譭謗又怎值得我憂傷呢?
[梵文分析]
mām eva anye jugupsanti kiṃ prahṛṣyāmy ahaṃ stutaḥ |
   我   實   他        譭謗      何        我喜       我    被讚
mām eva anye praśaṃsanti kiṃ viṣīdāmi ninditaḥ ||
   我   實   他         讚譽      何       我憂     譏毀

Ⅲ、結勸捨塵緣
8.22
[梵] nānādhimuktikāḥ sattvā jinair api na toṣitāḥ
kiṃ punar mādṛśair ajñais tasmāt kiṃ lokacintayā // bca.8.22 //
[英譯] If sentient beings of different dispositions have not been satisfied by the Jinas themselves, then how could they be like an ignorant person like myself? So, what is the point of attending to the world?
[天息災譯] 謂佛及有情,種種皆如是,稱讚得功德,毀謗招苦報。
[如石藏譯] 有情種種心,諸佛難盡悅,何況劣如我?故應捨此慮。
有情眾生各有不同的性向和愛好,諸佛尚且不能使每一位眾生都稱心滿意,何況像我這樣愚笨無能的凡夫呢?所以我應該放棄討好世間人的念頭。
[梵文分析]
nānā adhimuktikāḥ sattvā jinair api na toṣitāḥ |
種種         信樂       有情    佛    雖  不  滿足
kiṃ punar mādṛśair ajñais tasmāt kiṃ loka-cintayā ||
  何    再      如我     無知     故     何    世    思慮

8.23
[梵] nindanty alābhinaṃ sattvam avadhyāyanti lābhinam
prakṛtyā duḥkhasaṃvāsaiḥ kathaṃ tair jāyate ratiḥ // bca.8.23 //
[英譯] They revile a person without acquisitions, and despise a person with acquisitions. How can those whose company is by nature suffering bring forth joy?
[天息災譯] 世間不思惟,是謂愚癡故,自性苦同住,彼生何所樂?
[如石藏譯] 睥睨窮行者,詆毀富修士;性本難為侶,處彼怎得樂?
一般人往往看不起窮困潦倒的苦行者,而且又喜歡中傷富裕的法師或修士;本來就很難結交成規過勸善的法侶,和他們在一起,怎能得到真正的快樂呢?
[梵文分析]
nindanty alābhinaṃ sattvam avadhyāyanti lābhinam |
   睥睨         無得       有情         詆毀            有得
prakṛtyā duḥkha-saṃvāsaiḥ kathaṃ tair jāyate ratiḥ ||
      性        苦        共住          何     彼   生      樂

8.24
[梵] na bālaḥ kasya cin mitram iti coktaṃ tathāgataiḥ
na svārthena vinā prītir yasmād bālasya jāyate // bca.8.24 //
[英譯] The Tathágatas have said that a fool is no ones friend, because the affection of a fool does not arise without self-interest.
[天息災譯] 愚迷非朋友,此乃如來說,若在於愚迷,自利無不愛。
[如石藏譯] 如來曾宣示:凡愚若無利,鬱鬱終寡歡,故莫友凡愚。
諸佛如來曾經開示說:如果不能獲得足夠的名利,愚癡的凡夫就會悶悶不樂;因此,不要和凡俗之輩交往。
[梵文分析]
na bālaḥ kasya cin mitram iti ca uktaṃ tathāgataiḥ |
莫   愚      某些        友     謂 與   所說      如來
na svārthena vinā prītir yasmād bālasya jāyate ||
無    自利       無    喜       故         愚      生

8.25
[梵] svārthadvāreṇa yā prītir ātmārthaṃ prītir eva sā
dravyanāśe yathodvegaḥ sukhahānikṛto hi saḥ // bca.8.25 //
[英譯] Love due to self-interest is love for one's own sake, just as distress at the loss of possessions is occasioned by the loss of pleasures.
[天息災譯] 若入利他門,如是爲自愛。
[梵文分析]
svārtha-dvāreṇa yā prītir ātma-arthaṃ prītir eva sā |
  自利        門    若   喜     我       為      喜   實  彼
dravya-nāśe yathā udvegaḥ sukha-hāni-kṛto hi saḥ ||
   物      滅     如      怖畏      樂     害     作 實 彼

(3)思惟山居利益
Ⅰ、友伴殊勝
8.26
[梵] nāvadhyāyanti taravo na cārādhyāḥ prayatnataḥ
kadā taiḥ sukhasaṃvāsaiḥ saha vāso bhaven mama // bca.8.26 //
[英譯] Trees do not revile nor can they be pleased with effort. When might I dwell with those whose company is a delight?
[天息災譯] 不毀於有情,不一心承奉,損於利物行,如煩惱壞善。
[如石藏譯] 林中鳥獸樹,不出刺耳音,伴彼心常樂,何時共安居?
森林中的樹木、飛鳥和走獸,不會發出煩心的言語和刺耳的音聲,和它們相處,內心非常安樂平靜;幾時我才能和它們一起快樂地安居?
[梵文分析]
na avadhyāyanti taravo na ca ārādhyāḥ prayatnataḥ |
不        詆毀          樹   不 與    被敬         努力地
kadā taiḥ sukha-saṃvāsaiḥ saha vāso bhaven mama ||
何時  彼      樂       共住      與     住    應是     我


Ⅱ、住處殊勝
8.27
[梵] śūnyadevakule sthitvā vṛkṣamūle guhāsu vā
kadānapekṣo yāsyāmi pṛṣṭhato 'navalokayan // bca.8.27 //
[英譯] When shall I dwell in a cave, an empty temple, or at the foot of a tree, without looking back, and without attachment?
[天息災譯] 如彼天宮殿,及於樹根舍,隨彼愛樂心,從意得爲上。
[如石藏譯] 何時住樹下、岩洞無人寺?願心不眷顧,斷捨塵世貪!
何時我才能心無掛礙地安居在樹蔭底下、岩洞中或無人的空廟裏修行呢?但願我的內心不再眷念家宅和親友,斷捨一切對塵世的貪欲!
[梵文分析]
śūnya-devakule sthitvā vṛkṣa-mūle guhāsu vā |
   空       天祠      住         樹    根    岩洞   或
kadā anapekṣo yāsyāmi pṛṣṭhato ’navalokayan ||
何時     不顧     我將趣     向後         不觀

8.28
[梵] amameṣu pradeśeṣu vistīrṇeṣu svabhāvataḥ
svacchandacāryanilayo vihariṣyāmy ahaṃ kadā // bca.8.28 //
[英譯] When shall I dwell, living freely and without attachment, in unclaimed and naturally spacious regions?
[天息災譯] 自性之廣大,斯爲無礙處。彼所未曾見,亦不能觀察。
[如石藏譯] 何時方移棲天然遼闊地,不執為我所,無貪恣意行?
何時我才能順利地遷居,去到一片遼闊的大自然環境;不執著它是我所擁有的地域,心無貪著,自由自在地修行?
[梵文分析]
amameṣu pradeśeṣu vistīrṇeṣu svabhāvataḥ |
  非我所      地區         遼闊           天然
svacchanda-cārya-nilayo vihariṣyāmy ahaṃ kadā ||
    隨意         行     無貪       我將住     我   何時

Ⅲ、資生殊勝
8.29
[梵] mṛtpātramātravibhavaś caurāsaṃbhogacīvaraḥ
nirbhayo vihariṣyāmi kadā kāyam agopayan // bca.8.29 //
[英譯] When shall I dwell with a paltry alms bowl and so on in clothing wanted by no one, living fearlessly, even without concealing my body?
[天息災譯] 富貴喻坯器,雖成不堅牢,受用然自由,苦惱而速至。
[如石藏譯] 何時居無懼,唯持缽等器、匪盜不需衣,乃至不蔽體?
何時我才能無憂無慮地在山林中安居,只保留缽、淨瓶等幾樣必需的用具,以及連盜匪也不屑一顧的三衣,甚至不必費心去遮蔽我這無常的身體?
[梵文分析]
mṛt-pātra-mātra-vibhavaś caura-asaṃbhoga-cīvaraḥ |
 瓦    缽     唯        處處      盜        不用         衣
nirbhayo vihariṣyāmi kadā kāyam agopayan ||
   無懼         我將住   何時    身        不蔽

Ⅳ、厭離殊勝
(Ⅰ)易捨身貪
8.30
[梵] kāyabhūmiṃ nijāṃ gatvā kaṅkālair aparaiḥ saha
svakāyaṃ tulayiṣyāmi kadā śatanadharmiṇam // bca.8.30 //
[英譯] When shall I go to the local charnel grounds and compare my own body, which has the nature of decay, with other corpses?
[天息災譯] 如盜他人衣,分之著身上,行住不自在,苦惱當求離。
[如石藏譯] 何時赴寒林,觸景生此情:他骨及吾體,悉皆壞滅法。
何時我才能移居棄屍的寒林,觸景生情並深思熟慮地反省:墳間腐朽的屍骨與我今健朗的身軀,同樣都是無常的壞滅之法。
[梵文分析]
kāya-bhūmiṃ nijāṃ gatvā kaṅkālair aparaiḥ saha |
 身       地       當地    去        骨           他     與
svakāyaṃ tulayiṣyāmi kadā śatana-dharmiṇaṃ ||
   自身       我將籌量   何時  壞滅          法

8.31
[梵] ayam eva hi kāyo me evaṃ pūtir bhaviṣyati
śṛgālā api yadgandhān nopasarpeyur antikam // bca.8.31 //
[英譯] For this body of mine will also become so putrid that even the jackals will not come near it because of the stench.
[天息災譯] 稱量於自身,彼實苦惱法,我此如是身,是身必當壞。
[如石藏譯] 吾身速腐朽,彼臭令狐狼不敢趨前嘗;其變終至此!
我這個身體很快就會死亡。它腐爛以後,惡臭沖天,連貪肉的狐狼都不敢上前品嘗;無常的結局總是如此令人心傷!
[梵文分析]
ayam eva hi kāyo me evaṃ pūtir bhaviṣyati |
  此    實  實  身   我   如是   腐      將是 
śṛgālā api yad gandhān na upasarpeyur antikaṃ ||
 狐狼  雖   若      味     不        驅進          近


Ⅱ易捨友貪
8.32
[梵] asyaikasyāpi kāyasya sahajā asthikhaṇḍakāḥ
pṛthak pṛthag gamiṣyanti kim utānyaḥ priyo janaḥ // bca.8.32 //
[英譯] If the flesh and bone that have arisen together with this body will deteriorate and disperse, how much more is this the case for other friends?
[天息災譯] 觀察於此身,性與身相離,性然無所壞,身當爲豺食。
[如石藏譯] 孑然此一身,生時骨肉連,死後各分散,更況是他親?
我孤零零地一個人來到這世上。出生時,骨肉本來是連在一起的,可是壞滅之後卻必須各自分散,何況是原本個體相異的親友呢?
[梵文分析]
asya ekasya api kāyasya sahajā asthi-khaṇḍakāḥ |
  此     一     雖     身       具生     骨       片
pṛthak pṛthag gamiṣyanti kim uta anyaḥ priyo janaḥ ||
    各      各          將去       更況     他      親     人

8.33
[梵] eka utpadyate jantur mriyate caika eva hi
nānyasya tadvyathābhāgaḥ kiṃ priyair vighnakārakaiḥ // bca.8.33 //
[英譯] A person is born alone and also dies alone. No one else has a share in one's agony. What is the use of loved ones who create hindrances?
[天息災譯] 一生定一死,有情界如是,彼復見何事,諸大各分去。
[如石藏譯] 生既孤獨生,歿復獨自亡,苦痛無人攤,親眷有何益?
生時,我孤零零地出生;死時,也只能獨自死去。沒有人能分擔我四大分離的痛苦,只會妨礙我解脫的親友有什麼用呢?
[梵文分析]
eka utpadyate jantur mriyate ca eka eva hi |
 一       生        人         歿    與  獨   實 實
na anyasya tad-vyathā-bhāgaḥ kiṃ priyair vighna-kārakaiḥ ||
不      他     彼    苦痛     分      何      親     妨礙      造作

8.34
[梵] adhvānaṃ pratipannasya yathāvāsaparigrahaḥ
tathā bhavādhvagasyāpi janmāvāsaparigrahaḥ // bca.8.34 //
[英譯] Just as one who has undertaken a journey takes lodging, so does one who travels in the cycle of existence take lodging in a rebirth.
[天息災譯] 如人遠路行,欲及於住舍,憂苦彼別無,唯求無障礙。
[如石藏譯] 如諸行路客,不執暫留舍;如是行有道,豈應戀生家?
好比在旅途上往返的旅客,不會貪著暫時歇腳的房舍;同樣,在三有道途中來去飄泊的我,豈該留戀親友和出生成長的家、國?
[梵文分析]
adhvānaṃ pratipannasya yathā vāsa-parigrahaḥ |
       路               已行      如      舍          取
tathā bhava-adhva-gasya api janma-āvāsa-parigrahaḥ ||
如是     有      路      行    雖     生      家         取

Ⅴ、攝心殊勝
8.35
[梵] caturbhiḥ puruṣair yāvat sa na nirdhāryate tataḥ
āśocyamāno lokena tāvad eva vanaṃ vrajet // bca.8.35 //
[英譯] Until one his hoisted by four men and mourned by the world, one should retire to the forest.
[天息災譯] 喻輪迴亦然,咸受於生住,直至於四人,彼方獲遠離。
[如石藏譯] 迨及眾親友傷痛且哀泣,四人掮吾體,屆時赴寒林。
等斷了氣,親友都圍繞著我哀傷哭泣,有四個人前來扛起我的遺體,那時,我將被送往寒屍林去拋棄。既然如此,為何不及早上那兒修行?
[梵文分析]
caturbhiḥ puruṣair yāvat sa na nirdhāryate tataḥ |
     四           人     乃至 彼 不       掮          此
āśocyamāno lokena tāvad eva vanaṃ vrajet ||
     哀泣          世人  爾時  實     林     應往

8.36
[梵] asaṃstavāvirodhābhyām eka eva śarīrakaḥ
pūrvam eva mṛto loke mriyamāṇo na śocati // bca.8.36 //
[英譯] Without intimacy and without conflict, one dwells in physical solitude, and when one is counted as if already dead no one grieves when one actually dies.
[天息災譯] 如是之一身,冤家所不讚,直至如是成,不厭患世間。
[如石藏譯] 無親亦無怨,隻身隱山林;先若視同死,歿已無人憂。
所以我應該先設法離開親友和怨仇,獨自一人隱居到寂靜的山林中;如果親友們認為我消失人間已久,那麼縱然死了,也不會有人為我傷痛哀愁。
[梵文分析]
asaṃstava-avirodhābhyām eka eva śarīrakaḥ |
     無親            無怨          一   實       身
pūrvam eva mṛto loke mriyamāṇo na śocati ||
     先     實   死   世人      歿        無    憂

8.37
[梵] na cāntikacarāḥ kecic chocantaḥ kurvate vyathām
buddhādyanusmṛtiṃ cāsya vikṣipanti na kecana // bca.8.37 //
[英譯] There is on one to inflict grief and harm, nor is there any one to distract one from the recollection of the Buddha and so forth.
[天息災譯] 過去世間時,生死無悔恨,所行行不近,能離世間苦。
[如石藏譯] 四周既無人哀傷或為害,故修隨念佛,無人擾令散。
再者,臨終的時候,身旁既無人痛哭或前來傷害,所以當我修習隨念三寶等正法時,就不會受到干擾,使我分心散亂。
[梵文分析]
na ca antika-carāḥ kecic chocantaḥ kurvate vyathām |
不 與   近       行   某些      哀傷        為         害
buddha-ādy-anusmṛtiṃ ca asya vikṣipanti na ke cana ||
   佛      等        隨念     與  彼      散亂     無   某些

Ⅵ、結勸住蘭若
8.38
[梵] tasmād ekākitā ramyā nirāyāsā śivodayā
sarvavikṣepaśamanī sevitavyā mayā sadā // bca.8.38 //
[英譯] Thus, I shall always dwell alone in the delightful forest, which creates few problems, good cheer, and the pacification of all distraction.
[天息災譯] 念佛心口同,無有人嫌毀,是故身意調,寂靜無煩擾。
[如石藏譯] 故當獨自棲事少易安樂、靈秀宜人林,止息眾散亂。
因此,我應當一個人獨來獨往,棲隱在容易生活、不易害病、風景靈秀而且令人心曠神怡的森林裏,努力止息一切掉舉和散亂。
[梵文分析]
tasmād ekākitā ramyā nirāyāsā śiva-udayā |
   故       獨自    可意     無擾     樂   生起
sarva-vikṣepa-śamanī sevitavyā mayā sadā ||
一切     散亂     止息        應近     我    常

(二)斷捨邪念
1.勸離五塵欲
8.39
[梵] sarvāny acintānirmuktaḥ svacittaikāgramānasaḥ
samādhānāya cittasya prayatiṣye damāya ca // bca.8.39 //
[英譯] Free from all other concerns and having a single-pointed mind, I shall apply myself to meditative concentration and to the subjugation of the mind.
[天息災譯] 如是我恒行,滅盡諸煩惱,解脫於自心,復解脫一切。
[如石藏譯] 盡棄俗慮已,吾心當專一;為令入等至制惑而精進。
捨棄一切無謂的塵囂和俗慮以後,接下來,我應該專一所緣,勤修禪定;使自心能夠進入三摩地並制伏一切煩惱。首先,應該觀修不淨觀等淨行所緣。
[梵文分析]
sarva-anya-cintā-nirmuktaḥ sva-citta-ekāgra-mānasaḥ |
 一切   他      思     已棄       自   心    一境        意
samādhānāya cittasya prayatiṣye damāya ca ||
     三昧             心         將勤        調伏  與

(1)總說五欲過患
8.40
[梵] kāmā hy anarthajanakā iha loke paratra ca
iha bandhavadhacchedair narakādau paratra ca // bca.8.40 //
[英譯] Casting off all other concerns, and with a single pointed mind, I shall strive to balance and subdue my mind. In this world and the next, sensuous desires create troubles, such as murder, imprisonment, and dismemberment in this life, and hell and so forth in the next.
[天息災譯] 得此心平等,於今世後世,斷彼苦惱縛,乃至地獄等。
[如石藏譯] 現世及來生,諸欲引災禍;今生砍殺縛,來世入地獄。
因為無論在今生或來世,耽染五欲都會帶來莫大的災難;今生,會使人造作砍殺和捆縛有情等罪業;來世,更將形成地獄和餓鬼等惡報。
[梵文分析]
kāmā hy anartha-janakā iha loke paratra ca |
  欲    實   無益     能生  此   世    他處   及
iha bandha-vadha-cchedair narakādau paratra ca ||
 此     縛       殺        砍         地獄等    他處   及

(2)別說觀身不淨
Ⅰ、依止寒林思身不淨
8.41
[梵] yadarthaṃ dūtadūtīnāṃ kṛtāñjaliranekadhā
na ca pāpamakīrttirvā yadarthaṃ gaṇitā purā // bca.8.41 //
[英譯] She for whom you have supplicated male and female messengers many times and for whose sake you have not considered the cost of either vice nor disgrace,
[天息災譯] 若有男女等,合掌多恭敬,善利非算數,無罪可稱說。
[如石藏譯] 月老媒婆前,何故屢懇求?為何全不忌諸罪或惡名?
在月老和媒婆的面前,為何總有人要非份地懇求牽線作媒?為什麼他們一點都不顧忌會因此犯下重罪或招致惡名?
[梵文分析]
yadarthaṃ dūta-dūtīnāṃ kṛtāñjalir anekadhā |
    何故      使者  女使者    合掌          種種
na ca pāpam akīrtir vā yadarthaṃ gaṇitā purā ||
不 與    惡   不名譽 或     為何        算     先

8.42
[梵] prakṣiptaś ca bhaye 'py ātmā draviṇaṃ ca vyayīkṛtam
yāny eva ca pariṣvajya babhūvottamanirvṛtāḥ // bca.8.42 //
[英譯] Throwing yourself into danger and wasting your health, embracing her with the greatest pleasure-
[天息災譯] 有善用自金,遠離棄擲怖,此行若能行,得最上寂靜。
[如石藏譯] 縱險吾亦投,資財願耗盡;只爲女入懷,銷魂獲至樂。
儘管危機重重,我也要冒險嘗試,就算散盡萬貫家財,我也心甘情願;只因爲美女投懷送抱最是銷魂,能帶給我莫大的興奮與喜悅。
[梵文分析]
prakṣiptaś ca bhaye ’py ātmā draviṇaṃ ca vyayīkṛtam |
       投     與    怖    雖    我         財     與     耗盡
yāny eva ca pariṣvajya babhūva uttama-nirvṛtiḥ ||
  若    實 與      擁抱       是(pf.)    最上      樂

