2012年11月16日 星期五

法集要頌經觀察品第二十七

27. paśya觀察品
1. cf.dhp252
[] supaśyaṃ paravadyaṃ syād ātmavadyaṃ tu durdṛśam |
paraḥ parasya vadyāni tu utpunāti busaṃ yathā ||
[] It is easier to see the faults of others than those of oneself ; the faults of others are easily seen, for they are sifted like chaff, but one's own faults are difficult to see.
[] 善觀己瑕隙,使己不露外,彼彼自有隙,如彼飛輕塵。
[梵文分析]
supaśyaṃ paravadyaṃ syād ātmavadyaṃ tu durdṛśam |
易見 他人過 是 己過 然 難見
paraḥ parasya vadyāni tu utpunāti busaṃ yathā ||
他 他 過 然 清 糠 如
易見他人過,自見則為難,他見他人過,揚惡如颺糠。
[出曜經] 善觀己瑕隙,使己不露外,彼彼自有隙,如彼飛輕塵。
善觀己瑕隙者,人但見彼惡不見己愆,互相是非共相誹謗,由如典場之人抄穀高揚,輕者在遠重者在近,是故說曰:善觀己瑕隙,使己不露外,彼彼自有隙,如彼飛輕塵。

2. cf.dhp253
[] paravadyānudarśino nityāvadhyānasaṃjñinaḥ |
vāmā dharmāḥ pravardhante sa hy ārād dharmadarśanāt ||
[] It is like the cheat who shows the dice (of his adversary) and hides his own, calling attention to the shortcomings of the other (player), and continually thinking of accusing him ; he is far from seeing what is right (dharma), and greatly increases his unhappy lot.
[] 若己稱無瑕,罪福俱并至,但見他人隙,恒懷無明想。
[梵文分析]
paravadya-anudarśino nitya-avadhyāna-saṃjñinaḥ |
他過 隨觀 常 蔑視 想
vāmā dharmāḥ pravardhante sa hy ārād dharma-darśanāt ||
左 法 增長 彼 實 遠離 法 見
隨觀他人過,常懷蔑視想,增長於左法;彼實遠見法。
[出曜經] 若己稱無瑕,二事俱并至,但見外人隙,恒懷危害心,遠觀不見近。
夫人在世多自矯譽,自稱功德與世無雙,我之所行戒聞施慧,為尊為特為無儔匹,是故說曰:若己稱無瑕。
二事俱并至者,此自博掩之人,逆者得勝順者恒負,執行之人修德亦爾,自知己愆不露見彼,是故說曰:二事俱并至。
但見外人隙,恒懷危害心者,人不自審但見外事諸不善法弊惡之患,墮入惡趣不至善處,種地獄畜生餓鬼之苦,是故說曰:但見外人隙,恒懷危害心也。
虛空與地各各離別,不見真法不見非真法,是故說曰:遠觀不見近也。

03. cf.dhp244
[] ahrīkena sujīvaṃ syāt kākaśūreṇa dhvāṅkṣiṇā |
praskandinā pragalbhena saṃkliṣṭaṃ tv iha jīvate ||
[] Life is easy for an impudent, thieving, boasting fellow, with filthy (instincts ?) like a crow, who leads a life of sinfulness and impudicity.
[] 知慚壽中上,焉以貪牽縛,力士無畏忌,斯等命短促。
[梵文分析]
ahrīkena sujīvaṃ syāt kākaśūreṇa dhvāṅkṣiṇā |
無慚 易活 是 似烏鴉的聰明 烏鴉
praskandinā pragalbhena saṃkliṣṭaṃ tv iha jīvate ||
大膽 自誇 雜染 然 此 活
無慚生活易,狡猾如烏鴉,大膽自誇張,於此雜染活。
[出曜經] 知慚壽中上,鳶以貪掣搏,力士無畏忌,斯等命促短。
知慚壽中上者,人之處世不知慚愧無所畏難,猶如暴逸之牛無所畏難,彼愚騃人亦復如是,出意造行無所畏忌,是故說曰:知慚壽中上也。
鳶以貪掣搏者,猶如飛鳶貪餮無厭,掣搏人物無有忌度,眾生之類亦復如是,貪著財色無有厭足,是故說曰:鳶以貪掣搏。
力士無畏忌者,如彼力人無所畏難,在大眾中恣意所作無有及者,其有呵諫來勸喻者,尋懷瞋恚斷其命根,是故說曰:力士無畏忌也。
斯等命促短者,夫人處世輕人貴己,但執顛倒迷惑不寤,侵三尊物強梁自恃,如斯之類命不久停,是故說曰:斯等命促短也。

04. cf.dhp245
[] hrīmatā tv iha durjīvaṃ nityaṃ śucigaveṣiṇā |
sulīnenāpragalbhena śuddhājīvena paśyatā ||
[] Life is hard for the man who is always seeking what is pure, who is disinterested, temperate, chaste, and modest.
[] 知漸不盡壽,恒求清淨行,威儀不缺漏,當觀真淨壽。
[梵文分析]
hrīmatā tv iha durjīvaṃ nityaṃ śuci-gaveṣiṇā |
有慚 然 此 難生活 常 清淨 尋求
sulīnena apragalbhena śuddha-ājīvena paśyatā ||
? 不自誇 清淨 生活 見(ppr.)
有慚生活難,常求於清淨,不著欲謙遜,清淨而活見(真實)(dhp245)
[出曜經] 知慚不盡壽,恒求清淨行,威儀不缺漏,當觀真淨壽。
知慚不盡壽者,彼慚愧之人,於諸衣食不大慇懃,所得財貨分布與人,麤衣惡食不著莊飾,唯存命於世無所榮冀,是故說曰:知慚不盡壽也。
恒求清淨行者,所行清淨不造邪部,身口意淨應無上行,亦知外淨出言適前無所傷害,是故說曰:恒求清淨行也。
威儀不缺漏者,收攝諸根不使流逸,是故說曰:威儀不缺漏。
當觀真淨壽者,進止行來出口言語,飲食取以養其壽,是故說曰:當觀真淨壽也。
cf. 菩薩本生鬘論 jātakamāla
sujīvitam ahrīkeṇa dhvāṅkṣeṇāśucikarmaṇā /
praskandinā pragalbhena susaṃkliṣṭaṃ tu jīvitam // Jm_16.2 //
hrīmatā tviha durjīvaṃ nityaṃ śucigaveṣiṇā /
saṃlīnenāpragalbhena śuddhājīvena jīvatā // Jm_16.3 //

05. cf.dhp174
[] andhabhūto hy ayaṃ lokas tanuko ’tra vipaśyataḥ |
śakunto jālamukta iva hy alpaṃ svargeṣu modate ||
[] This world is in darkness; few there are who have spiritual insight, and who, like birds escaped from a net, go to enjoy the heavens.
[] 世間普盲冥,智眼尠尠耳,群鳥墮羅網,生天不足言。
[梵文分析]
andha-bhūto hy ayaṃ lokas tanuko ’tra vipaśyataḥ |
闇 是 實 此 世間 少 此中 見
śakunto jāla-mukta iva hy alpaṃ svargeṣu modate ||
鳥 網 已脫 如 實 少 天 樂
世間普盲冥,智眼尠尠耳,如鳥脫羅網,鮮少於天樂。
[出曜經] 世間普盲冥,有目尟尟耳,群鳥墮羅網,生天不足言。
世間普盲冥者,猶如盲人,不見善色惡色平地高岸,此眾生類亦復如是,為婬怒癡所覆,不見善惡之行,不知好醜,亦復不知白黑之法,意自迷惑不求善處,是故說曰:世間普盲冥也。
有目尟尟耳者,猶若《長阿鋡》契經所說,佛告長爪梵志:世皆脩善甚少少。取要言之,懷倒見眾生多於大地之土,不識佛不識法不識比丘僧不識父母,亦復不別尊卑高下。懷正見眾生者如爪上土,見雖不錯願求不同;猶如外道梵志尼揵子等,出家學道各自謂尊,書籍別異求於解脫,執愚意迷不達大道,正見之人蓋不足言。是故說曰:有目尟尟耳。
群鳥墮羅網者,猶如獵者施張羅網懸弶捕鳥,剋獲無數鳥獸之屬,其得脫者若一若兩;生天之眾亦復如是,若一若兩得受天福。如《雜阿鋡》契經所說,佛告比丘:眾生入地獄者多於地土,從地獄終還生地獄,餓鬼畜生亦復如是;生天眾生如爪上土。是故說曰:群鳥在羅網,生天亦復爾。

06.cf. ud.7.10
[] moṣasambandhano loko bhavyarūpa iva dṛśyate |
upadhī bandhanā bālās tamasā parivāritāḥ |
asatsad iva dṛśyate paśyato nāsti kiṃcanam ||
[] The fool who is held in bondage by his body is wrapped in darkness ; they who covet worldly goods consider all other things in this same (sinful) way.
[] 觀世衰耗法,但見眾色變,愚者自繫縛,為闇所纏繞。亦不見於行,觀而無所有。
[梵文分析]
moṣa-sambandhano loko bhavyarūpa iva dṛśyate |
妄 縛 世間 美色 實 見
upadhī-bandhanā bālās tamasā parivāritāḥ |
取 縛 愚 闇 所纏繞
asat sad iva dṛśyate paśyato na asti kiṃcanam ||
無有 有 實 見 見 無 有 任一
為妄所縛的世人,但見清淨色。為取所束縛、為闇所纏繞的愚者,見無有為有,對如實知見的人而言,卻是一無所有。
[出曜經] 觀世衰耗法,但見眾色變,愚者自繫縛,為暗所纏裹。 亦不見於行,觀而無所有。
觀世衰耗法,但見眾色變者,夫人處世千轉萬端,所行不同。世有三事:一者器世,
二者陰世,三者眾生世。所謂器世者,三千大千剎是也。眾生世者,三界眾生四生五趣是。陰世者,色陰無色陰。於三世中取眾生界。何以故說衰耗之法?所謂衰耗法者,為婬怒癡所衰耗,猶如商賈遠涉塗路,遇賊亡失所獲財寶,為賊所劫;此眾生類亦復如是,為婬怒癡所劫,劫斷善根財貨,眾人皆見知其衰耗,億千萬眾時有脫者,是故說曰:觀世衰耗法,但見眾色變也。
愚者自繫縛,為暗所纏裹者,世多有人行跡不同,恒為二縛所繫,一者結使,二者陰縛,為此二事所縛無明所陰,蓋亦不堪任越次取證盡有漏成無漏;猶若有罪之人,閉在牢獄不睹日月光明,此眾生類亦復如是,以無明暗室所見纏裹,夫為欲怒癡所繫縛,欲求解脫難可得也。是故說曰:愚者自繫縛,為暗所纏裹也。
亦不見於行,觀而無所有,以性觀察都不見功德之本,復以知他人心智,欲免此難者,無一善根可濟免也;猶若有人沒溺深廁糞除所污,復有慈愍之人,欲得免濟彼難,求覓淨處欲往手捉,遍悉觀之無一淨處,便捨而去。無漏之人觀察眾生,頗有毫釐善本可療治乎?遍觀察之無有善本可療治者,聖人自念:「咄嗟衰耗群徒,罪重乃至於斯。」是故說曰:亦不見於行,觀而無所有。
cf.
1.Divyāvadāna 36. 24
Mohasaṃvardhano loko bhavyarūpa iva dṛśyate upadhibandhanā bālās tamasā parivāritā: Satsaditi paśyanti paśyatāṃ nāsti kiñcana.
2.Udāna, Cūḷavagga 7.10 Udenasutta
Mohasambandhano loko, bhabbarūpo va dissati;
Upadhibandhano [upadhisambandhano (ka. sī.)] bālo, tamasā parivārito;
Sassator iva [sassati viya (ka. sī.)] khāyati, passato natthi kiñcana’’nti. dasamaṃ;
(Thanissaro BhikkhuBound round with delusion, the world only appears to be competent. Bound with acquisitions, foolish, surrounded by darkness, it seems eternal, but for one who sees, there is nothing.)