8.43
[梵] tāny evāsthīni nānyāni svādhīnānyamamāni ca
prakāmaṃ saṃpariṣvajya kiṃ na gacchasi nirvṛtim // bca.8.43 //
[英譯] She is nothing but bones, indifferent and impersonal. Why do you not resort to emancipation, fully embracing it to your hearts content?
[天息災譯] 彼人有此獲,我自得無異,明了如是行,何不趣寂靜?
[如石藏譯] 除骨更無餘;與其苦貪執非我自主驅,何如趣涅槃?
然而除了一堆白骨和血肉,她什麽也不是;因此,與其苦苦地貪戀這個非我所能擁有與自主的美女之軀何不追求自由解脫的涅槃妙樂呢?
[梵文分析]
tāny eva asthīni na anyāni svādhīnāny amamāni ca |
 彼    實       骨  無     餘         自主         非我   與
prakāmaṃ saṃpariṣvajya kiṃ na gacchasi nirvṛtim ||
     樂                 擁抱       何  不     趣         涅槃

8.44
[梵] unnāmyamānaṃ yatnād yannīyamānamadho hriyā
purā dṛṣṭam adṛṣṭaṃ vā mukhaṃ jālikayāvṛtam // bca.8.44 //
[英譯] Either you have seen that bashfully lowered face before as being lifted up with effort, or you have not seen it as it was covered by a veil.
[天息災譯] 一心住貪愛,此爲下趣牽,業感焰魔門,前見見可怖。
[如石藏譯] 始則奮擡頭,揭已羞垂視,葬前見未見,悉以紗覆面。
初會面時,少女必須鼓足勇氣才敢擡頭,揭開面紗以後,更加嬌羞,只敢低頭垂視。在出殯以前,無論遇到任何男士,都得用面紗把臉遮蓋起來。
[梵文分析]
unnāmyamānaṃ yatnād yan nīyamānam adho hriyā |
          擡               奮     若        導引     向下   羞
purā dṛṣṭam adṛṣṭaṃ vā mukhaṃ jālikayā vṛtam ||
  先     見       未見   或     面          紗        覆

8.45
[梵] tanmukhaṃ tūtparikleśam asahadbhir ivādhunā
gṛdhrair vyaktīkṛtaṃ paśya kim idānīṃ palāyase // bca.8.45 //
[英譯] Just as that face that torments you is perceived now, so you will see it unveiled by vultures. Why does it make you flee now?
[天息災譯] 彼門是汝冤,煩惱今不同,分明住貪愛,今見何能脫?
[如石藏譯] 昔隱惑君容,今現明眼前,鷲已去其紗,既見何故逃?
從前使你迷惑顛倒的覆紗之容,現在已經赤裸裸地呈現在你的眼前,鷲鳥完全扯開了她的衣裳和面紗,既然看清楚了,爲何你反而要逃走?
[梵文分析]
tan mukhaṃ tu utparikleśam asahadbhir iva adhunā |
彼        容    然        惑              不堪      如     今
gṛdhrair vyaktīkṛtaṃ paśya kim idānīṃ palāyase ||
    鷲            顯明       見    何      現         逃

8.46
[梵] paracakṣurnipātebhyo 'py āsīdyatparirakṣitam
tadadya bhakṣitaṃ yāvat kim īrṣyālo na rakṣasi // bca.8.46 //
[英譯] Since you guarded her face from the gaze of others, why do you, O avaricious one, not guard it as it is being eaten?
[天息災譯] 過咎自藏護,一一他眼見,彼今所食噉,妒忌何不護?
[如石藏譯] 昔時他眼窺,汝即忙守護;今鷲食彼肉,吝汝何不護?
從前,其他男士單單用眼角偷偷欣賞,你就忙著去遮擋他們的視線;現在連鷲鳥都飛來搶奪她的肉了,吝嗇嫉妒的你爲何不前去保護她呢?
[梵文分析]
para-cakṣur-nipātebhyo ’py āsīd yat parirakṣitam |
  他      眼          瞥        雖  是(impf.)    守護
tad adya bhakṣitaṃ yāvat kim īrṣyālo na rakṣasi ||
 彼   今       被食     乃至   何  吝者! 不    護

8.47
[梵] māṃsocchrayam imaṃ dṛṣṭvā gṛdhrair anyaiś ca bhakṣitam
āhāraḥ pūjyate 'nyeṣāṃ srakcandanavibhūṣaṇaiḥ // bca.8.47 //
[英譯] Seeing this mass of flesh being eaten by vultures and others, should you worship others food with wreaths of flowers, sandalwood paste, and ornaments?
[天息災譯] 飛鷲常所貪,唯愛此肥肉,復以血莊嚴,此食偏所重。
[如石藏譯] 既見此聚屍鷲獸競分食,何苦以花飾殷獻鳥獸食?
眼看著這成堆的腐屍爛肉,吸引了無數的蒼鷹和野獸前來奪食,事實既然如此,你又何必以花圈和香飾殷勤地奉獻給這鳥獸的食物呢?
[梵文分析]
māṃsa-ucchrayam imaṃ dṛṣṭvā gṛdhrair anyaiś ca bhakṣitam |
   肉           山           此     見        鷲        他    與      所食
āhāraḥ pūjyate ’nyeṣāṃ srak-candana-vibhūṣaṇaiḥ ||
 食物     被供        他    花蔓    檀香           飾

8.48
[梵] niścalād api te trāsaḥ kaṅkālād evam īkṣitāt
vetāḍeneva kenāpi cālyamānād bhayaṃ na kim // bca.8.48 //
[英譯] You fear a skeleton that has been seen like this, even though it does not move. Why do you fear it when it moves, as if set in motion like some ghost?
[天息災譯] 喻見鬼形容,枯瘦及行動,相貌旣如是,睹之堪可怖。
[如石藏譯] 若汝見白骨靜臥猶驚怖,何不懼少女靈動如活屍?
如果看見一具白色的骷髏,即使靜臥著不動也會令你驚慌駭怕,那麽像活僵屍一樣由心氣帶動的少女,你爲什麽一點兒也不害怕呢?
[梵文分析]
niścalād api te trāsaḥ kaṅkālād evam īkṣitāt |
  不動    雖  汝   怖         骨      如是   所見
vetāḍena iva kena api cālyamānād bhayaṃ na kiṃ ||
毘陀羅鬼 如    何   雖       活動          怖     不  何

Ⅱ、配合現實思身不淨
8.49
[梵] ekasmād aśanād eṣāṃ lālāmedhyaṃ ca jāyate
tatrāmedhyam aniṣṭaṃ te lālāpānaṃ kathaṃ priyam // bca.8.49 //
[英譯] Their saliva and excrement arise from the same food. Why then do you dislike excrement, and like sucking saliva?
[天息災譯] 口吻及牙涎,皆從不淨生,不淨非所堪,食飮彼何愛?
[如石藏譯] 糞便與口涎,悉從飲食生,何故貪口液,不樂臭糞便?
再者,人的糞便和口水,同樣都是從食物消化而産生的髒東西,你爲何偏愛吸吮口水,卻不喜歡臭糞便呢?
[梵文分析]
ekasmād aśanād eṣāṃ lālā-amedhyaṃ ca jāyate |
   同一        食     此  口涎      糞便     與    生
tatra amedhyam aniṣṭaṃ te lālā-pānaṃ kathaṃ priyaṃ ||
此中     糞便       不樂    你  液    飲       如何       喜

8.50
[梵] tūlagarbhair mṛdusparśai ramante nopadhānakaiḥ
durgandhaṃ na sravantīti kāmino 'medhyamohitāḥ // bca.8.50 //
[英譯] Taking no delight in cotton pillows that are soft to the touch, the lustful, who are deluded with respect to filth, say the body does not emit a foul odor? The lustful, degraded, and deluded have distain for soft cotton, saying, "It can't engage in intercourse."
[天息災譯] 睹羅綿藏觸,細滑樂嬉戲,臭穢豈不漏,慾者心自迷。
[如石藏譯] 嗜欲者不貪柔軟木棉枕,謂無女體臭。彼誠迷穢垢。迷劣欲者言:棉枕雖滑柔,難成鴛鴦眠。於彼反生瞋。
貪欲強烈的人只貪求美色,不會貪著觸感柔滑的木棉枕;他們說:棉枕沒有女人的體味。這些人顯然已被髒東西迷昏了頭。沈迷卑劣俗事的貪欲者說:木棉枕雖然光滑柔軟,卻不能同床共枕,合成鴛鴦眠。因此,有時反而會討厭木棉枕。
[梵文分析]
tūla-garbhair mṛdu-sparśai ramante na upadhānakaiḥ |
 棉      藏        軟       觸         樂    不          枕頭
durgandhaṃ na sravanti iti kāmino ’medhya-mohitāḥ ||
      惡味       不     流    謂    有欲      穢垢      所迷

8.51
[梵] yatra cchanne 'py ayaṃ rāgas tad acchannaṃ kim apriyam
na cet prayojanaṃ tena kasmāc channaṃ vimṛdyate // bca.8.51 //
[天息災譯] 此貪謂若蓋,迷者堅樂著,無著卽無事,云何而不離?
[如石藏譯] 昔衣汝亦貪,今裸何不欲?若謂厭不淨,何故擁著衣?
從前,連穿衣的婦女你都要貪愛,現在,爲何不去貪求那裸露的女屍呢?如果說,你不喜歡不淨的死屍;那麽爲何要擁抱原本污濁的著衣婦女呢?
[梵文分析]
yatra cchanne ’py ayaṃ rāgas tad acchannaṃ kim apriyaṃ |
  彼      所覆    雖    此     貪    彼      未覆       何     不喜
na cet prayojanaṃ tena kasmāc channaṃ vimṛdyate ||
不  若        用         此     何         所覆         摩

8.52
[梵] yadi te nāśucau rāgaḥ kasmād āliGgase 'param
māṃsakardamasaṃliptaṃ snāyubaddhāsthipañjaram // bca.8.52 //
[英譯] If you say 'I do not lust after filth,' why do you embrace on your lap something else that is a skeleton tied together with sinews, and plastered over with a mire of flesh?
[天息災譯] 衰老相隨生,肉泥加飾染,不識彼空幻,而復樂歍吻?
[如石藏譯] 若謂厭不淨;肌腱系骨架,肉泥粉飾女,何以擁入懷?
如果說,你討厭不清潔的糞便等東西;那麽用肌腱緊系骨架,充以臟腑糞尿,再用肉泥薄皮粉飾的婦女,你爲何要緊緊地擁入懷抱呢?
[梵文分析]
yadi te na aśucau rāgaḥ kasmād āliṅgase ’paraṃ |
  若 你 不   不淨    貪         何     你抱         他
māṃsa-kardama-saṃliptaṃ snāyu-baddha-asthi-pañjaraṃ ||
   肉          泥          粉飾      肌腱    所系     骨       架

8.53
[梵] svam eva bahv amedhyaṃ te tenaiva dhṛtim ācara
amedhyabhastrām aparāṃ gūthaghasmara vismara // bca.8.53 //
[英譯] You have plenty of filth yourself, and you always have the use of it, yet out of craving, you desire the filth in another sack of muck.
[天息災譯] 如袋不淨滿,迷人不思惟,不淨如是多,彼汝何喜行?
[如石藏譯] 汝自多不淨,日用恒經歷,豈貪不得足,猶圖他垢囊?
其實,你自己擁有的髒東西已經夠多了,而且日用尋常,每天都要經歷它;難道這些髒東西不夠你天天享受嗎?爲何還要貪圖其他的臭皮囊呢?
[梵文分析]
svam eva bahv amedhyaṃ te tena eva dhṛtim ācara |
   自   實    多       不淨     你  此   實      常     行
amedhya-bhastrām aparāṃ gūtha-ghasmara vismara ||
   不淨         囊           他      糞        渴望       忘念

8.54
[梵] māṃsapriyo 'ham asyeti draṣṭuṃ spraṣṭuṃ ca vāñchasi
acetanaṃ svabhāvena māṃsaṃ tvaṃ katham icchasi // bca.8.54 //
[英譯] Casting aside a fresh lotus opening, under the rays of the cloudless sun, why do you, with your filth-craving mind, take delight in a container of muck?
[天息災譯] 身肉非淨成,愚智而皆見,自性元無心,云何妄愛肉?
[如石藏譯] 若謂喜彼肉,欲觀並摸觸;則汝何不欲無心屍肉軀?
如果說,你喜歡女人身上的細皮嫩肉,所以想要觀看並觸摸她;那麽你爲何不去貪求那已經死亡的無心屍肉呢?
[梵文分析]
māṃsa-priyo ’ham asya iti draṣṭuṃ spraṣṭuṃ ca vāñchasi |
    肉      喜      我    此  謂        觀        觸     與    你欲
acetanaṃ svabhāvena māṃsaṃ tvaṃ katham icchasi ||
    無心           自性        肉         汝       何        欲

8.55
[梵] yad icchasi na tac cittaṃ draṣṭuṃ spraṣṭuṃ ca śakyate
yac ca śakyaṃ na tad vetti kiṃ tad āliṅgase mudhā // bca.8.55 //
[英譯] The mind that you desire cannot be seen or touched; and that which can be is not conscious. Why do you embrace in vain?
[天息災譯] 若彼無愛心,是得分明見,若能無彼此,自不見歍吻。
[如石藏譯] 所欲婦女心,無從觀與觸,可觸非心識,空擁何所爲?
如果說,你所貪求的是女人的心;但是心識既無從欣賞也不可摸觸,可以觀看觸摸的,絕對不是心識;那麽你無聊地擁抱她作什麽呢?
[梵文分析]
yad icchasi na tac cittaṃ draṣṭuṃ spraṣṭuṃ ca śakyate |
 若    你欲  不 此     心         觀         觸     與     能
yac ca śakyaṃ na tad vetti kiṃ tad āliṅgase mudhā ||
 若  與    能     不  此   知    何  此    你抱      徒然

8.56
[梵] nāmedhyam ayam anyasya kāyaṃ vetsīty anadbhutam
svāmedhyam ayam eva tvaṃ taṃ nāvaiṣīti vismayaḥ // bca.8.56 //
[英譯] It is not surprising that you do not look at another persons body as composed of filth, but it is astonishing that you do not perceive your own body as composed of filth.
[天息災譯] 別有非不淨,而自不希有,如是不自淨,彼汝非希有。
[如石藏譯] 不明他不淨,猶非稀奇事;不知自不淨,此則太稀奇!
如果一個人不明白他人的身體原本不淨,這還情有可原;因爲不曾一睹廬山真面目。如果連日用尋常的自身不乾淨都不知道,那就太離譜了!
[梵文分析]
na amedhyam ayam anyasya kāyaṃ vetsi ity anadbhutaṃ |
不       不淨       此       他        身      知   謂    非稀奇
sva-amedhyam ayam eva tvaṃ taṃ na avaiṣi iti vismayaḥ ||
 自      不淨         此   實   你     此  不   知   謂      稀奇

8.57
[梵] vighanārkāṃśuvikacaṃ muktvā taruṇapaṅkajam
amedhyaśauṇḍacittasya kā ratir gūthapañjare // bca.8.57 //
[英譯] Thinking, "I like its flesh," you wish to touch it and look at it. Why do you not desire the flesh of a dead body, which, by nature, is not sentient?
[天息災譯] 愚迷不淨心,體喻於蓮花,慧日照開敷,非淨身何愛。
[如石藏譯] 汝執不淨心,何故捨晨曦初啓嫩蓮華,反著垢穢囊?
你這個貪戀髒東西的糊塗心識啊!在無雲晨曦中剛剛開啓的白嫩香蓮花你爲什麽不去欣賞呢?爲何偏偏喜歡那充滿污垢的臭皮囊呢?
[梵文分析]
vighana-arka-aṃśu-vikacaṃ muktvā taruṇa-paṅkajaṃ |
   無雲     日    光       開花      已捨      嫩       蓮花
amedhya-śauṇḍa-cittasya kā ratir gūtha-pañjare ||
   不淨       關注       心    何   喜    糞       身

8.58
[梵] mṛdādyamedhyaliptatvād yadi na spraṣṭum icchasi
yatas tan nirgataṃ kāyāttaṃ spraṣṭuṃ katham icchasi // bca.8.58 //
[英譯] If you do not desire to touch soil and the like because it is smeared with excrement, how can you wish to touch the body out of which it is excreted?
[天息災譯] 不淨今無常,染愛今不正,欲出正淨身,云何由染愛?
[如石藏譯] 若汝不欲觸垢穢所塗地,云何反欲撫泄垢體私處?
如果你不想觸摸曾經塗滿髒東西的地面或衣著等物,那麽怎會想去撫摸天天排泄屎尿的下體呢?
[梵文分析]
mṛd-ādy-amedhya-liptatvād yadi na spraṣṭum icchasi |
 地   等     不淨         所塗     若  不      觸         欲
yatas tan nirgataṃ kāyāt taṃ spraṣṭuṃ katham icchasi ||
  若   彼     所出       身    彼      觸        如何       欲

8.59
[梵] yadi te nāśucau rāgaḥ kasmād āliṅgase param
amedhyakṣetrasaṃbhūtaṃ tadbījaṃ tena vardhitam // bca.8.59 //
[英譯] If you do not have passion for what is impure, why do you embrace someone else, who is a seed or arisen from a field of filth and nourished by it?
[天息災譯] 云何歍吻他,由貪彼不淨,於彼不淨地,種子生增長?
[如石藏譯] 若謂厭不淨;垢種所孕育,穢處所出生,何以摟入懷?
如果說,你不喜歡肮髒的東西;那麽先經由又腥又臭的受精卵孕育長成,再從肮髒的陰道生産出來的婦女,你爲什麽要緊緊地摟入懷裏呢?
[梵文分析]
yadi te na aśucau rāgaḥ kasmād āliṅgase paraṃ |
 若  你 不   不淨     貪      何       你抱       他
amedhya-kṣetra-saṃbhūtaṃ tadbījaṃ tena vardhitaṃ ||
   不淨        田        出生         彼種     此       所增

8.60
[梵] amedhyabhavam alpatvān na vāñchasy aśuciṃ kṛmim
bahvamedhyam ayaṃ kāyam amedhyajam apīcchasi // bca.8.60 //
[英譯] You do not desire a dirty worm originating from filth because it is small, but you desire a body that consists of much filth and also born from filth.
[天息災譯] 汝受不淨身,此身唯蟲聚,是身旣非淨,非淨不可愛。
[如石藏譯] 糞便所生蛆,雖小尚不欲,云何汝反欲垢生不淨軀?
糞便裏長出來的髒蛆雖然很小,你尚且不會去喜歡,怎麽反而想去貪求由不淨身所生而且又充滿髒東西的身體呢?
[梵文分析]
amedhya-bhavam alpatvān na vāñchasy aśuciṃ kṛmiṃ |
   不淨       生            小     不        欲      不淨     蛆
bahv-amedhyam ayaṃ kāyam amedhya-jam api icchasi ||
  多       不淨         此       身      不淨      生  雖     欲

8.61
[梵] na kevalam amedhyatvam ātmīyaṃ na jugupsasi
amedhyabhāṇḍān aparān gūthaghasmara vāñchasi // bca.8.61 //
[英譯] Not only do you not abhor your own filth, out of craving, you desire other filthy sacks of excrement.
[天息災譯] 不淨而不一,而汝自不嫌,無別不淨器,此器孰多愛。
[如石藏譯] 汝於不淨身,非僅不輕棄,反因貪不淨,圖彼臭皮囊。
你不但不輕視、厭棄自己那充滿污垢的身體,反而因爲執著不淨之物,而貪圖別人的臭皮囊。真是糊塗啊!
[梵文分析]
na kevalam amedhyatvam ātmīyaṃ na jugupsasi |
非      僅            不淨            自      不    厭惡
amedhya-bhāṇḍān aparān gūtha-ghasmara vāñchasi ||
   不淨         物        他        糞        渴望       欲

8.62
[梵] karpūrādiṣu hṛdyeṣu śālyannavyañjaneṣu vā
mukhakṣiptavisṛṣṭeṣu bhūmir apy aśucir matā // bca.8.62 //
[英譯] Even the ground is considered impure when savory foods, such as camphor or boiled rice and condiments, are spat out or vomited from the mouth.
[天息災譯] 龍腦香米等,食飮而適悅,入口味最上,是地合淸淨。
[如石藏譯] 宜人冰片等,米飯或菜蔬,食已復排出,大地亦染汙。
你不想想看:清涼退火的冰片等良藥,可口的米飯或美味的蔬菜,吃進我們的不淨身體再排泄出來,竟然連大地都被薰臭染汙了。
[梵文分析]
karpūra-ādiṣu hṛdyeṣu śāly-anna-vyañjaneṣu vā |
 龍腦香   等      可意    米      飯       佐料     或
mukha-kṣipta-visṛṣṭeṣu bhūmir apy aśucir matā ||
   口      所棄    吐出       大地   亦   染汙 被認為

8.63
[梵] yadi pratyakṣam apy etad amedhyaṃ nādhimucyase
śmaśāne patitān ghorān kāyān paśyāparānapi // bca.8.63 //
[英譯] If you do not trust that this is filth even though it is obvious, look at other bodies too, repugnant and discarded in the charnel ground.
[天息災譯] 若此甚分明,彼不淨不離,穢惡棄尸林,是身同若此。
[如石藏譯] 垢身濁如此,親見若復疑,應觀寒屍林,腐屍不淨景。
人的身體這麽污濁是顯而易見的,如果你還有任何懷疑,不妨就到寒屍林去瞧瞧,看那腐臭的棄屍和其他噁心的景象。
[梵文分析]
yadi pratyakṣam apy etad amedhyaṃ na adhimucyase |
  若      現前       雖    此       垢         不      確信
śmaśāne patitān ghorān kāyān paśya aparān api ||
 寒屍林    所棄    可畏      身      見     他      雖