07. cf. ud.6.6
[] ahaṃ kārasṛtā martyāḥ parakāropasaṃhitāḥ |
etad eke na jānanti paśyanti na hi śalyataḥ ||
[] Some think sentient beings are their own creators, some think that another (Isvara, &c.) made them ; they who take as the truth what is not the truth can see nothing at all ; not seeing that they are not even unanimous on this point, they cannot perceive misery.
[] 眾生皆有我,為彼而生患,一一不相見,不覩邪見刺。
[梵文分析]
ahaṃ kārasṛtā martyāḥ parakāra-upasaṃhitāḥ |
我 造作主 眾生 他作 依
etad eke na jānanti paśyanti na hi śalyataḥ ||
此 某些 不 知 見 不 實 箭
?????????????
[出曜經] 眾生皆有我,為彼而生患,一一不相見,不睹邪見刺。
眾生皆有我,為彼而生患者,世多有人性懷顛倒,眾生之類我所造、為從我而生;復有說者,從他而生、從他而有。是故說曰:眾生皆有我,為彼而生患也。
一一不相見,不睹邪見刺者,一一者,所謂外道梵志是,不思惟正見信邪顛倒,是故說曰:一一不相見,不睹邪見刺。

08. cf. ud.6.6
[] etat tu śalyaṃ pratiyatya paśyato hy adhyavasitā yatra prajāḥ prasaktāḥ |
ahaṃ karomīti na tasya hiṃsyāt paraḥ karotīti na tasya hiṃsyāt ||
[] It enters not the mind of those beings who seek the pleasures of the senses that the misery they have until then seen (brought on themselves) is their own work ; they do not understand that other like deeds will bring (misery also with them).
[] 觀此刺因緣,眾生多染著,我造彼非有,彼造非我有。
[梵文分析]
etat tu śalyaṃ pratiyatya paśyato hy adhyavasitā yatra prajāḥ prasaktāḥ |
此 然 刺 緣 見 實 染著 彼處 眾生 貪愛
ahaṃ karomi iti na tasya hiṃsyāt paraḥ karoti iti na tasya hiṃsyāt ||
我 作 不 彼 應殺 他 作 不 彼 應殺
???????
[出曜經] 觀此刺因緣,眾生所染著,我造彼非有,彼造非我有。
觀此刺因緣者,所謂刺者,邪見之刺也,因緣者,地獄餓鬼畜生人道人天,各各別異所種不同,是故說曰:觀此刺因緣也。
眾生所染著,外道異學晝夜孜孜汲汲,各自謂真信邪倒見,不能捨離就於正路,是故說曰:眾生所染著。
我造彼非有,彼造我非有者,各自謂正共相干錯,眾生之類,我作我造非彼所有,復自思惟:彼造彼作非我所有。是故說曰:我造彼非有,彼造我非有也。

09.cf. ud.6.6
[] mānopeto hy ayaṃ loko mānasaktaḥ sadā sthitaḥ |
dṛṣṭibhiś caiva saṃrabdhaḥ saṃsāraṃ nātivartate ||
[] Those beings who are selfish, fond of selfishness, held in the bonds of selfishness, who are given to controversial opinions, will not escape from the orb of transmigration.
[] 眾生為慢纏,染著於憍慢,為見所迷惑,不免生死際。
[梵文分析]
māna-upeto hy ayaṃ loko māna-saktaḥ sadā sthitaḥ |
慢 具足 實 此 世間 慢 染著 常 住
dṛṣṭibhiś ca eva saṃrabdhaḥ saṃsāraṃ na ativartate ||
見 與 實 所取 輪迴 不 過
世人具足慢,常著慢而住,為諸見所取,不能越輪迴。
[出曜經] 眾生為慢纏,染著於憍慢,為見所迷惑,不免生死際。
眾生為慢纏,染著於憍慢者,彼人自念意性憍豪:我今在眾最尊最上,宗族姓望屋宅田業,僕從家產無及我者。心意堅固不能捨離,是故說曰:眾生為慢纏,染著於憍慢也。
為見所迷惑,不免生死際者,計常見不與斷滅見相應,斷滅見不與計常見相應,不能免此生死至無為岸,是故說曰:為見所迷惑,不免生死際也。

10.cf. ud.6.8
[] yat prāptaṃ yac ca prāptavyaṃ rajaḥ kīrṇam idaṃ dvayam |
āturyam iti taṃ jñātvā jahyād vidvān samāhitaḥ ||
[] Know that the (births) that one has been subject to, and those that he will be subject to, all of these are wrapped in sinfulness (raga) ; they are subject to decay.
[] 已得與當得,二俱受塵垢,習於病根本,及覺諸所學。
[梵文分析]
yat prāptaṃ yac ca prāptavyaṃ rajaḥkīrṇam idaṃ dvayam |
若 已得 若 與 將得 塵 所覆 此 二
āturyam iti taṃ jñātvā jahyād vidvān samāhitaḥ ||
病 此 已知 應棄 有智 定
已得與當得,二俱受塵垢,已知此為病,定智者應棄。
[出曜經] 以逮及當逮,二俱受塵垢,習於病根本,及學諸所學。
世有眾生邪見心盛,貪著愛欲不能捨離,潔欲清淨翫而習之,於中興起憍慢不自改更,是謂第二邊際,是謂諸賢增益諸著。
以逮及當逮者,得陰持入,或有不得陰持入者。
此二俱受塵,一者邪見塵,二者愛欲塵,為結所使不能捨離,是故說曰:二俱受塵垢也。
習於病根本者,外道異學是,習彼技術而自榮己。
及學諸所學者,諸有眾生學其技術,乘馬御車造作無端皆能備悉,具此行者乃得解脫,是故說曰:及學諸所學也。