8.64
[梵] carmaṇy utpāṭite yasmād bhayam utpadyate mahat
kathaṃ jñātvāpi tatraiva punar utpadyate ratiḥ // bca.8.64 //
[英譯] Knowing that great fear arises when the skin is torn off, how can you have attraction to that same thing again?
[天息災譯] 皮剝肉潰爛,見之得大怖,旣能知彼已,復何生愛樂?
[如石藏譯] 皮表迸裂屍,見者生大畏;知已復何能好色生歡喜?
塚間表皮迸裂、血肉模糊的腐屍景象,曾經看過的人都會十分害怕;認清這個事實的真相以後,怎可能再去喜歡那不淨的身軀呢?
[梵文分析]
carmaṇy utpāṭite yasmād bhayam utpadyate mahat |
     皮      被除去      若        畏          生         大
kathaṃ jñātvā api tatra eva punar utpadyate ratiḥ ||
  如何    知已   雖   此   實    復         生        喜

Ⅲ、結勸除貪執
8.65
[梵] kāye nyasto 'py asau gandhaś candanād eva nānyataḥ
anyadīyena gandhena kasmād anyatra rajyate // bca.8.65 //
[英譯] Although applied to the body, this fragrance is from sandalwood and not from anything else. Why are you attracted to someone by the fragrance that belongs to something else?
[天息災譯] 白檀香復潔,身無如是妙,云何殊勝香,用心而別愛?
[如石藏譯] 塗身微妙香,栴檀非她身;何以因異香,貪著她身軀?
婦女身上所散發出來的微妙香氣,發自塗抹的栴檀或香水而不是人的身體;既然如此,何必爲了那不相干的香氣,而去貪著婦女的軀體呢?
[梵文分析]
kāye nyasto ’py asau gandhaś candanād eva na anyataḥ |
  身      用    雖    此      香          栴檀    實  非     他
anyadīyena gandhena kasmād anyatra rajyate ||
    屬他           香           何        他處    貪著

8.66
[梵] yadi svabhāvadaurgandhyād rāgo nātra śivaṃ nanu
kim anartharucir lokas taṃ gandhenānulimpati // bca.8.66 //
[英譯] If attraction does not arise due to a naturally foul smell, is that not good? Why do people take pleasure in what is worthless and anoint it with fragrance?
[天息災譯] 自性臭若貪,不樂於寂靜,亦於法諸香,一切皆染污。
[如石藏譯] 身味若本臭,不貪豈非善?貪俗無聊輩,爲何身塗香?
如果體臭本來就不怎麼好聞,那麼不去貪著它豈非明智之舉嗎?那些貪愛低俗事物的人們,爲什麼偏要在不淨身上塗抹香水呢?
[梵文分析]
yadi svabhāva-daurgandhyād rāgo na atra śivaṃ nanu |
  若      自性         惡臭           貪   不  此    善      豈
kim anartha-rucir lokas taṃ gandhena anulimpati ||
 何    無益     樂   世人   此       香             塗

8.67
[梵] kāyasyātra kim āyātaṃ sugandhi yadi candanam
anyadīyena gandhena kasmād anyatra rajyate // bca.8.67 //
[英譯] If it is sandalwood that is sweet smelling, did it come from the body? Why is someone attracted to someone because of a fragrance that belongs to something else?
[如石藏譯] 若香屬栴檀,身出何異味?何以因異香,貪愛女身軀?
如果妙香是從栴檀或香水散發出來的,那麼身體會發出何等的異味就可想而知了。何必爲了那與身體不相干的香氣,而去貪愛婦女的身軀呢?
[梵文分析]
kāyasya atra kim āyātaṃ sugandhi yadi candanaṃ |
     身      此   何     出       妙香     若      栴檀
anyadīyena gandhena kasmād anyatra rajyate ||
    屬他           香           何       他處    貪著

8.68
[梵] yadi keśanakhair dīrghair dantaiḥ samalapāṇḍuraiḥ
malapaṅkadharo nagnaḥ kāyaḥ prakṛtibhīṣaṇaḥ // bca.8.68 //
[英譯] If the naked body, containing the slime of filth, is frightening in its natural condition, with its long hair and nails and stained yellowish teeth,
[天息災譯] 若復髮甲長,牙齒兼垢黑,垢膩之所持,惡性身裸露。
[如石藏譯] 長髮汙修爪、黃牙泥臭味,皆令人怖畏軀體自本性。
何以苦貪著?蓬散髒亂的長髮、又曲又長的汙黑指甲、黃斑斑的牙齒、渾身的泥臭味,如果這些現象都是人體聽任自然生理變化所呈現出來的可怕的本來面目;那麼你何必去貪著僞飾的女身呢?
[梵文分析]
yadi keśa-nakhair dīrghair dantaiḥ samala-pāṇḍuraiḥ |
  若    髮     爪         長         牙       不淨       黃
mala-paṅka-dharo nagnaḥ kāyaḥ prakṛti-bhīṣaṇaḥ ||
  垢     泥       持       裸       身     本性     怖畏

8.69
[梵] sa kiṃ saṃskriyate yatnād ātmaghātāya śastravat
ātmavyāmohanodyuktair unmattair ākulā mahī // bca.8.69 //
[英譯] Why do you meticulously polish it like a weapon for suicide? This earth is crowded with the insane, so diligent in deluding themselves.
[天息災譯] 狂亂自癡迷,欲用行大地,復持諸器仗,一心待自殺。
[如石藏譯] 欲如傷己器,何故令鋒利?自迷癡狂徒,嗚呼滿天下!
貪欲就像那會傷害自己的武器一樣,你何必拚命去擦亮磨利它呢?難道你被傷害得還不夠深嗎?遺憾的是,這世上偏偏充滿了努力自我蒙蔽的瘋子!
[梵文分析]
sa kiṃ saṃskriyate yatnād ātma-ghātāya śastravat |
彼  何       擦亮         勤      己       害        如器
ātma-vyāmohana-udyuktair unmattair ākulā mahī ||
  自       迷癡             勤            瘋       滿    世間

8.70
[梵] kaṅkālān katicid dṛṣṭvā śmaśāne kila te ghṛṇā
grāmaśmaśāne ramase calatkaṅkālasaṃkule // bca.8.70 //
[英譯] If you are repelled upon seeing just skeletons in a charnel ground, are you attracted to a village, which is a charnel ground crowded with animated skeletons?
[天息災譯] 寒林枯骨形,見乃發惡聲,聚落枯骨動,迷人返愛樂。
[如石藏譯] 寒林唯見骨,意若生厭離,豈樂活白骨充塞寒林城?
在寒林中,如果單單見到棄屍和白骨,就會使人害怕而心生厭離,那麼你怎會歡歡喜喜地住在充滿迷亂活白骨的寒林城鎮呢?
[梵文分析]
kaṅkālān katicid dṛṣṭvā śmaśāne kila te ghṛṇā |
     骨       時常    見已    寒林     實  你   厭
grāma-śmaśāne ramase calat-kaṅkāla-saṃkule ||
 村落      寒林      樂       動       骨        充塞

(3)思貪得不償失
Ⅰ、總說
8.71
[梵] evaṃ cāmedhyam apy etad vinā mūlyaṃ na labhyate
tadartham arjanāyāso narakādiṣu ca vyathā // bca.8.71 //
[英譯] Thus, that filth is not gained without a price. Due to accomplishing that end, one is afflicted with fatigue and tormented in hells.
[天息災譯] 不淨乃如是,此苦爲彼愛,如彼那落中,無苦痛不受。
[如石藏譯] 復次女垢身,無酬不可得;今生逐塵勞,彼世遭獄難。
再者,那充滿污垢的婦女之身,不付出很高的代價是得不到的;今生必須爲她一輩子奔波勞碌,如果犯了罪,來世還須飽受地獄等苦難。
[梵文分析]
evaṃ ca amedhyam apy etad vinā mūlyaṃ na labhyate |
 如是 與      不淨      雖   此    無       價     不     得
tadartham arjana-āyāso naraka-ādiṣu ca vyathā ||
    為彼        得      勤      獄       等   與    苦

Ⅱ、別明
(Ⅰ)所求難得
8.72
[梵] śiśor nārjanasāmarthyaṃ kenāsau yauvane sukhī
yāty arjanena tāruṇyaṃ vṛddhaḥ kāmaiḥ karoti kim // bca.8.72 //
[英譯] A child cannot increase its wealth, so with what is one happy when one is a youth? When ones life is spent accumulating wealth, what good is sensual gratification once one is old?
[天息災譯] 少年貪受樂,不求勝善力,少年如不求,老至欲何作?
[如石藏譯] 少無生財力,及長怎享樂?財積壽漸近,衰老欲何爲?
年少時,沒有能力賺錢,長大以後,憑什麽享受鴛鴦之樂呢?爲了存錢而幹活,漸漸上了年紀,衰朽老翁還要色欲來做什麽呢?
[梵文分析]
śiśor na arjana-sāmarthyaṃ kena asau yauvane sukhī |
年幼 無   得           能           何    此     年少    有樂
yāty arjanena tāruṇyaṃ vṛddhaḥ kāmaiḥ karoti kiṃ ||
  趣       得         年輕       衰老       欲       爲    何

8.73
[梵] kecid dināntavyāpāraiḥ pariśrāntāḥ kukāminaḥ |
gṛham āgatya sāyāhne śerate sma mṛtā iva // bca.8.73 //
[英譯] Some debased sensualists exhaust themselves with work throughout the day; then upon coming home, their depleted bodies fall asleep like the dead.
[天息災譯] 如彼日將落,爲作困不就,復如鹿獸群,至夜空還去。
[如石藏譯] 多欲卑下人,白日勞務疲,夜歸氣力盡,身如死屍眠。
有些多欲的低等苦力,白天繁重的工作耗盡了體能,以至於晚上回到家中早已散盡了氣力,睡臥在床上的身體就像死屍一樣。
[梵文分析]
kecid dina-anta-vyāpāraiḥ pariśrāntāḥ kukāminaḥ |
 某些   天   盡       佔用          疲極         劣欲
gṛham āgatya sāyāhne śerate sma mṛtā iva ||
   家     歸已       夜       躺            死   如

8.74
[梵] daṇḍayātrābhir apare pravāsakleśaduḥkhitāḥ
vatsarair api nekṣante putradārāṃs tadarthinaḥ // bca.8.74 //
[英譯] Others are afflicted by traveling abroad and suffer as they are far from home; and though they long for their wives and children, they do not see them for years on end.
[天息災譯] 錫杖缽隨行,在路而困苦,如犢隨母行,無所畏亦爾。
[如石藏譯] 或需赴他鄉,長途歷辛勞,雖欲會嬌妻,終年不相見。
有些人爲了買賣、竊盜或出征而遠赴他鄉,因此必須長途跋涉、備嘗艱辛。雖然他們渴望與愛人、嬌妻歡聚,遺憾的是,一年也難得見上一面。
[梵文分析]
daṇḍa-yātrābhir apare pravāsa-kleśa-duḥkhitāḥ |
   杖      遠遊        他      離家   煩惱     所苦 
vatsarair api na īkṣante putra-dārāṃs tadarthinaḥ ||
      年     雖 不    見        子      妻          渴望

8.75
[梵] yad artham iva vikrīta ātmā kāmavimohitaiḥ
tan na prāptaṃ mudhaivāyur nītaṃ tu parakarmaṇā // bca.8.75 //
[英譯] Deluded by sensual desires, they sell themselves for that which they never acquire. Instead, their life is uselessly spent in labor for others.
[天息災譯] 若自爲欲迷,自賣爲僕從,彼不得自在,亦復隨業牽。
[如石藏譯] 或人爲謀利,因愚賣身訖;然利猶未得,空隨業風去。
也有人爲了追求微薄的利益,糊裏糊塗地賣掉了自己的身體;然而,應得的利益還沒有到手,人已隨著雇主的業風飄泊遠去了。
[梵文分析]
yad artham iva vikrīta ātmā kāma-vimohitaiḥ |
 若     利     如     賣     己     欲         所惑
tan na prāptaṃ mudhā eva āyur nītaṃ tu para-karmaṇā ||
 彼 未      得      徒然   實    命   所引  然  他       業

(Ⅱ)利少害多
8.76
[梵] vikrītasvātmabhāvānāṃ sadā preṣaṇakāriṇām
prasūyante striyo 'nyeṣām aṭavīviṭapādiṣu // bca.8.76 //
[英譯] The wives of those who have sold themselves and who always carry out commissions give birth at the feet of trees in the jungles and other inappropriate places.
[天息災譯] 如女產林野,如戰命難保,迷者爲欲誑,恃我感奴僕。
[如石藏譯] 或人自售身,任隨他指使;妻妾縱臨産,荒郊樹下生。
有人賣身爲人幫傭,自己一點自由也沒有,完全聽任顧主差遣使用;即使妻子臨産分娩,也不能前往照顧,任隨骨肉在荒郊野地或樹下出生。
[梵文分析]
vikrīta-sva-ātma-bhāvānāṃ sadā preṣaṇa-kāriṇām |
  已售   自     身       性          常    委託      作 
prasūyante striyo ’nyeṣām aṭavī-viṭapa-ādiṣu ||
    生產        妻         他      林      叢      等

8.77
[梵] raṇaṃ jīvitasaṃdehaṃ viśanti kila jīvitam
mānārthaṃ dāsatāṃ yānti mūḍhāḥ kāmaviḍambitāḥ // bca.8.77 //
[英譯] In order to make a livelihood they enter war that endangers their lives, and they become servants for the sake of their self-respect. They are fools ridiculed for their sensual desires.
[天息災譯] 斷欲者心淨,於苦能審察,見彼欲火燒,復若毒槍刺。
[如石藏譯] 欲欺凡夫謂:求活謀生故,慮喪赴疆場,爲利成傭奴。
有些被欲望蒙蔽的凡夫說:爲了生存,我必須設法賺錢養家活口。因此雖然擔心送命,還是披甲從軍去了。另一些人則爲了蠅頭小利而甘爲奴隸。
[梵文分析]
raṇaṃ jīvita-saṃdehaṃ viśanti kila jīvituṃ |
   戰     命         難           入     實  為生活
māna-arthaṃ dāsatāṃ yānti mūḍhāḥ kāma-viḍambitāḥ ||
  慢     因為       奴        趣     愚者      欲         所誑

8.78
[梵] chidyante kāminaḥ kecid anye śūlasamarpitāḥ
dṛśyante dahyamānāś ca hanyamānāś ca śaktibhiḥ // bca.8.78 //
[英譯] Some other sensualists are mutilated, fixed on a stake. They are seen being burned, and slain with daggers.
[天息災譯] 迷人求欲境,喜獲妄守護,無利事無邊,淸淨皆破壞。
[如石藏譯] 爲欲或喪身,或豎利戈尖,或遭短矛刺,乃至火焚燒。
有人貪欲未遂,被殺身亡;有人犯罪受刑,被人從肛門貫穿頭頂,豎挂在利戈尖上;有些人被人用短矛刺殺;有些人甚至於被放火焚燒。
[梵文分析]
chidyante kāminaḥ kecid anye śūla-samarpitāḥ |
    所壞       有欲     某些   他   矛        所穿
dṛśyante dahyamānāś ca hanyamānāś ca śaktibhiḥ ||
   被見        所燒        與     所殺        與      矛

8.79
[梵] arjanarakṣaṇanāśaviṣādair artham anartham anantamavaihi
vyagratayā dhanasaktamatīnāṃ nāvasaro bhavaduḥkhavimukteḥ // bca.8.79 //
[英譯] Consider wealth as an unending misfortune because of the troubles of acquiring, protecting, and losing it. Those who are distracted by attachment to wealth have no opportunity for liberation from the suffering of mundane existence.
[天息災譯] 世間虛幻財,愚人忙忙貪,輪迴往來苦,解脫於何時。
[如石藏譯] 歷盡聚守苦,方知財多禍;貪金渙散人,脫苦遙無期。
吃盡了賺存、保護和喪失錢財的苦痛,才深深體會錢財是無邊禍害的根源;那些爲了貪財好色而耗散心力的人,永遠沒有機會解脫三有的痛苦。
[梵文分析]
arjana-rakṣaṇa-nāśa-viṣādair artham anartham anantam avaihi |
   得        護      失      挫折       財       無益       無盡     應思
vyagratayā dhana-sakta-matīnāṃ na avasaro bhava-duḥkha-vimukteḥ ||
     渙散        財      著      心思    不   機會      有         苦       解脫

8.80
[梵] evam ādīnavo bhūyān alpāsvādas tu kāminām
śakaṭaṃ vahato yadvat paśor ghāsalavagrahaḥ // bca.8.80 //
[英譯] Thus, sensualists have much distress and little enjoyment, like a beast that has hold of a bit of grass while pulling a wagon.
[天息災譯] 如是貪欲味,欲者受不少,喻牛牽重車,至彼口無草。
[如石藏譯] 貪欲生衆苦,害多福利少;如彼拖車牲,唯得數口草。
貪欲的人一定會飽嘗前述的那些苦頭,禍害衆多,福利極少,根本得不償失;就像牛馬等爲人拉車的牲口,頂多只能吃到幾口充饑的茅草而已。
[梵文分析]
evam ādīnavo bhūyān alpa-āsvādas tu kāmināṃ |
 如是    過患       多     少      味     然     有欲
śakaṭaṃ vahato yadvat paśor ghāsa-lava-grahaḥ ||
   車          拉       若       獸    草     少       取

(Ⅲ)空負暇滿
8.81
[梵] tasyāsvādalavasyārthe yaḥ paśor apy adurlabhaḥ
hatā daivahateneyaṃ kṣaṇasaṃpatsudurlabhā // bca.8.81 //
[英譯] For the sake of that bit of enjoyment, which is easily obtainable even for an animal, an ill-fated one has destroyed this leisure and endowment, which is very difficult to find.
[天息災譯] 欲味與無草,見者人難得,見已破知非,刹那覺希有。
[如石藏譯] 彼利極微薄,雖畜不難得;爲彼勤苦衆,竟毀暇滿身。
其實,像養家糊口這麽渺小的利益,就連低等的牛馬等牲畜也不難辦到;但是,短視的人們竟然願意爲它奔波受苦,糟蹋了難得的暇滿人身。
[梵文分析]
tasya āsvāda-lavasya arthe yaḥ paśor apy adurlabhaḥ |
  彼      味         微      為    若    畜    雖     不難得
hatā daivahatena iyaṃ kṣaṇa-saṃpat-sudurlabhā ||
所壞     厄運者      此     暇       滿        極難得

8.82
[梵] avaśyaṃ gantur alpasya narakādiprapātinaḥ
kāyasyārthe kṛto yo 'yaṃ sarvakālaṃ pariśramaḥ // bca.8.82 //
[英譯] Sensual gratification is definitely transient and it casts one down to hell and so forth, and for no great end, one is constantly weary.
[天息災譯] 而身爲作此,一切時疲倦,勝定業不修,必當墮地獄。
[如石藏譯] 諸欲終壞滅,貪彼易墮獄;爲此瞬息樂,須久歷艱困。
五欲雖樂,總是會壞滅的;但是貪著它,卻容易使人墮入地獄等惡趣。爲了貪圖這曇花一現的快樂,就必須長期忍受精疲力竭的艱苦。
[梵文分析]
avaśyaṃ gantur alpasya naraka-ādi-prapātinaḥ |
   必定       去        易       獄     等        墮
kāyasya arthe kṛto yo ’yaṃ sarva-kālaṃ pariśramaḥ ||
    身       爲  所作 若    此  一切     時         疲倦

8.83
[梵] tataḥ koṭiśatenāpi śramabhāgena buddhatā
caryāduḥkhān mahad duḥkhaṃ sā ca bodhir na kāminām // bca.8.83 //
[英譯] With even a billionth part of that diligence, there can be Buddhahood. Sensualists have suffering greater than the suffering of the Path, but they have no Awakening.
[天息災譯] 彼百俱胝劫,分受困不覺,彼行大苦苦,不爲求菩提。
[如石藏譯] 彼困千萬分,便足成佛道。欲者較菩薩,苦多無菩提。
然而,只要肯忍受這些困苦的千萬分之一,以此修行,就足以成就無上的佛道了。和修菩提行的菩薩比較起來,貪欲者吃的苦無窮,卻沒有證菩提的福份。
[梵文分析]
tataḥ koṭi-śatena api śrama-bhāgena buddhatā |
  彼  俱胝   百     雖   困苦     分         成佛
caryā-duḥkhān mahad duḥkhaṃ sā ca bodhir na kāmināṃ ||
  行        苦         大         苦      彼 與  菩提  無     有欲