11.cf. ud.6.8
[] śikṣā sārāś ca ye sattvā jīvino brahmajīvinaḥ |
upasthānarataye ca sa eko ’ntaḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||
[] There are those who practise morality, the precepts, good behaviour, who lead a life of holiness (brahmachariya), and there is an extreme which is to devote oneself to asceticism.
[] 觀諸持戒者,梵行清淨人,瞻侍病瘦者,是謂至邊際。
[梵文分析]
śikṣā sārāś ca ye sattvā jīvino brahma-jīvinaḥ |
學 善行 與 若 有情 活 梵行 活
upasthāna-rataye ca sa eko ’ntaḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||
供事 樂於 與 彼 一 邊 所說
若眾生依學與善行而活,依梵行而活,樂於諸供事(苦行),此稱為一邊。
[出曜經] 觀諸持戒者,梵行清淨人,瞻視病瘦者,是謂至邊際。
觀諸持戒者,或有梵志奉持禁戒,或持烏戒舉聲似烏,或持禿梟戒隨時跪拜效禿梟鳴,或持鹿戒聲響似鹿,是故說曰:觀諸持戒者也。
梵志清淨人者,彼外道異學自相謂言:其有兩兩行淨行者,便得解脫至清淨處,若復事火日月神珠藥草衣服宮殿屋舍,然後乃至無為之處。是謂名曰,一邊際也。
世有眾生邪見心盛,貪著愛欲不能捨離,計欲清淨外人習之犯欲無隙,是謂諸賢增益諸著,能得知此者亦不隨流轉。
有目者觀,所謂有目者,諸佛世尊是,信能觀察流轉停息,是故說曰:有目者所見。解此二邊者,無所染著不興塵勞,此名邊際。

12.cf. ud.6.8
[] bhoktavyāḥ śucayaḥ kāmā na doṣas teṣu vidyate |
ya evaṃ darśino bālā dvitīyo ’ntaḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||
[] And there is another extreme in which they say: "Desires are pure; though one has desires he is virtuous; desires are to be indulged in; desires have nothing sinful in them." These men are swallowed up by their desires. (The followers of) both these extreme (theories), frequenting mostly burial-places, are called " frequenters of burial-places " (sosâniko).
[梵文分析]
bhoktavyāḥ śucayaḥ kāmā na doṣas teṣu vidyate |
應受用 清淨 欲 無 過失 彼 有
ya evaṃ darśino bālā dvitīyo ’ntaḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||
若 如是 見 愚 第二 邊 所說
「諸欲應受用,諸欲是清淨,彼中無過失。」愚者如是見,稱為第二邊。

13.cf. ud.6.8
[] etāv antāv anajñāya tv atilīyanti bāliśaḥ |
apare tv atidhāvanti cakṣuṣmāṃs tāṃ prapaśyati ||
[] Neither of these extremes see (the cause of suffering), so part of them are filled with desires, and part of them are wildly running about ; they who can see perceive how full of desires they are, and how they run about.
[梵文分析]
etāv antāv anajñāya tv atilīyanti bāliśaḥ |
此 二邊 ? 然 極染著 愚者
apare tv atidhāvanti cakṣuṣmāṃs tāṃ prapaśyati ||
或有 然 追逐 有眼者 此 見

14.cf. ud.6.8
[] etāv antau viditvā tu nābhavaṃs tatra ye budhāḥ |
na caiva tena manyante vartmas teṣāṃ na vidyate ||
[] They who can see, perceive that if these two extremes could but see, they would give up desires and cease running (after them) ; so they have no desires, and do not run about (after them). As they do not thus, as they think not thus (i.e., as the two extremes), as they are not held in this way, they have found the end of suffering.
[梵文分析]
etāv antau viditvā tu na abhavaṃs tatra ye budhāḥ |
此 二邊 知已 然 不 是 彼中 若 覺
na ca eva tena manyante vartmas teṣāṃ na vidyate ||
不 於 實 彼 想 ? 彼 不 有

15. cf.dhp170
[] yathā budbudikāṃ paśyed yathā paśyen marīcikām |
evaṃ lokam avekṣaṃ vai mṛtyurājaṃ na paśyati ||
[] He who looks on the world as a bubble, who considers it as a mirage, the king of death will not see him.
[] 當觀水上泡,亦觀幻野馬,如是不觀世,亦不見死王。
[梵文分析]
yathā budbudikāṃ paśyed yathā paśyen marīcikām |
如 水上泡 當觀 如 當觀 幻野馬
evaṃ lokam avekṣaṃ vai mṛtyu-rājaṃ na paśyati ||
如是 世 觀 實 死 王 不 見
當觀水上泡,亦觀幻野馬,如是觀世間,不能見死王。
[出曜經] 當觀水上泡,亦觀幻野馬,如是不觀身,亦不見死王。
當觀水上泡,亦觀幻野馬者,如彼水泡不得久停。昔有國王女為王所愛,未曾離目,
時天降雨水上有泡,女見水泡意甚愛敬,女白王言:「我欲得水上泡以為頭花鬘。」王告女曰:「今水上泡不可獲持,云何得取以為花鬘?」女白王言:「說不得者我當自殺。」王聞女語,尋召巧師而告之曰:「汝等奇巧靡事不通,速取水泡與我女作鬘,若不爾者當斬汝等!」巧師白王:「我等不堪取泡作鬘。」其中有一老匠,自占堪能取泡,即前白王:「我能取泡與王作鬘。」王甚歡喜即告女曰:「今有一人堪任作鬘,汝可自往躬自瞻視。」女隨王語在外瞻視,時彼老匠白王女言:「我素不別水泡好醜,伏願王女躬自取泡我當作鬘。」女尋取泡隨手破壞不能得之,如是終日竟不得泡,女自疲厭而捨之去。女白王言:「水泡虛偽不可久停,願王與我作紫金鬘,終日竟夜無有枯萎。」水上泡者誑惑人目,雖有形質生生便滅;盛焰野馬亦復如是,渴愛疲勞而喪其命,人身虛偽樂少苦多,為磨滅法不得久停,遷轉變易在世無幾,不為死王所見,是故說曰:當觀水上泡,亦觀幻野馬,如是不觀身,亦不見死王。