(4)結攝五欲過患
8.84
[梵] na śastraṃ na viṣaṃ nāgnir na prapāto na vairiṇaḥ
kāmānām upamāṃ yānti narakādivyathāsmṛteḥ // bca.8.84 //
[英譯] If one considers the suffering of the hells and so on, weapons, poison, fire, precipices, and enemies do not compare to sensual desires.
[天息災譯] 無器仗毒火,無山崖冤等,離欲者若此,說離地獄苦。
[如石藏譯] 思惟地獄苦,始知諸欲患非毒兵器火、險敵所能擬。
如果仔細想過地獄等惡趣的痛苦,就會知道:五欲對人的傷害,不是兵器、毒藥、火災、懸崖險地和各種仇敵的禍害所能比擬的。
[梵文分析]
na śastraṃ na viṣaṃ na agnir na prapāto na vairiṇaḥ |
非   兵器   非     毒   非   火  非   險地    非     敵
kāmānām upamāṃ yānti naraka-ādi-vyathā-smṛteḥ ||
    欲           等同     趣     地獄   等     苦        念

2.勸樂阿蘭若
8.85
[梵] evam udvijaya kāmebhyo viveke janayed ratim
kalahāyāsaśūnyāsu śāntāsu vanabhūmiṣu // bca.8.85 //
[英譯] Becoming disillusioned with sensual desires in that way, generate delight in solitude in the peaceful forest, devoid of strive and annoyances.
[天息災譯] 遠離如是欲,生愛樂分別,愛樂非空處,而諍善林地。
[如石藏譯] 故當厭諸欲,欣樂阿蘭若。離諍無煩惱,寂靜山林中,
因此,初學的菩薩尤其應該厭離五欲,嚮往阿蘭若的修行生活:在沒有諍吵、不易産生煩惱,而且寂靜無人的山林中,
[梵文分析]
evam udvijaya kāmebhyo viveke janayed ratiṃ |
 如是   當厭           欲        遠離     應生     樂
kalaha-āyāsa-śūnyāsu śāntāsu vana-bhūmiṣu ||
    諍      惱       空       寂靜      林      地

8.86
[梵] dhanyaiḥ śaśāṅkakaracandanaśītaleṣu ramyeṣu harmyavipuleṣu śilātaleṣu
niḥśabdasaumyavanamārutavījyamānaiḥ caṅkramyate parahitāya vicintyate ca // bca.8.86 //
[英譯] The fortunate, pondering on how to benefit others, roam about, caressed by silent, gentle forest breezes, and cooled by the sandalwood rays of the moon on the lovely mansions of vast boulders.
[天息災譯] 善財月光明白檀涼香潔,廣寶樓閣間行住甚適悅,善林聲不鬧淸淨風長扇,彼處而寂靜思惟心爽利。
[如石藏譯] 皎潔明月光,清涼似檀香,傾泄平石上,如宮意生歡。
林風無聲息,徐徐默吹送,有福瑜伽士,踱步思利他。
皎潔的明月光,清涼得猶如檀香,輕柔地泄落在寬闊平坦的岩石上。禪修的岩窟、空徒石壁,虛絕塵想;靜坐其間,如處王宮,令人無限歡暢。寂靜無聲的林間微風,徐徐地吹送,捎來了一身的舒適與輕鬆。這時,有福德的瑜伽行者,爲了利他,細踱著步子,靜思菩提心、空性等法義。
[梵文分析]
dhanyaiḥ śaśāṅka-kara-candana-śītaleṣu ramyeṣu harmya-vipuleṣu śilā-taleṣu |
   有福         月      光      檀香      涼         可意     樓閣        廣      石   表面
niḥśabda-saumya-vana-māruta-vījyamānaiḥ caṅkramyate parahitāya vicintyate ca ||
    無聲      柔軟     林      風          吹送             經行           利他          思       與

8.87
[梵] vihṛtya yatra kvacid iṣṭakālaṃ śūnyālaye vṛkṣatale guhāsu
parigraharakṣaṇakhedamuktaḥ caraty apekṣāvirato yatheṣṭam // bca.8.87 //
[英譯] In an empty hut, at the foot of a tree, or in a cave, one remains as long as one desires, and casting off the suffering of guarding ones possessions, one lives light heartedly, without a care.
[天息災譯] 若處何可親,空舍巖樹下,捨愛離煩惱,自在護根識。
[如石藏譯] 空舍岩洞樹,隨時任意住;盡捨護持苦,無忌恣意行。
無人的空屋、岩洞和蔭涼的大樹底下,隨時隨處都可以任意安住;既然免除了儲存和守護財物的牽累和痛苦,就可以無拘無束、專心致志地修行了。
[梵文分析]
vihṛtya yatra kvacid iṣṭa-kālaṃ śūnya-ālaye vṛkṣa-tale guhāsu |
   住       任何處所   所欲  時      空      舍      樹    基     洞
parigraha-rakṣaṇa-kheda-muktaḥ caraty apekṣā-virato yatheṣṭaṃ ||
     持           護       苦        捨        行     顧戀   已離   隨其所欲

8.88
[梵] svacchandacāryanilayaḥ pratibaddho na kasya cit
yatsaṃtoṣasukhaṃ bhuṅkte tadindrasyāpi durlabham // bca.8.88 //
[英譯] Living freely, without attachment, and not tied by anyone, one savors the joy of contentment that is difficult even for a king to find.
[天息災譯] 是處主宰無,自在隨行住,歡喜愛快樂,何推帝釋天?
[如石藏譯] 離貪自在行,誰亦不相干;王侯亦難享知足閒居歡。
像這樣捨離了一切貪著,自由自在地修行,無論誰都不能干擾我;就算是人間的王侯和天上的帝釋,也難享有這種知足的山居修行之樂。
[梵文分析]
svacchanda-cārya-nilayaḥ pratibaddho na kasya cit |
     自在         行     離貪        繫屬      不    任何
yat saṃtoṣa-sukhaṃ bhuṅkte tad indrasya api durlabham ||
若     知足      樂          享      彼    帝釋    亦      難得

三、如何修止
(一)略說
8.89
[梵] evamādibhir ākārair vivekaguṇabhāvanāt
upaśāntavitarkaḥ san bodhicittaṃ tu bhāvayet // bca.8.89 //
[英譯] After meditating on the advantages of solitude in this and other ways, having one's discursive thoughts calmed, one should cultivate the spirit of awakening.
[天息災譯] 觀功德智慧,如是等諸法,復正菩提心,消除於疑惑。
[如石藏譯] 遠離諸塵緣,思彼具功德,盡息諸分別,觀修菩提心。
深入思惟五欲的禍害和遠離塵緣等功德以後,就應當完全止息妄想分別,進而觀修大乘的菩提心。
[梵文分析]
evamādibhir ākārair viveka-guṇa-bhāvanāt |
    如是等       行相    遠離   功德     應修
upaśānta-vitarkaḥ san bodhicittaṃ tu bhāvayet ||
     已息      尋       正      菩提心   然    應修

(二)廣說
1.等觀自他修習法
(1)等觀自他之心理依據
8.90
[梵] parātmasamatāmādau bhāvayed evam ādarāt
samaduḥkhasukhāḥ sarve pālanīyā mayātmavat // bca.8.90 //
[英譯] One should first earnestly meditate on the equality of oneself and others in this way: "All equally experience suffering and happiness, and I must protect them as I do myself."
[天息災譯] 先當如是觀,重自他不二,我自一切行,苦樂亦平等?
[如石藏譯] 首當勤觀修自他本平等;避苦求樂同,護他如護己。
首先應該努力觀修自己和他人本來是平等的。因爲避苦求樂是衆生共同的心理需求,所以愛護衆生應該像愛護自己一樣。
[梵文分析]
para-ātma-samatām ādau bhāvayed evam ādarāt |
  他    自      平等     首       當修     如是    勤
sama-duḥkha-sukhāḥ sarve pālanīyā mayā ātmavat ||
  同      苦        樂      一切    應護       我     如己

8.91
[梵] hastādibhedena bahuprakāraḥ kāyo yathaikaḥ paripālanīyaḥ
tathā jagadbhinnam abhinnaduḥkhasukhātmakaṃ sarvam idaṃ tathaiva // bca.8.91 //
[英譯] Although it has many divisions, such as arms and so one, the body is protected as a whole. Likewise, different beings, with their joys and sorrows, are all equal, like my self, in their yearning for happiness.
[天息災譯] 手作多種事,守護如一身,世壞不壞法,苦樂等亦爾。
[如石藏譯] 手足肢雖衆,護如身相同;衆生苦樂殊,求樂與我同。
就像一個人的手腳等部位雖然衆多,但是,把它們都當成身體的一分來保護卻是相同的。同樣,衆生的苦樂感受雖然互異,但是,只追求快樂的意願卻和我完全相同。
[梵文分析]
hasta-ādi-bhedena bahu-prakāraḥ kāyo yathā ekaḥ paripālanīyaḥ |
   手   等    差別      衆      品類     身      如     一         應護
tathā jagad-bhinnam abhinna-duḥkha-sukha-ātmakaṃ sarvam idaṃ tathā eva ||
同樣  衆生    差別       無別       苦         樂      擁有       一切     此  同樣 實

(2)等觀自他之思惟方式
Ⅰ、破不應等觀自他之說
8.92
[梵] yady apy anyeṣu deheṣu madduḥkhaṃ na prabādhate
tathāpi tadduḥkham eva mamātmasnehaduḥsaham // bca.8.92 //
[英譯] Even though my agony does not hurt anyone else's body, that suffering of mine is unbearable because I cling to it as mine.
[如石藏譯] 雖吾所受苦,不傷他人身,此苦亦當除,執我難忍故。
雖然我所感受到的痛苦不至於傷害別人,但它仍然是我應該解除的痛苦;因爲只要執著身體爲我就很難忍受那些痛苦。
[梵文分析]
yady apy anyeṣu deheṣu mad-duḥkhaṃ na prabādhate |
   若   雖    他人     身      吾       苦       不      傷
tathā api tad-duḥkham eva mama ātma-sneha-duḥsaham ||
同樣  雖  此       苦      實    我的   我      著       難忍

8.93
[梵] tathā yady apy asaṃvedyam anyadduḥkhaṃ mayātmanā
tathāpi tasya tadduḥkham ātmasnehena duḥsaham // bca.8.93 //
[英譯] Likewise, although others' suffering does not descend upon me, that suffering of theirs is difficult to bear because they cling to it as 'theirs.'
[如石藏譯] 如是他諸苦,雖不臨吾身,彼苦仍應除,執我難忍故。
同樣,雖然別人所遭受的那些痛苦不會轉移到我身上來,不過,它們還是我應當解除的痛苦;因爲一旦觀念轉變,把他人的身體認同爲我,同樣也很難忍受他人所受的那些痛苦。
[梵文分析]
tathā yady apy asaṃvedyam anyad-duḥkhaṃ mayā ātmanā |
如是   若    雖       不知           他         苦        我     自身
tathā api tasya tad-duḥkham ātma-snehena duḥsahaṃ ||
如是  雖    他   彼     苦          我        執         難忍

Ⅱ、成立應等觀自他之理
(Ⅰ)廣說
8.94
[梵] mayānyaduḥkhaṃ hantavyaṃ duḥkhatvād ātmaduḥkhavat
anugrāhyā mayānye 'pi sattvatvādātmasattvavat // bca.8.94 //
[英譯] I should eliminate the suffering of others because it is suffering, just like my own suffering. I should take care of others, just as I am a sentient being.
[天息災譯] 如己之別苦,一一皆消盡,如是我受持,爲於有情等。
[如石藏譯] 吾應除他苦,他苦如自苦;吾當利樂他,有情如吾身。
我應該解除他人的痛苦,因爲他人之苦也是苦,就像我自己的痛苦一樣。我應當利樂衆生,因爲自他都是有情,使衆生快樂就如同使自己快樂一樣。
[梵文分析]
mayā anyad-duḥkhaṃ hantavyaṃ duḥkhatvād ātma-duḥkha-vat |
   吾     他         苦           應除           苦性       自        苦    如
anugrāhyā mayā anye ’pi sattvatvād ātma-sattva-vat ||
    攝受         吾    他   雖    有情性    自    有情   如

8.95
[梵] yadā mama pareṣāṃ ca tulyam eva sukhaṃ priyam
tadātmanaḥ ko viśeṣo yenātraiva sukhodyamaḥ // bca.8.95 //
[英譯] When happiness is equally dear to others and myself, then what is so special about me that I strive after happiness for myself alone?
[天息災譯] 我若愛於他,令得平等樂,彼得快樂已,於自勝何奪?
[如石藏譯] 自與他雙方,求樂既相同,自他何差殊?何故求獨樂?
既然自己和別人兩方面,都同樣追求快樂,那麼他們和我的基本心理需求有何差別呢?爲何只追求自己一個人的快樂呢?
[梵文分析]
yadā mama pareṣāṃ ca tulyam eva sukhaṃ priyaṃ |
  若     自         他     與    同     實      樂       喜愛
tadā ātmanaḥ ko viśeṣo yena atra eva sukha-udyamaḥ ||
 則      自       何  差別    若    此  實     樂       勤

8.96
[梵] yadā mama pareṣāṃ ca bhayaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca na priyam
tadātmanaḥ ko viśeṣo yattaṃ rakṣāmi netaram // bca.8.96 //
[英譯] When fear and suffering are equally abhorrent to others and myself, then what is so special about me that I protect myself but not others
[天息災譯] 我若不愛他,彼得諸苦怖,彼苦怖不脫,於自當何勝?
[如石藏譯] 自與他雙方,惡苦既相同,自他何差殊?何故唯自護?
既然自己和別人兩方面,都同樣不喜歡痛苦,那麼他們和我的基本心理需求有何差別呢?爲什麼不愛護別人只愛護自己呢?
[梵文分析]
yadā mama pareṣāṃ ca bhayaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca na priyaṃ |
  若     自         他     與    怖           苦     與 不    喜愛
tadā ātmanaḥ ko viśeṣo yat taṃ rakṣāmi na itaraṃ ||
 則      自      何  差別    若  此     我護   不   他

8.97
[梵] tadduḥkhena na me bādhet yato yadi na rakṣyate
nāgāmikāyaduḥkhānme bādhā tatkena rakṣyate // bca.8.97 //
[英譯] If I do not protect them because I am not afflicted by their suffering, why do I protect my body from the suffering of a future body, which is not my pain?
[天息災譯] 苦害令若得,而由不愛護,未來苦害身,云何而可護?
[如石藏譯] 謂彼不傷吾,故不護他苦;後苦不害今,何故汝防護?
如果說,他的痛苦不會傷害到我,所以不須要愛護他,使他免除痛苦;那麼未來的痛苦現在也不會傷害你,你又何必防範它發生呢?
[梵文分析]
tad-duḥkhena na me bādhā ity ato yadi na rakṣyate |
 彼       苦      不  吾    傷   謂  故   若   不      護
na āgāmi-kāya-duḥkhān me bādhā tat kena rakṣyate ||
不  未來    身        苦      我    傷    彼   何       護

8.98
[梵] aham eva tadāpīti mithyeyaṃ pratikalpanā
anya eva mṛto yasmād anya eva prajāyate // bca.8.98 //
[英譯] The notion that I will experience that is mistaken, for the one who has died is born elsewhere and is someone else.
[天息災譯] 我若住邪見,復起於我慢,如是別得生,如是別得死。
[如石藏譯] 若謂當受苦;此誠邪思惟!亡者他體故,生者亦復然。
如果說:不防患未然將使未來的我受苦;這真是錯誤的想法!今我怎可能受未來苦?因爲死者是今生的人,而未來出生受苦的又是另一個生命體。
[梵文分析]
aham eva tadā api iti mithyā iyaṃ pratikalpanā |
  我    實   則   雖 謂    邪       此       思惟
anya eva mṛto yasmād anya eva prajāyate ||
  他   實  亡者     若       他   實        生

8.99
[梵] yadi yasyaiva yadduḥkhaṃ rakṣyaṃ tasyaiva tanmatam
pādaduḥkhaṃ na hastasya kasmāt tattena rakṣyate // bca.8.99 //
[英譯] If one thinks a person's suffering should be warded off by himself, since pain of the foot is not of the hand, why should the one take care of the other?
[天息災譯] 作罪不作罪,如彼手與足,手足苦不同,云何同說護?
[如石藏譯] 若謂自身苦應由自防護;足苦非手苦,何故手護足?
如果說,發生於一個人身上的任何痛苦,應當由受苦者自己去防護;既然如此,那麼腳上的痛苦不屬於手的,手又何必多管閒事,忙著去保護腳呢?
[梵文分析]
yadi yasya eva yad duḥkhaṃ rakṣyaṃ tasya eva tan mataṃ |
如果   若    實   若       苦         應護     彼    實  彼    所思
pāda-duḥkhaṃ na hastasya kasmāt tat tena rakṣyate ||
  足       苦       非    手         何故  彼   彼      護

8.100
[梵] ayuktam api ced etad ahaṃkārāt pravartate
yad ayuktaṃ nivartyaṃ tat svamanyac ca yathābalam // bca.8.100 //
[英譯] If one argues that even though it is inappropriate, it happens because of a grasping onto a self, our response is: with all ones might, one should avoid that which is inappropriate, whether it belongs to oneself, or to another.
[天息災譯] 以此知不合,心住於我慢,是合當盡斷,彼自宜隨力。
[如石藏譯] 若謂此非理,執我故如此;執自他非理,唯當極力斷。
如果說,防患未然和以手護腳雖不合理,但是只要習慣執以爲我和我的就會這麼做;然而,執著有獨立自存的自他都不合理,應當以無我空慧力斷這種輪迴根本的邪見。
[梵文分析]
ayuktam api ced etad ahaṃkārāt pravartate |
  非理     雖   若   此       我執         起
yad ayuktaṃ nivartyaṃ tat svam anyac ca yathābalaṃ ||
 若     非理       不起      彼   自     他    與      盡力

8.101
[梵] saṃtānaḥ samudāyaś ca paṅktisenādivanmṛṣā
yasya duḥkhaṃ sa nasty asmāt kasya tat svaṃ bhaviṣyati // bca.8.101 //
[英譯] The continuum of consciousness, like a series, and the aggregation of constituents, like an army and such, are unreal. Since one who experiences suffering does not exist, to whom will that suffering belong?
[天息災譯] 種子集次第,排行若軍伍,若此而無苦,彼不知何得?
[如石藏譯] 相續與蘊聚,假名如軍鬘;本無受苦者,誰復除彼苦?
所謂前後生的相續和五蘊的聚合,都只是假名而已,就像念珠和軍隊一樣;除了概念之外,本來就沒有真實的受苦者,哪里還有誰在解除痛苦呢?
[梵文分析]
saṃtānaḥ samudāyaś ca paṅkti-senā-ādi-van mṛṣā |
    相續          聚       與    列      軍   等   如   妄
yasya duḥkhaṃ sa na asty asmāt kasya tat svaṃ bhaviṣyati ||
   若       苦       彼 無  是    故      誰    彼   自        將是

(Ⅱ)結義
8.102
[梵] asvāmikāni duḥkhāni sarvāṇy evāviśeṣataḥ
duḥkhatvād eva vāryāṇi niyamas tatra kiṃ kṛtaḥ // bca.8.102 //
[英譯] All sufferings are without an owner, because they are not different, they should be warded off, simply because they are suffering. Why is any restriction made in this case ?
[天息災譯] 苦本非主宰,世一切不勝,若住於尸羅,是苦不能立。
[如石藏譯] 既無受苦者,諸苦無分別。是苦即當除,何需強區分?
既然沒有真實獨立自存的受苦者,那麼痛苦就沒有自他的差別了。既然都是痛苦,要除就應當一併解除,何必堅持區分自他呢?
[梵文分析]
asvāmikāni duḥkhāni sarvāṇy eva aviśeṣataḥ |
    非主宰        苦         一切    實    無分別
duḥkhatvād eva vāryāṇi niyamas tatra kiṃ kṛtaḥ ||
     苦性       實    當除       需       彼    何   所作

8.103
[梵] duḥkhaṃ kasmān nivāryaṃ cet sarveṣām avivādataḥ
vāryaṃ cet sarvam apy evaṃ na ced ātmani sarvavat // bca.8.103 //
[英譯] Why should suffering be prevented? Because everyone agrees. If it must be warded off, then all of it must be warded off; and if not, then this goes for oneself as it does for everyone else.
[天息災譯] 若住戒淸淨,能障一切苦,一切苦無因,諸苦而無有。
[如石藏譯] 不應有此諍:何需除他苦?欲除悉應除,否則自他如。
既無真實的受苦者,何必消除衆生之苦呢?這種諍難是不合理的。因爲愚癡的衆生仍然會被幻苦所困惑,所以,要除苦就應該連衆生苦一起消除;否則也該一視同仁,保留自己的痛苦。
[梵文分析]
duḥkhaṃ kasmān nivāryaṃ cet sarveṣām avivādataḥ |
     苦          何         應除    若     一切         無諍
vāryaṃ cet sarvam apy evaṃ na ced ātmani sarva-vat ||
  應除    若   一切   雖   如是  不 若      自    一切  如