16.
[] yathā budbudikāṃ paśyed yathā paśyen marīcikām |
evaṃ kāyam avekṣaṃ vai mṛtyurājaṃ na paśyati ||
[] He who looks on the body as a bubble, who considers it s a mirage, the king of death will not see him.
[] 當觀水上泡,亦觀幻野馬,如是不觀身,亦不見死至。
[梵文分析]
yathā budbudikāṃ paśyed yathā paśyen marīcikām |
如 水上泡 當觀 如 當觀 幻野馬
evaṃ kāyam avekṣaṃ vai mṛtyu-rājaṃ na paśyati ||
如是 身 觀 實 死 王 不 見
當觀水上泡,亦觀幻野馬,如是觀色身,不能見死王。
[出曜經] 當觀水上泡,亦觀幻野馬,如是不觀世,亦不見死王。
不觀世者,五盛陰身如是不久當復消滅,設能滅此五陰身者,不與死王相見也。

17. cf.dhp171
[] paśyatemaṃ sadā kāyaṃ citraṃ rājarathopamam |
yatra bālāḥ pramuhyante saṅgo nāsti prajānatām ||
A. paśyatemaṃ sadā kāyaṃ citraṃ rājarathopamam |
yatra bālā viṣīdanti paṇḍito ’tra virajyate ||
[] Look always at this body as at a beautiful royal chariot; the fool delights in it, the wise man has no fondness for it.
[] 如是當觀身,如王雜色車,愚者所染著,善求遠離彼。
[梵文分析]
paśyata imaṃ sadā kāyaṃ citraṃ rājaratha-upamam |
見 此 常 身 雜 王車 如
yatra bālāḥ pramuhyante saṅgo na asti prajānatām ||
此處 愚 迷著 染 無 有 智者
汝等當觀身,如王雜色車,愚者迷於此,智者無染著。
[出曜經] 如是當觀身,如王雜色車,愚者所染著,善求遠離彼。
如是當觀身,如王雜色車者,如國王車雜色莊嚴,雖有形色亦不牢固,不任重載,是故說曰:如是當觀身,如王雜色車也。
愚者所染著,善求遠離彼者,愚人所貪翫而習之,智者所棄若捐糞除,是故說曰:愚者所染著,善求遠離彼也。

18.
[] paśyatemaṃ sadā kāyaṃ citraṃ rājarathopamam |
yatra bālā viṣīdanti yathā paṅke jaradgavaḥ ||
[] Look always at this body as at a beautiful royal chariot ; the fool is deceived by it, the wise man is not deceived by it. Look always at this body as at a beautiful royal chariot ; the fool is brought low through it, like an old elephant sunk in the mud.
[梵文分析]
paśyata imaṃ sadā kāyaṃ citraṃ rājaratha-upamam |
見 此 常 身 雜 王車 如
yatra bālā viṣīdanti yathā paṅke jaradgavaḥ ||
此處 愚 沈 如 泥 老牛
汝等當觀身,如王雜色車,愚者沈於此,如老牛陷泥。
Thera.1157.
evam etaṃ mahāvīra, yathā samaṇa bhāsasi;
ettha ceke visīdanti, paṅkamh iva jaraggavo.

19.
[] paśyatemaṃ sadā kāyaṃ citraṃ rājarathopamam |
yatra bālāḥ pramuhyante paṇḍito ’tra virajyate |
[] 如是當觀身,如王雜色車,愚者所染著,智者遠離之。
[梵文分析]
paśyata imaṃ sadā kāyaṃ citraṃ rājaratha-upamam |
見 此 常 身 雜 王車 如
yatra bālāḥ pramuhyante paṇḍito ’tra virajyate |
此處 愚 迷著 智者 此中 遠離
汝等當觀身,如王雜色車,愚者沈於此,智者遠離之。
[出曜經] 如是當觀身,如王雜色車,愚者所染著,智者遠離之。
智人知動搖,心不願樂,常意欲遠離如避火災,是故說曰:智者遠離之。

20. f.dhp147
[] paśya citrakṛtaṃ bimbam arukaṃ kāyasaṃjñitam |
āturaṃ moṣasaṃkalpaṃ yasya nāsti dhruvasthitiḥ ||
[] Look always at this body as sick and subject to decay, as a wounded man, as changing and impermanent.
[] 如是當觀身,眾病之所因,病與愚合會,焉能可恃怙。
[梵文分析]
paśya citrakṛtaṃ bimbam arukaṃ kāya-saṃjñitam |
看 彩畫 影像 傷 身 名
āturaṃ moṣa-saṃkalpaṃ yasya na asti dhruva-sthitiḥ ||
病 妄 分別 若 無 是 常 住
觀此彩畫像,瘡傷聚名身,疾病妄分別,無有常住者。
Ther.1160.
‘‘Passa cittakataṃ bimbaṃ, arukāyaṃ samussitaṃ;
Āturaṃ bahusaṅkappaṃ, yassa natthi dhuvaṃ ṭhiti.
[出曜經]如是當觀身,知病之所因,病與愚合會,焉能可恃怙?
人出胞胎由前世因緣,多病少病形貌好醜,是故說曰:如是當觀身,眾病之所因,病與愚合會,焉能可恃怙?

21.
[] paśya citrakṛtaṃ bimbaṃ maṇibhiḥ kuṇḍalais tathā |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya na tu pāragaveṣiṇām ||
[] Look at this body, ornamented with jewels, bracelets, and ear-rings, as diseased and subject to decay, as changing and impermanent. The fool in his stupidity adorns his curls, paints his eyes with collour, and seeks not after the other world.
[] 當觀畫形像,摩尼紺青髮,愚者以為緣,不求越彼岸。
[梵文分析]
paśya citrakṛtaṃ bimbaṃ maṇibhiḥ kuṇḍalais tathā |
看 彩畫 影像 珠 環 如是
alaṃ bālasya mohāya na tu pāra-gaveṣiṇām ||
實 愚 癡 無 然 彼岸 尋求
觀此彩畫像,寶珠耳環飾,愚者實為癡,不求越彼岸。
[出曜經] 當觀畫形像,摩尼紺青髮,愚者以為緣,不求越彼岸。
當觀畫形像,摩尼紺青髮者,眾香芬薰沐浴其髮,眾香沐浴香氣遠布,是故說曰:當觀畫形像,摩尼紺青髮也。
愚者以為緣,不求越彼岸者,愚者所纏裹不能得遠離,無有巧便得至彼岸,所謂彼岸者滅盡泥洹,是故說曰:愚者以為緣,不求越彼岸也。
Thera.1161.
‘‘Passa cittakataṃ rūpaṃ, maṇinā kuṇḍalena ca;
Aṭṭhiṃ tacena onaddhaṃ, saha vatthehi sobhati.
Thera.1162.
‘‘Alattakakatā pādā, mukhaṃ cuṇṇakamakkhitaṃ;
Alaṃ bālassa mohāya, no ca pāragavesino.

22.
[] paśya citrakṛtaṃ bimbaṃ maṇibhiḥ kuṇḍalais tathā |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya paṇḍito ’tra virajyate ||
22A. gandhena gātrām anuliptaḥ pādau gairikarañjitau |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya na tu pāragaveṣiṇām ||
22B. gandhena gātrām anuliptaḥ pādau gairikarañjitau |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya paṇḍito ’tra virajyate ||
[] 當觀畫形像,摩尼紺青髮,愚者以為緣,智者所厭患。
強以彩畫形,莊嚴醜穢身,愚者以為緣,亦不求匂度。
[梵文分析]
paśya citrakṛtaṃ bimbaṃ maṇibhiḥ kuṇḍalais tathā |
看 彩畫 影像 珠 環 如是
alaṃ bālasya mohāya paṇḍito ’tra virajyate ||
實 愚 癡 智者 此中 遠離
觀此彩畫像,寶珠耳環飾,愚者實為癡,智者遠離此。
[出曜經] 當觀畫形像,摩尼紺青髮,愚者以為緣,智者所厭患。
智慧之人,分別妙觀思惟挍計,不興想著,是故說曰:智者所厭患。

23.
[] aṣṭāpadīkṛtāḥ keśā netre cāñjanarañjite |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya na tu pāragaveṣiṇām ||
[] The fool in his stupidity paints (his body) with colours, covers with jewels this corrupt body, and seeks not after the other world.
[] 爪髮為八分,雙部眼耳璫,愚者所染著,亦不求自度。
[梵文分析]
aṣṭāpadī-kṛtāḥ keśā netre ca añjana-rañjite |
八足 所作 髮 眼 與 眼油 染
alaṃ bālasya mohāya na tu pāragaveṣiṇām ||
實 愚 癡 無 然 彼岸 尋求
梳髮為八分,眼臉上眼油,愚者實為癡,不求越彼岸。
Thera.1163.
‘‘Aṭṭhapadakatā kesā, nettā añjanamakkhitā;
Alaṃ bālassa mohāya, no ca pāragavesino.
[出曜經] 強以彩畫形,莊嚴醜穢身,愚者以為緣,亦不自求度。
昔有豪族之家,饒財多寶七珍具足,長者自念:「今時年少道人情欲未斷,我今宜請來在家,使諸婦女擎食供養,設有欲情者我當知之。」即往在寺請,諸年少道人詣長者家,莊嚴婦女更著新衣,盡出禮拜興恭敬意。時有六通羅漢尋而覺知,即化死人骸骨血肉消盡,髑髏手腳各自一處。爾時羅漢告諸比丘:「當自專意以求度世,莫視女色興穢污心。」時彼長者睹彼瑞應歎未曾有,內自剋責知為不是,五體投地自求悔過:「我今乃知法之微妙。」諸婦女各各慚愧即還入舍。是時,羅漢告長者曰:「佛法寬博汪洋無涯,卿今以凡夫之智量度聖人,斯非正理,猶若拳許土塊仰比須彌,升合之器欲量海水。」
爾時比丘便說此偈:
強以彩畫形,莊嚴醜穢身,愚者以為緣,亦不自求度。
分髮為八分,雙部眼耳璫,愚者所染著,亦不自求度。
爾時比丘說此二偈已,便從坐起而去。時彼長者及諸婦女善心自生,恭敬三寶,後日各各成其道跡。