(Ⅲ)斷諍
8.104
[梵] kṛpayā bahu duḥkhaṃ cet kasmād utpadyate balāt
jagadduḥkhaṃ nirūpyedaṃ kṛpāduḥkhaṃ kathaṃ bahu // bca.8.104 //
[英譯] Qualm: much suffering arises from compassion, so why should one force it to arise? Response: After seeing the suffering of the world, how can this suffering from compassion be considered great?
[天息災譯] 悲苦云何多?何力而能生?思惟於世間,是故悲苦多。
[如石藏譯] 悲心引衆苦,何故強催生?若湣衆生苦,自苦云何增?
悲濟衆生會爲自己引來很多的痛苦,爲什麼要努力激發悲心呢?事實正好相反。如果菩薩一心挂念解除衆生的痛苦,哪有閑情去顧慮自己的痛苦是增是減呢?
[梵文分析]
kṛpayā bahu duḥkhaṃ cet kasmād utpadyate balāt |
   悲       衆       苦       若   何故        生       用力
jagad-duḥkhaṃ nirūpya idaṃ kṛpā-duḥkhaṃ kathaṃ bahu ||
 衆生      苦         了解     此    悲        苦        云何    多

8.105
[梵] bahūnām ekaduḥkhena yadi duḥkhaṃ vigacchati
utpādyam eva tadduḥkhaṃ sadayena parātmanoḥ // bca.8.105 //
[英譯] If the suffering of many disappears because of the suffering of one, then a compassionate person should induce that suffering for his own sake and for the sake of others.
[天息災譯] 一苦而非多,見有情獲得,悲苦如是生,於自他平等。
[如石藏譯] 一苦若能除衆多他人苦,爲利自他故,慈者樂彼苦。
即使悲濟衆生會爲自己帶來更多的痛苦,但是,如果一個人有限的痛苦能取代衆生無邊的痛苦,那麼爲了解救自己和其他的衆生,大慈大悲的菩薩將樂於承擔這種痛苦。
[梵文分析]
bahūnām ekaduḥkhena yadi duḥkhaṃ vigacchati |
    衆多          一苦        若        苦          能除
utpādyam eva tadduḥkhaṃ sadayena para-ātmanoḥ ||
    應生     實         彼苦         慈者      他      自

8.106
[梵] ataḥ supuṣpacandreṇa jānatāpi nṛpāpadam
ātmaduḥkhaṃ na nihataṃ bahūnāṃ duḥkhināṃ vyayāt // bca.8.106 //
[英譯] Therefore, Supuspacandra, although knowing the king's animosity, did not avoid his own suffering as a sacrifice for many people in misery.
[天息災譯] 自苦不消除,欲消除他苦,是故妙人月,說彼有情句。
[如石藏譯] 妙花月雖知國王有害意,然爲盡衆苦,不惜殉自命。
如《月燈三昧經》說:妙花月菩薩雖然知道國王有意害死他,但是爲了使一萬人獲得解脫,他毅然決然地前往說法,並殉道該國。
[梵文分析]
ataḥ supuṣpa-candreṇa jānatā api nṛpa-āpadaṃ |
因此   妙花        月         知    雖   王     害意
ātma-duḥkhaṃ na nihataṃ bahūnāṃ duḥkhināṃ vyayāt ||
  自        苦       不    滅            衆         有苦       消除

(3)等觀自他之利益
8.107
[梵] evaṃ bhāvitasaṃtānāḥ paraduḥkhasamapriyāḥ
avīcim avagāhante haṃsāḥ padmavanaṃ yathā // bca.8.107 //
[英譯] Thus, one whose mind stream is accustomed to meditation and who delights in calming the suffering of others enters into Avichi Hell like a swan into a pool of Lotuses.
[天息災譯] 善者如是觀,他苦平等護,設在無間中,如鵝遊蓮池。
[如石藏譯] 如是修自心,則樂滅他苦;惡獄亦樂往,如鵝趣蓮池。
像這樣修習等觀自他而成熟悲心的菩薩,將會樂於消除他人的痛苦;甚至連無間地獄,菩薩都會欣然前往,就像天鵝歡喜地飛進蓮花池一樣。
[梵文分析]
evaṃ bhāvita-saṃtānāḥ paraduḥkha-samapriyāḥ |
 如是    已修       相續        他苦             樂
avīcim avagāhante haṃsāḥ padma-vanaṃ yathā ||
 無間           往           鵝       蓮        池      如

8.108
[梵] mucyamāneṣu sattveṣu ye te prāmodyasāgarāḥ
tair eva nanu paryāptaṃ mokṣeṇārasikena kim // bca.8.108 //
[英譯] When sentient beings are liberated, they have oceans of joy. Is that not enough? What is the point of desiring ones own liberation?
[天息災譯] 爲解脫有情,彼若歡喜海,如是恒不足,如彼解脫味。
[如石藏譯] 有情若解脫,心喜如大海;此喜寧不足?云何唯自度?
如果菩薩知道有情都解脫了輪回的痛苦,他心中的喜悅一定像大海一樣深廣無涯。這樣的喜悅難道你還不滿意嗎?何必獨自一個人追求寂滅的解脫之樂呢?
[梵文分析]
mucyamāneṣu sattveṣu ye te prāmodya-sāgarāḥ |
      解脫            有情   若 彼      喜         大海
tair eva nanu paryāptaṃ mokṣeṇa arasikena kiṃ ||
 此  實   豈不      足           解脫      無受      何

8.109
[梵] ataḥ parārthaṃ kṛtvāpi na mado na ca vismayaḥ
na vipākaphalākāṅkṣā parārthaikāntatṛṣṇayā // bca.8.109 //
[英譯] Thus, although working for the benefit of others, there is neither conceit nor dismay; and on account of the thirst for the single goal of benefiting others, there is no desire for the result of the maturation of ones Karma.
[天息災譯] 作是利他日,無我無有疑,利他無所求,果報誰云愛?
[如石藏譯] 故雖謀他利,然無驕矜氣。一心樂利他,不望得善報。
因此,菩薩雖然不停地爲衆生謀福利,但絕不會因此而驕矜自滿,洋洋得意。菩薩一心一意只求利他,根本不希望得到任何善報。
[梵文分析]
ataḥ parārthaṃ kṛtvā api na mado na ca vismayaḥ |
 故        他利    已作  雖 不   驕    無 與      愕
na vipāka-phala-ākāṅkṣā parārtha-ekānta-tṛṣṇayā ||
無   異熟    果        望         利他    一向      愛

(4)結勸等觀自他
8.110
[梵] tasmād yathāntaśo 'varṇād ātmānaṃ gopayāmy aham
rakṣācittaṃ dayācittaṃ karomy evaṃ pareṣvapi // bca.8.110 //
[英譯] Therefore, to the extent that I protect myself from disparagement, so shall I generate a spirit of protection and a spirit of compassion toward others.
[天息災譯] 是故我如此,無德而自謂,悲心與護心,爲他如是起。
[如石藏譯] 微如言不遜,吾亦慎防護;如是於他苦,當習悲護心。
自身的痛苦,即使小如別人出言不遜,我也會自動細心地回護,免受傷害;同樣,對於他人的任何失意和痛苦,我也該視同身受,常修慈悲和愛護心。
[梵文分析]
tasmād yathā antaśo ’varṇād ātmānaṃ gopayāmy ahaṃ |
   故        如   乃至      誹謗      我             防護     我
rakṣā-cittaṃ dayā-cittaṃ karomy evaṃ pareṣv api ||
  護      心      悲      心      我作    如是    他    雖

2.自他相換修習法
(1)修相換之可行性
8.111
[梵] abhyāsād anyadīyeṣu śukraśoṇitabinduṣu
bhavaty aham iti jñānam asaty api hi vastuni // bca.8.111 //
[英譯] Due to habituation, there is a sense that "I" exists in the drops of blood and semen that belongs to others, even though the being in question does not exist.
[天息災譯] 智者細微知,輸羯羅血等,智者得了此,觀察物不實。
[如石藏譯] 如親精卵聚,本非吾自身,串習故執取精卵聚爲我。
就像父精母卵聚合而成的受精卵,本來不是我的身體,但因無始以來俱生我執串習的原故,竟然錯誤地把它執取爲我。
[梵文分析]
abhyāsād anyadīyeṣu śukra-śoṇita-binduṣu |
  串習           屬他       精      血        滴
bhavaty aham iti jñānam asaty api hi vastuni ||
    是        我  謂    知     不存  雖  實    事

8.112
[梵] tathākāyo 'nyadīyo 'pi kim ātmeti na gṛhyate
paratvaṃ tu svakāyasya sthitam eva na duṣkaram // bca.8.112 //
[英譯] Why do I not also consider another's body as myself in the same way, the otherness if my own body is not difficult to determine?
[天息災譯] 是身非別作,何以自不知?以自知他身,如是故不難。
[如石藏譯] 如是於他身,何不執爲我?自身換他身,是故亦無難。
同樣,由其他精卵聚合而長成的他人身體,爲何不能藉助理性的思惟而認同爲我呢?所以用自己的身體來替代他身受苦,同樣也不會有什麼困難才是。
[梵文分析]
tathā kāyo ’nyadīyo ’pi kim ātma iti na gṛhyate |
如是   身      屬他     雖  何   我   謂 不    執
paratvaṃ tu svakāyasya sthitam eva na duṣkaram ||
   他身    然     自身          住      實  不    難為

(2)修自他換之理趣
Ⅰ、略示
8.113
[梵] jñātvā sadoṣam ātmānaṃ parānapi guṇodadhīn
ātmabhāvaparityāgaṃ parādānaṃ ca bhāvayet // bca.8.113 //
[英譯] Acknowledging oneself as fault-ridden and others as oceans of virtues, one should contemplate renouncing one's self-identity and accepting others.
[天息災譯] 自知己有過,不知他功德,自性不樂捨,徒觀察他施。
[如石藏譯] 自身過患多,他身功德廣。知已當修習愛他棄我執。
自己,是衆多禍害的淵藪;他人,是廣大功德的泉源。認清了這個道理以後,就應當趕緊修習斷捨我執,友愛他人。
[梵文分析]
jñātvā sadoṣam ātmānaṃ parān api guṇa-udadhīn |
  已知    有過        自          他   雖 功德      海
ātma-bhāva-parityāgaṃ para-ādānaṃ ca bhāvayet ||
 自       性         棄           他      取    與     應修

Ⅱ、詳明
(Ⅰ)應當珍愛他
8.114
[梵] kāyasyāvayavatvena yathābhīṣṭāḥ karādayaḥ
jagato 'vayavatvena tathā kasmān na dehinaḥ // bca.8.114 //
[英譯] Just as the hands and the like are cherished because they are members of the body, why are the embodied beings not cherished in the same way, for they are the members of the world?
[天息災譯] 此身之和合,因緣如拍手,此是世間緣,有情何不知?
[如石藏譯] 衆人皆認許:手足是身肢。如是何不許:有情衆生分?
每一個人都會把手腳等肢體當作是身體的一部分而加以愛護,那麼爲何不同樣把每一位有情都當成法界衆生的一部分而加以愛護呢?
[梵文分析]
kāyasya avayavatvena yathā-abhīṣṭāḥ kara-ādayaḥ |
    身             分              如所欲         手     等
jagato ’vayavatvena tathā kasmān na dehinaḥ ||
 世界            分       同樣     何     不   有情

8.115
[梵] yathātmabuddhir abhyāsāt svakāye 'smin nirātmake
pareṣv api tathātmatvaṃ kim abhyāsān na jāyate // bca.8.115 //
[英譯] Just as the notion of a self with regard to one's own body, which has no personal existence, is due to habitation, will the identity of one's self with others not arise in the same way?
[天息災譯] 云何學無生?如學而自知,自身而非身,以自如他身。
[如石藏譯] 於此無我軀,串習成我所;如是於他身,何不生我覺?
只因爲久久習慣成了自然,在無我的身軀上竟然産生我所有的錯覺;同樣,在其他有情的身上觀修久了,爲何不能生起他身就是我所有的感覺呢?
[梵文分析]
yathā-ātma-buddhir abhyāsāt svakāye ’smin nirātmake |
  如     我       覺         串習      自身       此      無我
pareṣv api tathā-ātmatvaṃ kim abhyāsān na jāyate ||
    他   雖   如是     自        何       串習   不    生

8.116
[梵] evaṃ parārthaṃ kṛtvāpi na mado na ca vismayaḥ
ātmānaṃ bhojayitvaiva phalāśā na ca jāyate // bca.8.116 //
[英譯] Although working for the benefit of others in this way, there is neither conceit nor dismay. Even upon feeding oneself, expectation of a reward does not arise.
[天息災譯] 如是而利他,作已不疑慮,果熟而自受,當獲彼無生。
[如石藏譯] 故雖謀他利,然無驕矜氣;如人自喂食,未曾盼回報。
若能以他爲自,那麼就算整天爲人謀福利,心裏也不會有絲毫驕矜之氣;就像是自己喂飽了自己,從來不希望有任何回饋或善報。
[梵文分析]
evaṃ parārthaṃ kṛtvā api na mado na ca vismayaḥ |
 如是     他利      已作 雖  無   驕   無 與      愕 
ātmānaṃ bhojayitvā eva phala-āśā na ca jāyate ||
    自           受用      實    果    望  不 與   生

8.117
[梵] tasmād yathārtiśokāder ātmānaṃ goptum icchasi
rakṣācittaṃ dayācittaṃ jagaty abhyasyatāṃ tathā // bca.8.117 //
[英譯] Therefore, just as you protect yourself from even minor disparagement, cultivate a spirit of protection and a spirit of compassion toward the world.
[天息災譯] 是故世間學,悲心與護心。
[如石藏譯] 微如言不遜,吾亦慎回護;如是于衆生,當習悲護心。
自身的痛苦,即使小如別人出言不遜,我也會自動細心地回護,免受傷害;同樣,對於衆生的任何失意和痛苦,我也該視同身受,常修慈悲和愛護心。
[梵文分析]
tasmād yathā-ārti-śoka-āder ātmānaṃ goptum icchasi |
   故        如   痛   憂    等        己         防護     你欲
rakṣā-cittaṃ dayā-cittaṃ jagaty abhyasyatāṃ tathā ||
  護      心      悲      心    衆生         修          如是   

8.118
[梵] adhyatiṣṭhad atho nāthaḥ scanāmāpy avalokitaḥ
parṣacchāradyabhayam apy apanetuṃ janasya hi // bca.8.118 //
[英譯] Hence, out of great compassion Lord Avalokita (Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara) blessed his own name to dispel even the anxiety of being in a crowd.
[天息災譯] 此愛心自蔽,深重如煩惱,知有情怖畏,爲師而示學。
[如石藏譯] 怙主觀世音,爲除衆怖畏,湧現大悲心,加持自聖號。
因此,大悲深切的怙主觀世音菩薩,甚至爲了消除衆生畏懼群衆等不安的心理,慈悲地加持自己的名號,使稱念名號的人獲得平安與寧靜。
[梵文分析]
adhyatiṣṭhad atho nāthaḥ svanāma apy avalokitaḥ |
       加持       則    怙主     自名     雖     觀世音
parṣa-cchāradya-bhayam apy apanetuṃ janasya hi ||
   衆       怯弱        怖畏   雖        除         人     實

8.119
[梵] duṣkarān na nivarteta yasmād abhyāsaśaktitaḥ
yasyaiva śravaṇāt trāsas tenaiva na vinā ratiḥ // bca.8.119 //
[英譯] One should not turn away from difficulty, since owing to the power of habituation, one may have no pleasure in the absence of something that one previously feared to hear mentioned.
[天息災譯] 若能如是學,雖難而不退,沙門見怖畏,彼無得護者。
[如石藏譯] 聞名昔喪膽,因久習近故,失彼竟寡歡;知難應莫退。
從前,連聽到名字都令人發抖的仇敵,由於長久親近熟悉、和樂相處的原故,現在不見人影,反而會覺得若有所失;所以要耐心修習,千萬不要知難而退。
[梵文分析]
duṣkarān na nivarteta yasmād abhyāsa-śaktitaḥ |
   難作    不     應退        若        習         力 
yasya eva śravaṇāt trāsas tena eva na vinā ratiḥ ||
   若    實      聞      怖畏   此   實  不   無   樂

8.120
[梵] ātmānaṃ ca parāṃś caiva yaḥ śīghraṃ trātum icchati
sa caret paramaṃ guhyaṃ parātmaparivartanam // bca.8.120 //
[英譯] One who wishes to protect oneself and others quickly should practice exchanging oneself for others, which is a great mystery.
[天息災譯] 若自及與他,急速而當救。
[如石藏譯] 若人欲速疾救護自與他,當修自他換勝妙秘密訣。
如果有人想要以最迅速有效的方法,救護自己和其他衆生免除一切痛苦,那麼他應當努力修習這種自他換的法門;因爲這是一切成佛法門中最殊勝的秘訣了。
[梵文分析]
ātmānaṃ ca aparāṃś ca eva yaḥ śīghraṃ trātum icchati |
    自       與      他     與 實   若     速疾    救護     欲
sa caret paramaṃ guhyaṃ parātma-parivartanam ||
彼 應修     上          秘密     自他           轉換

(Ⅱ)應當除自愛
8.121
[梵] yasmin nātmany atisnehād alpād api bhayād bhayam
na dviṣet kas tam ātmānaṃ śatruvadyo bhayāvahaḥ // bca.8.121 //
[英譯] If even at a small danger fear arises on account of great attachment to oneself, why should one not abhor that self like a terrifying enemy?
[天息災譯] 瞋如冤怖多,無愛怖獲少,以最上祕密,自他轉行利。
[如石藏譯] 貪著自身故,小怖亦生畏。於此生懼身,誰不似敵瞋?
由於我們太過於貪著自己的身體,所以連最微不足道的險難也會産生畏懼。對於這一切恐懼之源的身體,哪個智者會不當作敵人一樣地瞋恨呢?
[梵文分析]
yasminn ātmany atisnehād alpād api bhayād bhayam |
    若          自        貪著      小    雖      怖       畏
na dviṣet kas tam ātmānaṃ śatruvad yo bhayāvahaḥ ||
不    瞋    誰   此      已         似敵    若      怖畏的

8.122
[梵] yo mandyakṣutpipāsādipratīkāracikīrṣayā
pakṣimatsyamṛgān hanti paripanthaṃ ca tiṣṭhati // bca.8.122 //
[英譯] One who kills birds, fish, and deer, and sets up an ambush with the desire to quell illness, thirst, and hunger,
[天息災譯] 水陸與飛空,勿令人住殺,由若於今時,救度於飢渴。
[如石藏譯] 千般欲療除饑渴身疾者,捕殺魚鳥獸,伺機劫道途。
有些貪愛自己身體的人,爲了解除自身的饑渴等疾病,不惜捕殺池魚、飛鳥和走獸,甚至埋伏在道途中,等待機會搶劫行人。
[梵文分析]
yo mandya-kṣut-pipāsa-ādi-pratīkāra-cikīrṣayā |
若     疾       饑    渴     等      對治         欲
pakṣi-matsya-mṛgān hanti paripanthaṃ ca tiṣṭhati ||
  鳥       魚       鹿       殺          障        與    立

8.123
[梵] yo lābhasatkriyāhetoḥ pitarāv api mārayet
ratnatrayasvam ādadyād yenāvīcīndhano bhavet // bca.8.123 //
[英譯] One, who kills one's parents and steals the property of The Three Jewels for the sake of profit and respect, will become fuel in the Avichi Hell.
[天息災譯] 若人爲財利,殺父毀三寶,見世惡莊嚴,死得阿鼻材。
[如石藏譯] 或爲求利敬,乃至殺父母,盜取三寶物,以是焚無間。
有些人爲了財利和別人的恭敬服侍,甚至不惜造作極重的罪業,如殺害親生的父母、盜取三寶財物等等,以至於來生墮落無間地獄,被烈火焚燒。
[梵文分析]
yo lābha-satkriyā-hetoḥ pitarāv api mārayet |
若   財         敬      因      父母  雖      殺 
ratna-traya-svam ādadyād yena-avīci-indhano bhavet ||
  寶     三    財物       取     若    無間      材      應是

8.124
[梵] kaḥ paṇḍitas tam ātmānam icched rakṣet prapūjayet
na paśyec chatruvac cainaṃ kaś cainaṃ pratimānayet // bca.8.124 //
[英譯] What wise person would desire, protect, and venerate such a self? Who would not see it as an enemy, and who would respect it?
[天息災譯] 何有於智者,見愛而供養,見冤不欲睹,供養云何說?
[如石藏譯] 有誰聰智者欲護供此身?誰不視如仇?誰不輕蔑彼?
哪一個有智慧的人還會去貪愛、保護和供養這個身體呢?哪一個智者會不把它看成仇敵呢?哪一個有智慧的人會不厭棄它呢?
[梵文分析]
kaḥ paṇḍitas tam ātmānam icched rakṣet prapūjayet |
 誰     智者    此       己          欲      護        供
na paśyec chatru-vac ca enaṃ kaś ca enaṃ pratimānayet ||
不     視       仇    如  與   此    誰  與   此          尊敬

(Ⅲ)愛自與愛他之利弊
i.廣說
8.125
[梵] yadi dāsyāmi kiṃ bhokṣya ity ātmārthe piśācatā
yadi bhokṣye kiṃ dadāmīti parārthe devarājatā // bca.8.125 //
[英譯] If, out of concern for oneself, one thinks: "if I give it away, what shall I enjoy?" This is a fiendish state. If out of concern for others one thinks: "if I enjoy it, what shall I give away?" This is a divine state.
[天息災譯] 斯鬼而自利,捨之而何受,利他而不生,云何捨受用?
[如石藏譯] 若施何能享?自利餓鬼道。自享何所施?利他人天法。
如果全部佈施光了,我還能享有什麼呢?這種自私的想法,是墮落餓鬼的管道。如果自己享用完了,拿什麼去佈施呢?這種利他的善念,是歡樂人天的法則。
[梵文分析]
yadi dāsyāmi kiṃ bhokṣya ity ātmārthe piśācatā |
 若      我施    何      享用  謂     自利     餓鬼性
yadi bhokṣye kiṃ dadāmi iti parārthe devarājatā ||
  若       享      何      施    謂    利他     天王性

8.126
[梵] ātmārthaṃ pīḍayitvānyaṃ narakādiṣu pacyate
ātmānaṃ pīḍayitvā tu parārthaṃ sarvasaṃpadaḥ // bca.8.126 //
[英譯] Upon harming another for one's own sake, one is burnt in hells and the like; but upon afflicting oneself for the sake of others, one has success in everything.
[天息災譯] 以自利害他,地獄而別生,自害而利他,諸功德具足。
[如石藏譯] 爲自而害他,將受地獄苦。損己以利人,一切圓滿成。
如果爲自己而傷害了別人的身家性命,那麼一定會慘遭地獄等惡趣的痛苦。如果爲了別人而損失自己的身財性命,那麼福智資糧和利生事業都將圓滿成就。
[梵文分析]
ātmārthaṃ pīḍayitvā anyaṃ narakādiṣu pacyate |
     爲自          害        他        地獄等      所燒
ātmānaṃ pīḍayitvā tu parārthaṃ sarva-saṃpadaḥ ||
      自          損      然      利他    一切     圓滿

8.127
[梵] durgatir nīcatā maurkhyaṃ yayaivātmonnatīcchayā
tām evānyatra saṃkrāmya sugatiḥ satkṛtir matiḥ // bca.8.127 //
[英譯] The desire for self-aggrandizement leads to a miserable state of existence, low status, and stupidity. By transferring that same desire to someone else, one obtains a fortunate state of existence, respect, and wisdom.
[天息災譯] 作意善逝見,如是行別處,下劣不自愛,愚癡投惡趣。
[如石藏譯] 欲求自高者,卑愚墮惡趣。回此舉薦他,受敬上善道。
那些只求自己高高在上的傲慢之徒,來生一定會變得卑微愚癡,甚至墮落惡趣。如果回轉我慢的心態而薦舉提攜他人,那麼後世將在人天善趣中廣受尊敬。
[梵文分析]
durgatir nīcatā maurkhyaṃ yayā eva ātma-unnati-icchayā |
  惡趣       卑         愚           若   實   自       高      欲求
tām eva anyatra saṃkrāmya sugatiḥ satkṛtir matiḥ ||
 此   實    他處        轉          善道       敬       智

8.128
[梵] ātmārthaṃ param ājñapya dāsatvādy anubhūyate
parārthaṃ tv enam ājñapya svāmitvādy anubhūyate // bca.8.128 //
[英譯] By ordering another around for ones own sake, one experiences the position of a servant and the like; but by ordering oneself around for the sake of others, one experiences the position of a master and the like.
[天息災譯] 自利知微細,今當墮奴僕,利他微細知,當爲自在主。
[如石藏譯] 爲己役他者,終遭僕役苦。勞自以利他,當封王侯爵。
如果爲了自己的安樂而役使別人,來生就會轉成他人的僕役,一任差遣。如果是爲了別人的幸福而勞碌自己,來生將轉爲王公貴族,享有官爵和權勢。
[梵文分析]
ātmārthaṃ param ājñapya dāsatva-ādy anubhūyate |
     爲己        他      命令     僕役    等       經歷
parārthaṃ tv enam ājñapya svāmitva-ādy anubhūyate ||
    利他     然   此     命令        主人    等       經歷

ii.結義
8.129
[梵] ye kecid duḥkhitā loke sarve te svasukhecchayā
ye kecit sukhitā loke sarve te 'nyasukhecchayā // bca.8.129 //
[英譯] All those who are unhappy in the world are so as a result of their desire for their own happiness. All those who are happy in the world are so as a result of their desire for the happiness of others.
[天息災譯] 世有諸苦者,昔自迷貪愛,世諸快樂者,於他昔利樂。
[如石藏譯] 所有世間樂,悉從利他生。一切世間苦,咸由自利成。
所有這世間上的種種快樂,都是從謀求別人的幸福而逐漸緣生的。所有這世間上的一切痛苦,都是由追求自己的安樂而暗中形成的。
[梵文分析]
ye kecid duḥkhitā loke sarve te sva-sukha-icchayā |
   一切       苦      世間   咸   彼  自    樂        欲
ye kecit sukhitā loke sarve te ’nya-sukha-icchayā ||
    所有      樂   世間   悉   彼   他     樂        欲

8.130
[梵] bahunā vā kim uktena dṛśyatām idam antaram
svārthārthinaś ca bālasya muneś cānyārthakāriṇaḥ // bca.8.130 //
[英譯] Enough of such talk! Note the difference between the fool who seeks his own benefit, and the sage who works for the benefit of others.
[天息災譯] 何要多種說,此中間已見,愚迷樂自爲,牟尼利他作。
[如石藏譯] 何需更繁敘?凡愚求自利,牟尼唯利他,且觀此二別!
這些道理明白易曉,何必再多費唇舌呢?愚笨的凡夫不斷追求自利,卻慘遭痛苦;牟尼一切智者一向利益衆生,終成正覺。你瞧,這兩方面的功過得失差距有多大!
[梵文分析]
bahunā vā kim uktena dṛśyatām idam antaram |
   多     或   何     所說  見(impr.)  此     差別
sva-artha-arthinaś ca bālasya muneś ca anya-artha-kāriṇaḥ ||
 自   利        求     與     愚     牟尼   與   他     利     作

(Ⅳ)不相換之過失
8.131
[梵] na nāma sādhyaṃ buddhatvaṃ saṃsāre 'pi kutaḥ sukham
svasukhasyānyaduḥkhena parivartam akurvataḥ // bca.8.131 //
[英譯] One, who does not exchange his own happiness for the suffering of others, surely does not achieve Buddhahood. How could one find happiness even in the cycle of existence?
[天息災譯] 不求佛菩提,輪迴何得樂?自苦欲與他,迴轉無由得。
[如石藏譯] 若不以自樂真實換他苦,非僅不成佛,生死亦無樂。
如果一個人不能學習以自己的幸福真誠地去替換別人的痛苦,那麼未來非但不能修成圓滿的佛果,即使在生死中也不會有快活的日子。
[梵文分析]
na nāma sādhyaṃ buddhatvaṃ saṃsāre ’pi kutaḥ sukham |
不   實        成             佛            生死   雖   何       樂
sva-sukhasya anya-duḥkhena parivartam akurvataḥ ||
 自        樂       他         苦            換           不作

8.132
[梵] āstāṃ tāvat paro loko dṛṣṭo 'py artho na sidhyati
bhṛtyasyākurvataḥ karma svāmino 'dadato bhṛtim // bca.8.132 //
[英譯] Not to mention the next life, even in this life, a desired goal of a servant who does not do his work, and of a master who does not pay out the wages, cannot be accomplished.
[天息災譯] 觀察於後世,善利不成就,於奴僕起業,主者而返受。
[如石藏譯] 後世且莫論;今生不爲僕,顧主不予酬,難成現世利。
暫且不論自私自利者來生會如何受報。在現世,如果一個人不委屈自己爲人工作,顧主就不會支付薪資和酬勞;這樣,就連今生最起碼的需求也都無法滿足了。
[梵文分析]
āstāṃ tāvat paro loko dṛṣṭo ’py artho na sidhyati |
   ?     ?     後    世    現    雖    利   不     成
bhṛtyasya akurvataḥ karma svāmino ’dadato bhṛtim ||
    僕            不爲      業           主      不予      酬

8.133
[梵] tyaktvānyo 'nyasukhotpādaṃ dṛṣṭādṛṣṭasukhotsavam
anyo 'nyaduḥkhanād ghoraṃ duḥkhaṃ gṛhṇanti mohitāḥ // bca.8.133 //
[英譯] Forsaking the generation of mutual happiness and the felicity of present and future happiness, deluded people take on tremendous suffering because of harming one another.
[天息災譯] 互相之利樂,迷者見而離,而返互相苦,當受惡苦報。
[如石藏譯] 利他能成樂,否則樂盡失;害他令受苦,愚者定遭殃。
利他,能使我們成就今生和後世的安樂,不利他,將完全喪失一切圓滿的快樂。如果是爲了自利而傷害別人,令他受苦,那麼這個笨蛋一定會遭受劇大的災難。
[梵文分析]
tyaktvā anyo ’nya-sukha-utpādaṃ dṛṣṭa-adṛṣṭa-sukha-utsavam |
   已捨      彼此       樂        生        今     後       樂         宴
anyo ’nya-duḥkhanād ghoraṃ duḥkhaṃ gṛhṇanti mohitāḥ ||
    彼此           苦            怖         苦          取         愚者

(Ⅴ)結成定須相換
8.134
[梵] upadravā ye ca bhavanti loke yāvanti duḥkhāni bhayāni caiva
sarvāṇi tāny ātmaparigraheṇa tat kiṃ mamānena parigraheṇa // bca.8.134 //
[英譯] If all the harm, fear, and suffering in the world occur due to grasping onto the self, what use is that great demon to me?
[天息災譯] 若得世間災,乃至驚怖苦,彼一切自作,云何而此作?
[如石藏譯] 世間諸災害、怖畏及衆苦,悉由我執生,留彼何所爲?
我們生活在這個世間上,所遭遇到的一切災難、恐怖和痛苦,如果都是從我執産生出來的,那麼我還留著這個惡魔做什麼呢?
[梵文分析]
upadravā ye ca bhavanti loke yāvanti duḥkhāni bhayāni ca eva |
    災害    若 與     是     世間   乃至       苦          怖畏   及 實
sarvāṇi tāny ātma-parigraheṇa tat kiṃ mama anena parigraheṇa ||
  一切    彼    我          執        彼   何     我      彼         執

8.135
[梵] ātmānam aparityajya duḥkhaṃ tyaktuṃ na śakyate
yathāgnim aparityajya dāhaṃ tyaktuṃ na śakyate // bca.8.135 //
[英譯] Without forsaking one's own self, one cannot avoid suffering, just as without avoiding the fire one cannot avoid being burned.
[天息災譯] 不能捨自身,於苦不能離,如不離於火,不能遠燒害。
[如石藏譯] 我執未盡捨,苦必不能除;如火未抛棄,不免受灼傷。
假如不能完全捨棄自我愛執,那麼必定不能根除一切自他的痛苦;就像不及時抛棄手中的火把,便難免會被火燒傷一樣。
[梵文分析]
ātmānam aparityajya duḥkhaṃ tyaktuṃ na śakyate |
       我         未捨          苦            除    不     能
yathā agnim aparityajya dāhaṃ tyaktuṃ na śakyate ||
   如     火         未捨        灼         除     不     能

8.136
[梵] tasmāt svaduḥkhaśāntyarthaṃ paraduḥkhaśamāya ca
dadāmy anyebhya ātmānaṃ parān gṛhṇāmi cātmavat // bca.8.136 //
[英譯] Therefore, in order to alleviate my own suffering and to alleviate the suffering of others, I give myself up to others, and I accept others as my own self.
[天息災譯] 自苦若能除,能消除他苦,以彼自他受,是故而取喻。
[如石藏譯] 故爲止自害,及滅他痛苦,捨自盡施他,愛他如愛己。
所以爲了中止我執繼續傷害自己,也爲了永遠滅除有情的種種痛苦,我應當努力練習把自己完全施捨給別人,並且愛護衆生就如同愛惜自己一樣。
[梵文分析]
tasmāt svaduḥkha-śānty-arthaṃ paraduḥkha-śamāya ca |
   故         自苦     息滅      爲          他苦          滅    及
dadāmy anyebhya ātmānaṃ parān gṛhṇāmi ca ātmavat ||
  我給        他             自        他       取     與    如己

(Ⅵ)自他換之原則
8.137
[梵] anyasaṃbaddham asmīti niścayaṃ kuru me manaḥ
sarvasattvārtham utsṛjya nānyac cintyaṃ tvayādhunā // bca.8.137 //
[英譯] O mind, make this resolve: "I am bound to others." From now on you must not be concerned with anything but the welfare of all sentient beings.
[天息災譯] 汝今無別思,利益諸有情,汝決定作意,因業有分別。
[如石藏譯] 意汝定當知:吾已全屬他。除利有情想,切莫更思餘。
意識啊!自他相換以後,你一定要認清:「我已經完全屬於別人了。」因此,除了利益一切有情以外,今後你不要再費心其他的事了。
[梵文分析]
anya-saṃbaddham asmi iti niścayaṃ kuru he manaḥ |
  他          所繫      我是 謂      定      應作 啊   意!
sarva-sattva-artham utsṛjya na anyac cintyaṃ tvayā adhunā ||
一切   有情    利益      除    莫   他       應思      你      今

8.138
[梵] na yuktaṃ svārthadṛṣṭyādi tadīyaiś cakṣurādibhiḥ
na yuktaṃ syandituṃ svārtham anyadīyaiḥ karādibhiḥ // bca.8.138 //
[英譯] It is inappropriate to seek one's own welfare with the eyes and so on that are dedicated to others. It is inappropriate to pour one's own benefit with hands that are dedicated to others.
[天息災譯] 眼以見爲能,所觀不爲眼,手以執爲用,所持寧爲手?
[如石藏譯] 不應以他眼成辦自利益,亦莫以眼等邪惡待衆生。
你不能再用屬於別人的眼、耳等六根,謀求自己的利益;更不能用屬於他人的眼、耳等六根,來做傷害衆生的事情。
[梵文分析]
na yuktaṃ svārtha-dṛṣṭy-ādi tadīyaiś cakṣur-ādibhiḥ |
不   相應     自利     見   等    屬他       眼        等
na yuktaṃ syandituṃ svārtham anyadīyaiḥ kara-ādibhiḥ ||
不   相應       灌注         自利         屬他       手      等

8.139
[梵] tena sattvaparo bhūtvā kāye 'smin yad yad īkṣase
tat tad evāpahṛtyāsmāt parebhyo hitam ācara // bca.8.139 //
[英譯] Therefore, becoming subservient to sentient beings, and snatching away whatever you see on this body, use it for the well being of others.
[天息災譯] 但爲諸有情,亦不住身見,離見乃善逝,常行如是利。
[如石藏譯] 故當尊有情;己身所有物,見已咸取出,廣利諸衆生。
總之,應當尊重有情,一切以有情爲至上;每當見到自己有別人需要的東西時,都要儘量拿出來佈施,廣泛地利益其他衆生。
[梵文分析]
tena sattvaparo bhūtvā kāye ’smin yad yad īkṣase |
 故     他有情     已是     身     此    若   若    見
tat tad eva apahṛtya asmāt parebhyo hitam ācara ||
彼  彼  實    取出      此        他          利    應行

(3)思惟修自他換之方式
Ⅰ.略說
8.140
[梵] hīnādiṣv ātmatāṃ kṛtvā paratvam api cātmani
bhāvayerṣyāṃ ca mānaṃ ca nirvikalpyena cetasā // bca.8.140 //
[英譯] Placing your own identity in inferior ones and placing the identity of others in your own self, cultivate envy and pride with the mind free of discursive thoughts.
[天息災譯] 見彼下品人,而起自他見,雖觀彼憎愛,我心不疑惑。
[如石藏譯] 易位卑等高,移自換爲他,以無疑慮心,修妒競勝慢。
先想出較低、相等和高於自己的三種物件,其次,把自己和這三種物件交換易位,然後再以易位後的身分,毫不猶疑地,對易位前的自己引生嫉妒、競爭和我慢,藉此挖掘自己嫉、爭和傲慢心而對治之,進而體諒別人的嫉、爭和傲慢而悲湣之。
[梵文分析]
hīna-ādiṣv ātmatāṃ kṛtvā paratvam api ca ātmani |
 卑     等        自      已作      他性   雖  與    自
bhāvaya īrṣyāṃ ca mānaṃ ca nirvikalpyena cetasā ||
 你應修     妒    與    慢     與      無疑慮         心

Ⅱ、廣明
(Ⅰ)對高者修妒
8.141
[梵] eṣa satkriyate nāhaṃ lābhī nāham ayaṃ yathā
stūyate 'yam ahaṃ nindyo duḥkhito 'ham ayaṃ sukhī // bca.8.141 //
[英譯] He is respected, not I. I am not wealthy, as he is. He is praised, while I am despised. I am unhappy, while he is happy.
[天息災譯] 作此善無我,獲得無我我,大毀及讚歎,無苦亦無樂。
[如石藏譯] 蒙敬彼非我,吾財不如彼,受讚他非我,彼樂吾受苦。
他受人尊敬,而我卻廣遭歧視;我的收入遠不如他那麼多;他受到稱讚,而我反遭訶責;他稱心如意而我卻深受痛苦。
[梵文分析]
eṣa satkriyate na ahaṃ lābhī na aham ayaṃ yathā |
 彼     被敬    非    我     財  不    我      彼     如
stūyate ’yam ahaṃ nindyo duḥkhito ’ham ayaṃ sukhī ||
 受讚      他    我     訶責      受苦        我    彼    有樂

8.142
[梵] ahaṃ karomi karmāṇi tiṣṭhaty eṣa tu susthitaḥ
ayaṃ kila mahālloke nīco 'haṃ kila nirguṇaḥ // bca.8.142 //
[英譯] I do chores while he lives at ease. It seems he is great in the world, while I am debased, lacking in good qualities.
[天息災譯] 我所作業因,獲彼善安住,謙下世最上,無德乃有德。
[如石藏譯] 工作吾勤苦,度日彼安逸;世間盛讚彼,身敗吾名裂。
我必須辛辛苦苦地工作,而他卻可以悠悠閑閑地過活;他受到世間廣大的讚譽,而我卻一直默默無聞,甚至身敗名裂。
[梵文分析]
ahaṃ karomi karmāṇi tiṣṭhaty eṣa tu susthitaḥ |
  吾      作         業          住     彼 然    安住
ayaṃ kila mahāṃl loke nīco ’haṃ kila nirguṇaḥ ||
  彼    實      大     世間  卑     吾    實      無德

8.143
[梵] kiṃ nirguṇena kartavyaṃ sarvasyātmā guṇānvitaḥ
santi te yeṣv ahaṃ nīcaḥ santi te yeṣv ahaṃ varaḥ // bca.8.143 //
[英譯] What can one do without good qualities? Every person is endowed with good qualities. There are those with regard to whom I am inferior, and there are those with regard to whom I am superior.
[天息災譯] 以彼德不稱,一切德自有,謙下而若此,勝我由斯得。
[如石藏譯] 無才何所爲?才學衆悉有;彼較某人劣,吾亦勝某人。
如果我一無可取,那該怎麼辦呢?其實,我和其他人多少總是有點本事的。或許他比我強,但勝他一籌的大有人在,我自己也強過很多人,因此用不著氣餒。
[梵文分析]
kiṃ nirguṇena kartavyaṃ sarvasya ātmā guṇa-anvitaḥ |
 何      無德          應爲       一切      我     德     具有
santi te yeṣv ahaṃ nīcaḥ santi te yeṣv ahaṃ varaḥ ||
 有   彼   若    我     劣     有   彼  若    吾      勝

8.144
[梵] śīladṛṣṭivipattyādikleśaśaktyā na madvaśāt
cikitsyo 'haṃ yathāśakti pīḍāpy aṅgīkṛtā mayā // bca.8.144 //
[英譯] The degeneration of my ethical discipline, views, and so on is due to the power of mental afflictions and not my own free will. You must heal me as well as you can, and I shall accept the pain.
[天息災譯] 離戒見煩惱,由得無我力,如醫諸病人,隨藥力痊差。
[如石藏譯] 戒見衰退等,因惑而非我;故應悲濟我,困則自取受。
我的戒律廢弛和見解衰退是情有可原的,因爲那是由於煩惱而不是我個人的意願。如果他真有悲心,就應該盡力幫助我;倘若遭遇困難,他自己也該欣然忍受。
[梵文分析]
śīla-dṛṣṭi-vipatty-ādi-kleśa-śaktyā na mad-vaśāt |
 戒   見     衰退   等    惑       力    非  我   意願
cikitsyo ’haṃ yathāśakti pīḍā apy aṅgīkṛtā mayā ||
 應救濟    我      隨力       苦   雖       受      我