24.
[] aṣṭāpadīkṛtāḥ keśā netre cāñjanarañjite |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya paṇḍito ’tra virajyate ||
24A ... alaṃ bālasya mohāya yasya nāsti dhruvasthitiḥ ||
24B ... alaṃ bālasya mohāya saṅgo nāsti prajānatām ||
[梵文分析]
aṣṭāpadī-kṛtāḥ keśā netre ca añjana-rañjite |
八足 所作 髮 眼 與 眼油 染
alaṃ bālasya mohāya paṇḍito ’tra virajyate ||
實 愚 癡 智者 此中 遠離
梳髮為八分,眼臉上眼油,愚者實為癡,智者遠離此。

25.
[] añjanīva navā citrā pūtikāyo hy alaṃkṛtaḥ |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya na tu pāragaveṣiṇām ||
[] The fool in his stupidity anoints this body with perfumes, rubs his feet with gerika, and seeks not after the other world. He who is entirely devoted to desires, and who sees not the sinfulness of his devotion, is unable through his devotion to desires to cross the wide and eternal stream.
[梵文分析]
añjanī iva navā citrā pūti-kāyo hy alaṃkṛtaḥ |
塗料 如 新 亮麗 敗壞 身 實 裝飾
alaṃ bālasya mohāya na tu pāragaveṣiṇām ||
實 愚 癡 無 然 彼岸 尋求
新亮麗塗料,裝飾敗壞身,愚者實為癡,不求越彼岸。
Thera.1164.
‘‘Añjanīva navā cittā, pūtikāyo alaṅkato;
Alaṃ bālassa mohāya, no ca pāragavesino.

26.
[] añjanīva navā citrā pūtikāyo hy alaṃkṛtaḥ |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya paṇḍito ’tra virajyate ||
26A. gandhena gātrām anuliptaḥ pādau gairikarañjitau |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya yasya nāsti dhruvasthitiḥ ||
26B. gandhena gātrām anuliptaḥ pādau gairikarañjitau |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya saṅgo nāsti prajānatām ||
26C. añjanīva navā citrā pūtikāyo hy alaṃkṛtaḥ |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya yasya nāsti dhruvasthitiḥ ||
26D. añjanīva navā citrā pūtikāyo hy alaṃkṛtaḥ |
alaṃ bālasya mohāya saṅgo nāsti prajānatām ||
[梵文分析]
añjanī iva navā citrā pūti-kāyo hy alaṃkṛtaḥ |
塗料 如 新 亮麗 敗壞 身 實 裝飾
alaṃ bālasya mohāya paṇḍito ’tra virajyate ||
實 愚 癡 智者 此中 遠
新亮麗塗料,裝飾敗壞身,愚者實為癡,智者遠離此。

27.cf. ud.7.3.
[] kāmeṣu saktāḥ satataṃ hi mūḍhāḥ saṃyojane vadyam apaśyamānāḥ |
na jātu saṃyojanasaṅgasaktā hy oghaṃ tareyur vipulaṃ mahāntam ||
[] 著欲染於欲,不究結使緣,不以生結使,當度欲有流。
[梵文分析]
kāmeṣu saktāḥ satataṃ hi mūḍhāḥ saṃyojane vadyam apaśyamānāḥ |
欲 染 常 實 癡者 結 過失 不察
na jātu saṃyojana-saṅga-saktā hy oghaṃ tareyur vipulaṃ mahāntam ||
不 實 結 執 染 實 瀑 能渡 廣 大
愚癡者常著於欲,不觀察過失,不因結執染,能渡廣大瀑流。
[出曜經] 著欲染於欲,不究結使緣,不以生結使,當度欲有流。
著欲染於欲者,群徒在世志趣不同,或有少欲或欲意偏多,欲偏多者不達賢之法,是故說曰:著欲染於欲也。
不究結使緣者,貪嫉慳結病中之重者,入骨徹髓醫所不療,積財億萬不肯惠施,至其壽終不能持一錢自隨;其有眾生修行貪嫉者,身無威神遂致貧窮,宗親不和為人所輕,是故說曰:不究結使緣也。
不以生結使,當度欲有流者,流有四品,其事不同。云何為四?一者欲流,二者有流,三者無明流,四者見流。眾生之類沈溺生死皆由此四,流浪四使不能自免,方當涉歷流轉五道,是故說曰:不以生結使,當度欲有流也。

28. cf. ud.7.1
[] ūrdhvaṃ cādhaḥ sarvato vītarāgo hy ayam aham asmīti ca nānupaśyan |
evaṃ vimukto hi tared iha ogham atīrṇapūrvaṃ hy apunar bhavāya ||
[] He who has commenced by casting off the principal desires, and finally all of them, who looks neither to the I or the mine, crosses the until then impassable stream, and finishes with existence.
[梵文分析]
ūrdhvaṃ ca adhaḥ sarvato vītarāgo hy ayam aham asmi iti ca na anupaśyan |
上 與 下 一切 離貪 實 此 我 是 與 不 見
evaṃ vimukto hi tared iha ogham atīrṇa-pūrvaṃ hy apunar bhavāya ||
如是 已脫 實 能渡 此世 瀑 未渡 過去 實 不再 有
於上界與下界,已離一切貪者,不見:「此是我。」如是已脫者,在此世界中,能渡過去未渡的瀑流,不再成為有。
[出曜經] 上一切無欲,當察此大觀,如是有解脫,本所未度者。
上一切無欲者,上者色界無色界,欲者欲界也,於此三界無復三毒,於中永得解脫,是故說曰:上一切無欲也。
當察此大觀者,無欲之人是佛第一弟子,佛有四弟子,羅漢為勝為尊為貴為無有上,是故說曰:當察此大觀也。
如是有解脫者,聖人執行不自為己,於諸四駃永得自在,更不著有在身口行,是故說曰:如是有解脫也。
本所未度者,昔所經歷生死之難,未曾為度,當求方便度此三有,更不受有造四大身,是故說曰:本所未度者。