8.145
[梵] athāham acikitsyo 'sya kasmān mām avamanyate
kiṃ mamaitadguṇaiḥ kṛtyam ātmā tu guṇavān ayam // bca.8.145 //
[英譯] If he cannot cure me, why does he disdain me? What use are his good qualities to me when he is the one who has good qualities?
[天息災譯] 我如是救療,自見而云何?然自有功德,彼德我無住。
[如石藏譯] 然吾未蒙濟,竟然反遭輕;彼雖具功德,于我有何益?
可是我不但沒有受到他的提攜,反而還倍受輕視;真是可惡!雖然他才高學廣,能文善道,但是那些才學對我有什麼好處呢?
[梵文分析]
atha aham acikitsyo ’sya kasmān mām avamanyate |
 然     吾     未蒙濟   彼      何       我        輕視 
kiṃ mama etad-guṇaiḥ kṛtyam ātmā tu guṇavān ayam ||
 何     我     此    德         用       我  然   有德      彼

8.146
[梵] durgativyāḍavaktrasthenaivāsya karuṇā jane
aparān guṇamānena paṇḍitān vijigīṣate // bca.8.146 //
[英譯] He has no compassion for beings who dwell in the jaws of the beast of prey of miserable states of existence. Moreover, out of pride in his qualities, he desires to surpass the wise.
[天息災譯] 地獄之惡門,於彼愁不生,以有功德故,斯乃爲智者。
[如石藏譯] 不愍愚衆生危陷惡趣口,向外誇己德,欲勝諸智者。
他對無德無知、身陷惡趣口中的衆生,根本視若無睹,毫無悲愍之情;可是卻一心一意向外矜誇自己的才學,想藉此勝過其他有才學的人。
[梵文分析]
durgati-vyāḍa-vaktra-sthena eva asya karuṇā jane |
 惡趣       獸      口       住    實   彼     悲     衆生
aparāṃ guṇa-mānena paṇḍitān vijigīṣate ||
   其他    德      慢         智者      欲勝

(Ⅱ)對等者修爭
8.147
[梵] samam ātmānam ālokya yateta svādhikyavṛddhaye
kalahenāpi saṃsādhyaṃ lābhasatkāram ātmanaḥ // bca.8.147 //
[英譯] Seeing himself as being equal to others in order to enhance his own superiority, he will obtain wealth and respect for himself even by means of discord.
[天息災譯] 若自平等觀,利益自增長,自利分尊卑,鬥諍而成就。
[如石藏譯] 爲令自優勝利能等我者,縱諍亦冀得財利與恭敬。
爲了使自己高人一等,勝過財利、能力等各方面和我相等的人,甚至不惜出面和他爭辯,也希望能擊敗他,爲自己贏得更多的財利和恭敬。
[梵文分析]
samam ātmānam ālokya yat eta sva-ādhikya-vṛddhaye |
   等          我        視     若  彼   自    優勝       增長
kalahena api saṃsādhyaṃ lābha-satkāram ātmanaḥ ||
     諍      雖      冀得           財         敬        己

8.148
[梵] api sarvatra me loke bhaveyuḥ prakaṭāḥ guṇāḥ
api nāma guṇā ye 'sya na śroṣyanty api kecana // bca.8.148 //
[英譯] Were my good qualities to become apparent to everyone in the world, then no one would ever even hear of his good qualities.
[天息災譯] 此一切世間,誰得見功德,若此功德名,不聞此人得。
[如石藏譯] 極力稱吾德,令名揚世間;克抑彼功德,不令世人聞。
一方面,我將盡力宣揚自己的功德,好讓美名傳遍世界各地;另一方面,我還要壓抑他的功德,不讓任何人聽到他的優點。
[梵文分析]
api sarvatra me loke bhaveyuḥ prakaṭāḥ guṇāḥ |
雖     處處   我   世      願是        明顯      德
api nāma guṇā ye ’sya na śroṣyanty api kecana ||
雖     實     德  若   彼  不    將聞     雖    任何

8.149
[梵] chādyerann api me doṣāḥ syān me pūjāsya no bhavet
sulabdhā adya me lābhāḥ pūjito 'ham ayaṃ na tu // bca.8.149 //
[英譯] Were not my faults to be concealed, there would be honor for me and not for him. Today, I have easily acquired possessions. I am honored while he is not.
[天息災譯] 罪蓋覆心寶,是不自供養,於自利益分,而總不獲得。
[如石藏譯] 復當隱吾過,受供而非他;令我獲大利,受敬而非他。
我更要設法隱藏自己的過失,使自己廣受供養,而不讓他得到分毫;使我今後獲得名位財利,受到恭敬,不讓他獲得任何名利與恭敬。
[梵文分析]
chādyerann api me doṣāḥ syān me pūjā asya no bhavet |
    應隱        雖  吾   過    應是 我   供     他  非  應是 
sulabdhā adya me lābhāḥ pūjito ’ham ayaṃ na tu ||
 善已得     今  我     利      供      我      他  不 然

8.150
[梵] paśyāmo muditās tāvac cirād enaṃ khalīkṛtam
hāsyaṃ janasya sarvasya nindyamānam itas tataḥ // bca.8.150 //
[英譯] Delighted, we shall watch him, as he is finally being ill treated, ridiculed and reviled from all sides.
[天息災譯] 有見而暫喜,久久必不喜,如是一切人,哂笑而毀訾。
[如石藏譯] 吾喜觀望彼,淪落久遭難,令受衆嘲諷,競相共責難。
我滿懷著幸災樂禍的心理,希望看見他長久淪落,慘遭危難;我要使他成爲衆人嘲諷的笑柄,以及大家競相指責的物件。
[梵文分析]
paśyāmo muditās tāvac cirād enaṃ khalīkṛtam |
  我們看     歡喜    實     久     此        惡對待
hāsyaṃ janasya sarvasya nindyamānam itas tataḥ ||
 受嘲諷     人       一切           責難          處處

(Ⅲ)對卑者修慢
8.151
[梵] asyāpi hi varākasya spardhā kila mayā saha
kim asya śrutam etāvat prajñārūpaṃ kulaṃ dhanam // bca.8.151 //
[英譯] Also, it seems this wretched one is competing with me does he have this much learning, wisdom, beauty, noble ancestry, and wealth?
[天息災譯] 下劣心我慢,自勝嫌人同,誇智慧顏容,種族財富等。
[如石藏譯] 據云此狂徒欲與吾相爭,才貌與慧識、種性寧等我?
據說,這個不知天高地厚的狂人,竟然想和我一較高下,難道他的見聞、才智、相貌、出身和財富能和我相比嗎?因此,
[梵文分析]
asya api hi varākasya spardhā kila mayā saha |
  此  雖 實     可憐         爭    據云    吾    與
kim asya śrutam etāvat prajñā rūpaṃ kulaṃ dhanam ||
  何   此    多聞    乃至    慧      貌      種性       財

8.152
[梵] evam ātmaguṇāñ śrutvā kīrtyamānānitas tataḥ
saṃjātapulako hṛṣṭaḥ paribhokṣye sukhotsavam // bca.8.152 //
[英譯] Hearing my own good qualities being praised everywhere in this way, thrilled, with my hair standing on end, I shall enjoy the delight of happiness.
[天息災譯] 以此爲自德,常欲聞稱讚,聞讚生勝心,歡喜而得樂。
[如石藏譯] 故令聞衆口齊頌吾勝德,毛豎心歡喜,渾然樂陶陶。
我要設法使他佩服我的偉大,讓他看到:衆人都異口同聲地對我歌功頌德,並且因而汗毛直豎,欣喜若狂,完全陶醉在一片喜樂之中。
[梵文分析]
evam ātma-guṇāñ chrutvā kīrtyamānān itas tataḥ |
 如是   吾     德       已聞        讚頌          處處
saṃjāta-pulako hṛṣṭaḥ paribhokṣye sukha-utsavam ||
  已生     毛豎    歡喜         享          樂         宴

8.153
[梵] yady apy asya bhavel lābho grāhyo 'smābhir asau balāt
datvāsmai yāpanāmātram asmatkarma karoti cet // bca.8.153 //
[英譯] Even though this one has possessions, they are to be taken over with my strength; and if he works for me, I will give him just enough to survive.
[天息災譯] 以此爲得利,自謂功德力,宿造纖毫因,得此不正業。
[如石藏譯] 彼富吾奪取;若爲吾從僕,唯予資生酬,其餘悉霸取。
就算他有點財富,我也要設法奪取;如果他爲我工作,我將只給他足夠維生的薪資,其餘的全部霸佔爲己有。
[梵文分析]
yady apy asya bhavel lābho grāhyo ’smābhir asau balāt |
  若   雖    彼    應是    得      應取       吾       此     力
datvā asmai yāpanā-mātram asmat-karma karoti cet ||
  予     彼       支持      唯        我      業       作    若

Ⅲ、結勸實修自他換
(Ⅰ)不修之過
8.154
[梵] sukhāc ca cyāvanīyo 'yaṃ yojyo 'smadvyathayā sadā
anena śataśaḥ sarve saṃsāravyathitā vayam // bca.8.154 //
[英譯] We should deprive him of happiness and always yoke him to our anguish. We all have been afflicted in the cycle of existence hundreds of times by him.
[天息災譯] 盡此少報已,永在於輪迴,如是輪迴中,受彼百千苦。
[如石藏譯] 令彼乏安樂,恒常遇禍害。我執於生死,百般折損我。
我要想辦法使他失去安樂,令他禍不單行,顛沛流離。在漫漫的生死長夜中,自我愛執的情結,曾經不下千百次地陷害過我。
[梵文分析]
sukhāc ca cyāvanīyo ’yaṃ yojyo ’smad-vyathayā sadā |
   樂     與    令失         此  應結     我       禍害    恒常
anena śataśaḥ sarve saṃsāra-vyathitā vayam ||
  此      百次   一切    生死        苦       我們

8.155
[梵] aprameyā gatāḥ kalpāḥ svārthaṃ jijñāsatas tava
śrameṇa mahatānena duḥkham eva tvayārjitam // bca.8.155 //
[英譯] O mind, countless eons have passed as you have yearned to accomplish your own self-interest, but with such great toil you have gained only suffering.
[天息災譯] 過於無邊劫,不知其出離,被苦常大困,罪心而不覺。
[如石藏譯] 汝雖欲自利,然經無數劫,遍歷大劬勞,執我唯增苦。
意識啊!雖然你一心想追求自利,也經過無數億劫的努力,更飽嘗了無盡的苦痛與艱辛,但是,自我愛執只能使你更加痛苦而已。
[梵文分析]
aprameyā gatāḥ kalpāḥ svārthaṃ jijñāsatas tava |
   無數      已過     劫        自利      欲求       汝
śrameṇa mahatā anena duḥkham eva tvayā arjitam ||
   劬勞        大       此        苦      實    你      所得

(Ⅱ)修習之利
8.156
[梵] madvijñaptyā tathātrāpi pravartasvāvicārataḥ
drakṣyasy etadguṇān paścād bhūtaṃ hi vacanaṃ muneḥ // bca.8.156 //
[英譯] Thus, definitely apply yourself in this way right now without hesitation. Later you will see the advantages of this, for the words of the Sage are true.
[天息災譯] 如是不知覺,久久發善種,後見如來言,眞實得功德。
[如石藏譯] 是故當盡心勤行衆生利。牟尼無欺言,奉行必獲益。
所以,你一定要認真去除自我愛執,熱心投入利益一切衆生的菩薩行列。釋迦牟尼絕無欺人之言,只要依教奉行,將來一定會獲得利益。
[梵文分析]
madvijñaptyā tathā atra api pravartasva avicārataḥ |
      ?            如是  此  雖     你應行         無猶豫
drakṣyasy etad guṇān paścād bhūtaṃ hi vacanaṃ muneḥ ||
  你將見     此     德     之後    真實    實    言語    牟尼

8.157
[梵] abhaviṣyad idaṃ karma kṛtaṃ pūrvaṃ yadi tvayā
bauddhaṃ saṃpatsukhaṃ muktvā nābhaviṣyad iyaṃ daśā // bca.8.157 //
[英譯] If you had carried out this task earlier, this state deprived of the perfection and bliss of the Buddha would not have occurred.
[天息災譯] 汝若見過去,不受彼惡業,菩提正快樂,此樂不得離。
[如石藏譯] 若汝自往昔素行利生事,除獲正覺樂,必不逢今苦。
如果你從無始以來,一直都修習這種利他的菩薩行,那麼除了獲得佛陀究竟圓滿的安樂以外,絕不可能像今天這麼煩惱和痛苦。
[梵文分析]
abhaviṣyad idaṃ karma kṛtaṃ pūrvaṃ yadi tvayā |
      曾是       此      業    所作      前      若     汝
bauddhaṃ saṃpat-sukhaṃ muktvā na abhaviṣyad iyaṃ daśā ||
   屬於佛     具足      樂          除    不      曾是       此    狀況

(Ⅲ)結勸實修
8.158
[梵] tasmād yathānyadīyeṣu śukraśoṇitabinduṣu
cakartha tvam ahaṃkāraṃ tathānyeṣv api bhāvaya // bca.8.158 //
[英譯] Therefore, just as you formed a sense of self-identity, with regard to the drops of blood and semen of others, contemplate others in the same way.
[天息災譯] 是故而取喻,彼輸揭羅等,汝云何更作,我慢及不善。
[如石藏譯] 故汝于父母一滴精血聚,既可執爲我,于他亦當習。
總之,就像雙親精卵聚合而成的受精卵,可以被你執著爲自己的身體一樣;同樣,你也應該經常努力練習自他換,把其他的衆生當作自己一樣去愛護。
[梵文分析]
tasmād yathā anyadīyeṣu śukra-śoṇita-binduṣu |
    故      如       屬於他      精      血       滴
cakartha tvam ahaṃkāraṃ tathā anyeṣv api bhāvaya ||
   你作     你         我行      同樣     他    雖     應習

(4)實際修自他換之方式
Ⅰ、修習本身
(Ⅰ)利樂全與人
8.159
[梵] anyadīyaś caro bhūtvā kāye 'smin yad yad īkṣase
tattad evāpahṛtyarthaṃ parebhyo hitam ācara // bca.8.159 //
[英譯] Living as one who belongs to others and snatching away whatever you see on this body, practice what is beneficial to others.
[天息災譯] 諸行及己身,觀之而不見,獲得如是離,利他汝常行。
[如石藏譯] 應爲他密探;見己有何物,悉數盡盜取,以彼利衆生。
自他相換以後,我就該成爲他人的密探了;只要看見自己身上有任何別人需要的東西,立刻全部盜取過來,拿它們來利益衆生。
[梵文分析]
anyadīyaś caro bhūtvā kāye ’smin yad yad īkṣase |
   屬他       行     已是    身     此       隨       見
tat tad eva apahṛty-arthaṃ parebhyo hitam ācara ||
 任一   實     取走     為         彼         利    應行

8.160
[梵] ayaṃ susthaḥ paro duḥstho nīcair anyo 'yam uccakaiḥ
paraḥ karoty ayaṃ neti kuruṣverṣyāṃ tvam ātmani // bca.8.160 //
[英譯] Arouse envy towards your own self in this way: I am well while the other is miserable; the other is lowly while I am exalted; the other works while I do not.
[天息災譯] 自樂而苦他,此行乃下劣,汝自之一心,於他作憎愛。
[如石藏譯] 我樂他不樂,我高他卑下,利己不顧人,何不反自妒?
如果我興高采烈而別人悶悶不樂,我高高在上而別人寒微卑屈,我只利益自己而不照顧別人,那麼爲何不轉而嫉妒自己、關懷別人呢?
[梵文分析]
ayaṃ susthaḥ paro duḥstho nīcair anyo ’yam uccakaiḥ |
   此      樂      他     不樂      卑     他      此      高 
paraḥ karoty ayaṃ na iti kuruṣva īrṣyāṃ tvam ātmani ||
  他       作      此   不 謂  你應作    妒      你     己

(Ⅱ)自甘卑下苦
8.161
[梵] sukhāc ca cyāvayātmānaṃ paraduḥkhe niyojaya
kadāyaṃ kiṃ karotīti chalam asya nirūpaya // bca.8.161 //
[英譯] Deprive yourself of happiness and expose yourself to the suffering of others. Examine your own faults with the consideration, "what have I done, at what time?"
[天息災譯] 中間忽思惟,何時何此作?乃自捨快樂,他苦亦不行。
[如石藏譯] 吾當離安樂,甘代他人苦;時觀念起處,細察己過失。
因此,我要自動捨離安樂的享受,心甘情願取代別人的痛苦;時時觀察自己一言一行的動機,細細留意自己大大小小的過失。
[梵文分析]
sukhāc ca cyāvaya ātmānaṃ para-duḥkhe niyojaya |
    樂    與    當離      己         他      苦        應行
kadā ayaṃ kiṃ karoti iti chalam asya nirūpaya ||
 何時   此   何     作    謂   過失    彼    應察

8.162
[梵] anyenāpi kṛtaṃ doṣaṃ pātayāsyaiva mastake
alpam apy asya doṣaṃ ca prakāśaya mahāmuneḥ // bca.8.162 //
[英譯] Take the mistake made by another on your head, and disclose even a trivial mistake of yours to the Great Sage.
[天息災譯] 寧自落其頭,更不造別過,乃至於小過,此大牟尼說。
[如石藏譯] 他雖犯大過,欣然吾頂替;自過縱微小,衆前誠懺悔。
雖然別人一時誤犯大錯,我也樂意默默承擔,以維護他人的清譽;如果自己有過錯,即使再微小,我也要在衆人面前誠懇地請求寬恕。
[梵文分析]
anyena pi kṛtaṃ doṣaṃ pātaya asya eva mastake |
    他   雖  所作     過      應落    彼   實     頭
alpam apy asya doṣaṃ ca prakāśaya mahāmuneḥ ||
  微小  雖   彼      過    與   應發露         大牟尼

8.163
[梵] anyādhikayaśovādair yaśo 'sya malinīkuru
nikṛṣṭadāsavac cainaṃ sattvakāryeṣu vāhaya // bca.8.163 //
[英譯] Let your own reputation be outshone by exalting the reputation of others, and like the least of servants, commit yourself to everyone's welfare.
[天息災譯] 以別勝善等,於他暗稱讚,喻僕人事主,當事於有情。
[如石藏譯] 顯揚他令譽,以此匿己名;役自如下僕,勤謀衆人利。
我要大大地宣揚別人的美名,藉此隱沒自己的聲譽;我要像役使下人一般地奴役自己,以便謀求衆多有情的利益。
[梵文分析]
anya-adhika-yaśo-vādair yaśo ’sya malinī-kuru |
 他     增上     譽     說      譽    此     暗    應作
nikṛṣṭa-dāsa-vac ca enaṃ sattva-kāryeṣu vāhaya ||
   下     僕役  如 與    此   有情      事       應勤

8.164
[梵] nāgantukaguṇāṃśena stutyo doṣamayo hy ayam
yathā kaścin na jānīyād guṇam asya tathā kuru // bca.8.164 //
[英譯] This one of defective nature should not be praised for adventitious good qualities. Act so that no one may know of this one's good qualities.
[天息災譯] 彼住於過失,無定無功德,自如不知人,作此功德意。
[如石藏譯] 此身過本多,德寡奚足誇?故當隱己德,莫令他人知。
我這污濁的身軀本來就充滿了無邊的罪過,暫時的少分功德有什麼值得大肆渲染的呢?所以我要盡力隱藏自己的德學,就連少數最親近的人都不讓他們知道。
[梵文分析]
na āgantuka-guṇa-aṃśena stutyo doṣa-mayo hy ayam |
不    客塵      德       分      應讚    過   所成  實    此
yathā kaścin na jānīyād guṇam asya tathā kuru ||
  如     任何  無   能知       德     彼   如是 應作

(Ⅲ)結語
8.165
[梵] saṃkṣepād yadyad ātmārthe pareṣv apakṛtaṃ tvayā
tattad ātmani sattvārthe vyasanaṃ vinipātaya // bca.8.165 //
[英譯] In brief, whatever offense you have committed toward others for your own benefit, let it descend on yourself for the benefit of sentient beings.
[天息災譯] 汝若緊迅作,自爲及爲他,彼緊迅若此,必苦惱自退。
[如石藏譯] 往昔爲自利,所行盡害他;今爲他謀利,願害悉歸我!
總之,從前爲了謀求一己的利益,我老是傷害無辜的衆生;而今爲了謀求衆生的幸福,就讓一切禍害都由我自己來承擔罷!
[梵文分析]
saṃkṣepād yadyad ātmārthe pareṣv apakṛtaṃ tvayā |
     總之      若  若     自利       他         害         你
tattad ātmani sattvārthe vyasanaṃ vinipātaya ||
 彼彼     己      有情利         害          應落

Ⅱ、其餘助行
(Ⅰ)制止狂妄行
8.166
[梵] naivotsāho 'sya dātavyo yenāyaṃ mukharo bhavet
sthāpyo navabadhūvṛttau hrīto bhīto 'tha saṃvṛtaḥ // bca.8.166 //
[英譯] This one should not be encouraged to be abusive, but should be established in the behavior of a young bride, modest, meek, and restrained.
[天息災譯] 此修乃第一,而未得其力,喻新住威儀,以財而驚怖。
[如石藏譯] 莫令汝此身,猛現頑強相,令如初嫁媳,羞畏極謹慎。
修自他換時,行爲不可再像過去一樣,猛烈地表現出粗暴頑強的態度,應該像剛過門的少婦,行動略帶羞澀而且小心翼翼。
[梵文分析]
na eva utsāho ’sya dātavyo yena ayaṃ mukharo bhavet |
莫  實   勇猛    此     應與     若     此       饒舌    應是
sthāpyo nava-badhū-vṛttau hrīto bhīto ’tha saṃvṛtaḥ ||
  應住      新     婦     行為   羞      畏    且     謹慎

8.167
[梵] evaṃ kuruṣva tiṣṭhaivaṃ na kartavyam idaṃ tvayā
evam eṣaḥ vaśaḥ kāryo nigrāhyas tad atikrame // bca.8.167 //
[英譯] Act in this way! Remain in this way! You should not do this. You should be subjugated and subdued in this way if you disobey.
[天息災譯] 如此受持身,降心不散亂,汝當如是住,汝此何不作。
[如石藏譯] 堅持利他行,切莫傷衆生。妄動應制止,逾矩當治罰。
你一定要利益有情並且要堅持下去,不要再傷害衆生了。如果妄心蠢蠢欲動,你就制伏它;如果心念偏離正軌,你就處罰它。
[梵文分析]
evaṃ kuruṣva tiṣṭha evaṃ na kartavyam idaṃ tvayā |
 如是  你應作 你應住 如是 莫   應作         此     你
evam eṣaḥ vaśaḥ kāryo nigrāhyas tad atikrame ||
 如是   此   自在  應作     應處罰   彼    踰越

(Ⅱ)調伏自利心
8.168
[梵] athaivam ucyamāne 'pi cittaṃ nedaṃ kariṣyasi
tvām eva nigrahīṣyāmi sarvadoṣās tadāśritāḥ // bca.8.168 //
[英譯] O mind, if you do not do this even when you are being told, then I shall subjugate you alone, for all faults dwell in you.
[天息災譯] 以是常觀察,妄心令不起,如此調伏我,息一切過失。
[如石藏譯] 從已如是誨,汝猶不行善,衆過終歸汝,屆時唯受罰。
心啊!雖然我已經像這樣忠告過你了,如果你還不肯聽勸行善,一味我行我素,那麼未來的一切過失都將歸咎於你;到時候,你這自利的心只好接受處罰了。
[梵文分析]
atha evam ucyamāne ’pi cittaṃ na idaṃ kariṣyasi |
 然   如是      說        雖    心! 不   此     你將行
tvām eva nigrahīṣyāmi sarva-doṣās tad-āśritāḥ ||
  汝    實    我將處罰    一切     過   彼   依止

8.169
[梵] kva yāsyasi mayā dṛṣṭaḥ sarvadarpān nihanmi te
anyo 'sau pūrvakaḥ kālas tvayā yatrāsmi nāśitaḥ // bca.8.169 //
[英譯] Where will you go? I can see you, and I shall annihilate all your vanities. That was another, earlier time when I was ruined by you.
[天息災譯] 見我去何處,無明一切壞,同彼過去時,如汝之壞我。
[如石藏譯] 昔時受汝制,今日吾已覺。無論至何處,悉摧汝驕慢。
從前我愚笨無能,完全被你控制著;如今我已看清真相,不會再受你擺佈了。無論你走到天涯海角,只要被我發現了,我就要立刻消滅你這自私自利的驕慢心。
[梵文分析]
kva yāsyasi mayā dṛṣṭaḥ sarva-darpān nihanmi te |
何處  將去     我    所見  一切     慢       我壞    你
anyo ’sau pūrvakaḥ kālas tvayā yatra asmi nāśitaḥ ||
 他      彼     昔          時    汝    彼處 我是   所壞

8.170
[梵] adyāpyasti mama svārtha ity āśāṃ tyaja sāṃpratam
tvaṃ vikrīto mayānyeṣu bahukhedam acintayan // bca.8.170 //
[英譯] Now give up this hope: "Still, I have my own self interesṭ" Unconcerned as you are with much distress, I have sold you to others.
[天息災譯] 自利我今有,此遠離不遠,如人賣於他,苦多不自在。
[如石藏譯] 今當棄此念:尚享自權益。汝已售他人,莫哀應盡力!
現在,你應該要放棄這樣的想法:「我多少總還有點自求多福的權益吧!」因爲我已經在自他換時把你賣給別人了,所以不要悲傷難過,盡力去服務衆生吧!
[梵文分析]
adya apy asti mama svārtha ity āśāṃ tyaja sāṃpratam |
  今   雖   是    我      自利   謂 希望  應棄       現在
tvaṃ vikrīto mayā anyeṣu bahu-khedam acintayan ||
  汝     被售    我       他      多     勞倦       不思

8.171
[梵] tvāṃ sattveṣu na dāsyāmi yadi nāma pramādataḥ
tvaṃ māṃ narakapāleṣu pradāsyasi na saṃśayaḥ // bca.8.171 //
[英譯] If I do not joyfully offer you to sentient beings, you will undoubtedly deliver me to the guardians of hell.
[天息災譯] 汝有情不與,雖名不散亂,是故如以人,付獄卒不殊。
[如石藏譯] 若吾稍放逸,未施汝於衆,則汝定將我,販與諸獄卒。
如果我稍微不小心,忘了把你佈施給衆生,去爲他們服務,那麼我一定會在不知不覺中,又被你出賣給地獄裏的牛鬼蛇神。
[梵文分析]
tvāṃ sattveṣu na dāsyāmi yadi nāma pramādataḥ |
  汝      有情   不  我將施    若    實        放逸
tvaṃ māṃ narakapāleṣu pradāsyasi na saṃśayaḥ ||
   汝      我       獄卒         你將施    無     猶豫

8.172
[梵] evaṃ cānekadhā datvā tvayāhaṃ vyathitaś ciram
nihanmi svārthaceṭaṃ tvāṃ tāni vairāṇy anusmaran // bca.8.172 //
[英譯] Handing me over in that way many times, you have tormented me for a long time. Remembering those grudges, I shall destroy you, the servant of your own self interest.
[天息災譯] 獄中種種事,被害亦長久,此得爲自利,怨念彼不生。
[如石藏譯] 如是汝屢屢棄我令久苦。今憶宿仇怨,摧汝自利心!
我曾經多次疏忽而像這樣被你出賣了,並且因此長久淪落受苦。如今撩起新仇舊恨,不禁氣憤填膺;我一定要徹底消滅你這自私自利的心!
[梵文分析]
evaṃ ca anekadhā dattvā tvayā ahaṃ vyathitaś ciram |
 如是 與    常常        捨      你     我       受苦    長久
nihanmi svārtha-ceṭaṃ tvāṃ tāni vairāṇy anusmaran ||
  我摧      自利      僕     你    此     仇怨       憶

8.173
[梵] na kartavyātmani prītir yady ātmaprītir asti te
yady ātmā rakṣitavyo 'yaṃ rakṣitavyo na yujyate // bca.8.173 //
[英譯] If you are pleased with yourself, you should take no pleasure in yourself. If you need protection, it is inappropriate to protect yourself.
[天息災譯] 不作於自愛,而自愛得有,若見自護持,護持不實故。
[如石藏譯] 若汝欲自惜,不應自愛執;若汝欲自護,則當常護他。
如果你真想珍惜自己的幸福與安樂,那麼就不要再自己愛執自己了;如果你真想保護自己免受痛苦,那麼就要經常愛護他人。
[梵文分析]
na kartavyā ātmani prītir yady ātma-prītir asti te |
不   應作         自      愛    若     自     愛   是  汝
yady ātmā rakṣitavyo ’yaṃ rakṣitavyo na yujyate ||
  若    自         護         此          護      不   相應

(Ⅲ)制伏己身貪
8.174
[梵] yathā yathāsya kāyasya kriyate paripālanam
sukumārataro bhūtvā pataty eva tathā tathā // bca.8.174 //
[英譯] The more this body is pampered, the more fragile it becomes, and the more it degenerates.
[天息災譯] 此身乃如如,而作於守護,得上品柔軟,到此亦復然。
[如石藏譯] 汝愈獻殷殷護此不淨身,彼愈趨退墮衰朽極脆弱。
這個不淨的六尺之軀,現在,你保護得愈周到,以後,它就會變得愈衰朽而脆弱;愈來愈不堪承擔衆生的痛苦。
[梵文分析]
yathā yathā asya kāyasya kriyate paripālanam |
   如     如    此       身         作         護
sukumārataro bhūtvā pataty eva tathā tathā ||
    較脆弱        成為    退墮   實  如是 如是

8.175
[梵] asyaivaṃ patitasyāpi sarvāpīyaṃ vasuṃdharā
nālaṃ pūrayituṃ vāñchāṃ tatko 'syecchāṃ kariṣyati // bca.8.175 //
[英譯] When it has degenerated in this way, not even this earth can completely fulfill its desire. Who then will satisfy its desire?
[天息災譯] 若此而得到,如地一切受,若不能圓滿,何人求用意?
[如石藏譯] 身弱欲愛增,大地一切物,尚且不饜足;誰復愜彼欲?
身體衰朽了,可是欲望卻不斷地增加,就算用這地球上的一切事物,也滿足不了那強烈的欲望;那麼還有誰能滿足它呢?
[梵文分析]
asya evaṃ patitasya api sarvā api iyaṃ vasuṃdharā |
 此    如是       弱     雖  一切  雖    此       大地
na alaṃ pūrayituṃ vāñchāṃ tat ko ’sya icchāṃ kariṣyati ||
不   足        滿            欲      彼 誰   此     欲         將作

8.176
[梵] aśakyam icchataḥ kleśa āśābhaṅgaś ca jāyate
nirāśo yas tu sarvatra tasya saṃpad ajīrṇikā // bca.8.176 //
[英譯] For one who desires the impossible, mental affliction and disappointment arise; but for one who is free of expectations there is unblemished prosperity.
[天息災譯] 愛心之煩惱,而不能破得,如彼久富貴,不能求一切。
[如石藏譯] 逐欲未得足,生惱復失意;若人無所求,彼福無窮盡。
追求永遠不能滿足的欲望,只會帶來煩惱、失望和沮喪;如果一個人對任何事物皆心無所求,那麼他福德的底限將沒有人能測知。
[梵文分析]
aśakyam icchataḥ kleśa āśābhaṅgaś ca jāyate |
  不可能       欲    煩惱       失望      與   生
nirāśo yas tu sarvatra tasya saṃpad ajīrṇikā ||
 無求  若  然   處處     彼      成就     無衰

8.177
[梵] tasmān na prasaro deyaḥ kāyasyecchābhivṛddhaye
bhadrakaṃ nāma tad vastu yad iṣṭatvān na gṛhyate // bca.8.177 //
[英譯] Therefore, free rein should not be given to the growth of bodily desires. It is truly good when one does not take something that ones wants.
[天息災譯] 若貪於他物,不受於賢名,是故求增勝,身心不放逸。
[如石藏譯] 樂長身貪故,莫令有機趁;不執悅意物,厥爲真妙財。
貪圖享受只會增長一個人對身體的貪欲,所以不要給身體任何享樂的機會;只有不執著任何可愛事物的清淨心,才是我們最珍貴可靠的財産。
[梵文分析]
tasmān na prasaro deyaḥ kāyasya icchā-abhivṛddhaye |
    故    不   擴大    應給     身        欲        增長
bhadrakaṃ nāma tad vastu yad iṣṭatvān na gṛhyate ||
      妙          實    彼    物   若   悅意物 不   執取

8.178
[梵] bhasmaniṣṭhāvasāno 'yaṃ niśceṣṭānyena cālyate
aśucipratimā ghorā kasmād atra mamāgrahaḥ // bca.8.178 //
[英譯] This awful, impure form has its end in ashes and stillness, moved only by another. Why do I grasp onto it as mine?
[天息災譯] 彼愛終滅盡,此動此不覺,諸惡不淨身,此我云何執?
[如石藏譯] 可怖不淨身,不動待他牽,火化終成灰;何故執爲我?
這可怕、充滿污垢的不淨身軀,自己動彈不得,需要靠心氣來推動;而且死亡火化以後,就只剩下一堆骨灰。何必執著這無用的髒東西爲我呢?
[梵文分析]
bhasma-niṣṭhā-avasāno 'yaṃ niśceṣṭa-anyena cālyate |
    灰        位       終        此     不動      他      所動
aśuci-pratimā ghorā kasmād atra mama āgrahaḥ ||
不淨     同於   可怖    何故    此      我     執取

8.179
[梵] kiṃ mamānena yantreṇa jīvinā vā mṛtena vā
loṣṭādeḥ ko viśeṣo 'sya hāhaṃkāraṃ na naśyasi // bca.8.179 //
[英譯] Of what use is this contrivance to me, whether it is dead or alive? What difference is there between this and a clump of soil and the like? Alas, you are not eliminating the grasping onto the "I."
[天息災譯] 我此身云何,雖活而必死,與土而無異,我見何不破?
[如石藏譯] 無論生與死,朽身何所爲?豈異木石等?怎不除我慢?
不論是生前還是死後,這個破爛的機器對我有什麼用呢?它和木石等被動的無情物有何差別?既無差別,爲何不除身貪所引起的我執呢?
[梵文分析]
kiṃ mama anena yantreṇa jīvinā vā mṛtena vā |
 何     我       此      機器       生  或     死    或
loṣṭādeḥ ko viśeṣo ’sya ha ahaṃkāraṃ na naśyasi ||
   土等   何   差別   此  啊      我行      不     滅

8.180
[梵] śarīrapakṣapātena vṛthā duḥkham upārjyate
kim asya kāṣṭhatulyasya dveṣeṇānunayena vā // bca.8.180 //
[英譯] By favoring the body, one uselessly accumulates suffering. Of what use is anger or love to something equal to a piece of wood?
[天息災譯] 爲此不實身,虛受於苦惱,何更於無情,復起於瞋怒?
[如石藏譯] 奉承此身故,無義集諸苦;於此似樹身,何勞貪與瞋?
爲了屈從身見而侍奉這個身體,我毫無意義地積聚了許多的苦惱;然而色身就像樹木一樣,既無情又無義,我又何必爲它而激起種種的愛恨呢?
[梵文分析]
śarīra-pakṣapātena vṛthā duḥkham upārjyate |
   身        奉承       無用      苦           得
kim asya kāṣṭha-tulyasya dveṣeṇa anunayena vā ||
 何    此     木         似          瞋         貪愛     或

8.181
[梵] mayā vā pālitasyaivaṃ gṛdhrādyair bhakṣitasya vā
na ca sneho na ca dveṣas tasmāt snehaṃ karomi kim // bca.8.181 //
[英譯] Whether it is nurtured by me, or eaten by vultures, it feels neither affection nor aversion, so why am I so fond of it?
[天息災譯] 我今徒育養,終爲豺鷲食,至此無愛瞋,彼愛何能立?
[如石藏譯] 細心極愛護,或棄鷲獸食,身既無貪瞋,何苦愛此身?
無論我怎樣細心地愛惜保護身體,或者把它丟棄給鷲鷹等鳥獸去分食,它一點都無所謂;既不起貪也不生瞋。既然如此,我又何苦貪著它呢?
[梵文分析]
mayā vā pālitasya evaṃ gṛdhra-ādyair bhakṣitasya vā |
  我    或   愛護     如是     鷲      等           所噉    或
na ca sneho na ca dveṣas tatra snehaṃ karomi kim ||
無 與    貪   無 與    瞋    彼中     貪       我作   何

8.182
[梵] roṣo yasya khalīkārāt toṣo yasya ca pūjayā
sa eva cen na jānāti śramaḥ kasya kṛtena me // bca.8.182 //
[英譯] If the body, which has no anger due to abuse, or satisfaction due to praise, is unconscious, then for whom am I exerting myself?
[天息災譯] 若彼住瞋怒,當歡喜供養,彼如是不知,何爲作辛苦?
[如石藏譯] 何毀引身瞋?何讚令身喜?身既無所知,殷勤何所爲?
怎樣的譭謗才能促使身體瞋恨呢?怎樣的讚美才能引發身體歡喜呢?如果身體對於毀譽根本無動於衷,那我又何必殷勤地去侍奉它呢?
[梵文分析]
roṣo yasya khalīkārāt toṣo yasya ca pūjayā |
 瞋      若         毀       喜     若   與   供養
sa eva cen na jānāti śramaḥ kasya kṛtena me ||
彼 實   若  無   知     殷勤     何     所爲   我

8.183
[梵] imaṃ ye kāyam icchanti te 'pi me suhṛdaḥ kila
sarve svakāyam icchanti te'pi kasmān na me priyāḥ // bca.8.183 //
[英譯] Those who like this body are said to be my friends. They all like their own bodies too, so why do I not like them?
[天息災譯] 我今愛此身,乃爲我所親,一切愛自身,云何我不愛?
[如石藏譯] 若人喜我身,則彼爲吾友。衆皆愛己身,何不愛衆生?
如果說,身雖無知,但它總是我的老相好;所以只要有人喜歡它,他就是我的朋友。然而,自他的色身本來就是平等無別的,而且所有的人都喜愛自己的身體,那麼我爲何不同樣去喜歡他們呢?
[梵文分析]
imaṃ ye kāyam icchanti te ’pi me suhṛdaḥ kila |
   此   若      身      喜     彼 雖  吾     友     實
sarve svakāyam icchanti te ’pi kasmān na me priyāḥ ||
一切      己身        喜     彼 雖      何    不 我     喜

8.184
[梵] tasmān mayānapekṣeṇa kāyas tyakto jagaddhite
ato 'yaṃ bahudoṣo 'pi dhāryate karmabhāṇḍavat // bca.8.184 //
[英譯] Therefore, with indifference I have given up my body for the benefit of the world. Hence, although it has many faults, I keep it as an instrument for that task.
[天息災譯] 是故我捨身,爲捨於世間,觀此多過咎,喻如持業器。
[如石藏譯] 故應離貪執,爲衆捨己身;此身雖多患,善用如寶筏。
因此,我不應該再貪愛自己的身體了,我應當施捨自身以謀求衆生的利益。守護這個軀體的確容易引生許多過患,但把它看成一艘渡越苦海的二利寶舟,好好地加以運用,仍然是有必要的。
[梵文分析]
tasmān mayā anapekṣeṇa kāyas tyakto jagad-hite |
    故      我        不觀待     身       捨      衆  利益
ato ’yaṃ bahu-doṣo ’pi dhāryate karma-bhāṇḍa-vat ||
故    此     多     過    雖    持        業       工具   如

四、結勉修三昧
8.185
[梵] tenālaṃ lokacaritaiḥ paṇḍitān anuyāmy aham
apramādakathāṃ smṛtvā styānamiddhaṃ nivārayan // bca.8.185 //
[英譯] So enough of worldly conduct. Recalling the teaching on consciousness and warding off drowsiness and lethargy, I shall follow the wise.
[天息災譯] 彼業世間行,我去而隨身,靜念不散亂,當斷於無明。
[如石藏譯] 愚行足堪厭,今當隨聖賢;憶教不放逸,奮退昏與眠。
過去,幼稚的放逸行爲我已經厭倦了。今後,我要追隨諸佛菩薩自覺覺他的後塵;牢記聖教,一心精進,絕不放逸,努力擊退昏沈和睡眠。
如佛大悲子,安忍所當行;若不恒勤修,何日得出苦?
我要像大慈大悲的菩薩一樣,吃苦耐勞,努力增長三無漏學;如果不能持之以恒地認真修行,何時才能使自他脫離痛苦的深淵呢?
[梵文分析]
tena alaṃ loka-caritaiḥ paṇḍitān anuyāmy aham |
 故    足   世間      行      智者        我隨      我
apramāda-kathāṃ smṛtvā styāna-middhaṃ nivārayan ||
   不放逸    言說      憶       昏            眠        捨離

8.186
[梵] tasmād āvaraṇaṃ hantuṃ samādhānaṃ karomy aham
vimārgāc cittam ākṛṣya svālambananirantaram // bca.8.186 //
[英譯] Therefore, withdrawing the mind from evil ways, I shall always concentrate it on its own meditative object to eliminate obscurations.
[天息災譯] 是故破煩惱,我處於禪定,邪道不牽心,自名最上住。
[如石藏譯] 爲除諸障故,回心避邪途;並於正所緣,恒常修三昧。
總之,爲了消除成佛道上的煩惱和習氣,我要完全回避一切貪瞋和掉散等惡習;更要依止一種最恰當的所緣境,經常專心致志地修習三摩地。
[梵文分析]
tasmād āvaraṇaṃ hantuṃ samādhānaṃ karomy aham |
   故           障        爲除       三摩地        我作     我
vimārgāc cittam ākṛṣya sva-ālambana-nirantaram ||
    邪途        心    撤離   己     所緣          無間
bodhicaryāvatāre dhyānapāramitā aṣṭamaḥ paricchedaḥ ||

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