29. cf.dhp344
[] yo nirvanagair vimokṣitaḥ saṃvanamukto vanam eva dhāvati |
taṃ paśyatha pudgalaṃ tv imaṃ mukto bandhanam eva dhāvati ||
[] He who having freed himself of the forest, being without the forest, runs to the forest, though he has freed himself of it ; look at that miserable man who gives up freedom for bondage !
[] 非園脫於園,脫園復就園,當復觀此人,脫縛復就縛。
今捨天王位,不造生死本,求離地獄苦,願說圓寂樂。
[梵文分析]
yo nirvanagair vimokṣitaḥ saṃvana-mukto vanam eva dhāvati |
若 無林 已脫 林 已脫 林 實 奔向
taṃ paśyatha pudgalaṃ tv imaṃ mukto bandhanam eva dhāvati ||
此 觀 人 然 此 已脫 縛 實 奔向
非園脫於園,脫園復就園,汝當觀此人,脫縛復就縛。
[出曜經] 非園脫於園,脫園復就園,當復觀此人,脫縛復就縛。
昔佛在釋翅搜迦維羅竭國尼拘類園中。爾時世尊到時著衣持缽,將侍者阿難入迦維羅竭城乞食。爾時童子難陀,在高樓上,遙見世尊入城乞食,速下高樓至世尊所,頭面禮足啟世尊言:「如來之姓國中豪族,轉輪聖王所至之處,何為自辱持缽乞食?」爾時難陀取如來缽,入內盛甘饌飲食。佛見難陀入舍之後,告阿難曰:「我今向尼拘類園,難陀出者勿復取缽。汝語難陀:『躬自送缽還于如來。』」難陀受教從後送缽,婦復隨後語難陀曰:「速還勿久,須來乃食。」前進未久,婦重遣信時還勿停,所以鄭重者,恐捨家學道。難陀持至世尊所,手自擎缽授與如來:「唯願時受,今欲還家。」佛告難陀:「卿以至此,今宜遠家剃除鬚髮著三法衣,何為復辭欲還到家?」是時,如來以威神力逼迫難陀出家為道,閉在靜室不使還家。如是經歷日月之數,次第當直遂至難陀。難陀聞之內自歡喜:「我今當直事得從容,因此閑暇逃走還家。」是時,難陀受直使辦水掃地,事事不闕。是時,天神侍衛難陀,汲水至滿自然翻棄淨地之中,草土更滋,關閉門戶戶自然開。難陀思惟:「我家王者之種,饒財多寶無所乏短,我今逃走向家。設有漏失以物償之,今當竊逐細徑,按大途者備值如來。」爾時難陀脫三法衣,更被白服磨何而去。行未經時,正值如來從彼而進,難陀見已奔趣大樹欲自隱形,如來神力反使大樹在難陀後,難陀周慞安身無處。爾時世尊復以神力,拔彼大樹懸在虛空。爾時難陀入樹根處隱形自蔽,如來尋往與共相見。「難陀!何為乃來至此?」難陀默然慚愧不對。如來再三告難陀曰:「汝欲何趣,默然不對?」難陀言:「還家與婦相見。」佛告難陀:「夫人學道心不自專,貪著欲心不顧後世燒身之禍。」
爾時世尊便說偈言:非園脫於園,脫園復就園,當復觀此人,脫縛復就縛。我今將汝天上遊觀,宜當自專勿懷恐怖。是時,世尊以神足力,手接難陀將至天上。見一宮殿七寶所作,金銀刻鏤玉女營從不可稱計,純女無男亦無夫主。是時,難陀前白佛言:「是何天宮殿快樂無比?七寶殿堂彈琴鼓瑟,作倡伎樂共相娛樂昔所未聞。然此天女無有夫主,唯願世尊解我狐疑。」
爾時世尊告難陀曰:「汝自往彼問其情實?天女自當與汝說之。」難陀受教至彼天宮,以其情實問天女曰:「汝等天女自然受福,七寶殿堂五樂自娛,汝等夫主竟為所在?」天女報曰:「汝不知乎?閻浮利地迦維羅竭國,釋迦文佛並父弟名曰難陀,命終之後當來生此處在天宮,彼人即我等夫主。」難陀聞之密自歡喜:「今所論者正是我也。」即還佛所具以此情白世尊言:「此諸宮殿玉女營從盡是我許。」佛告難陀:「快修梵行,如是不久當來至此受福自然。」是時,世尊以神足力,手接難陀將至地獄,路經鐵圍山表,見一獼猴瞎無一目。佛語難陀:「汝孫陀利婦何如是瞎獼猴乎?」難陀白佛:「止止世尊勿復說此!豈當以此方之彼人?孫陀利者女中英妙,六十四術無事不閑。」爾時世尊告難陀曰:「瞎獼猴比孫陀利,復以孫陀利比諸天女,億千萬倍不以譬喻為比。」是時,世尊即接難陀將至地獄,示彼苦痛考掠搒笞酸毒難計,八大地獄湯煮罪人,一大地獄十六隔子圍繞其獄,刀山劍樹火車爐炭,燒炙缹煮苦痛難陳。有一大鑊獄卒圍遶,湯沸火熾不見罪人。難陀白佛:「不審,世尊!斯諸地獄皆有罪囚,斯是何鑊不見罪人?」佛告難陀:「汝躬自往問彼獄卒,自當為汝說其本末。」是時,難陀受佛教誡,往問獄卒:「斯是何鑊空無罪人?」獄卒報曰:「閻浮利地,真淨王家兒得成道,並父弟甘露王兒,名曰難陀,為人放逸婬欲情多,自恃豪族輕忽萬民,彼命終之後當來入此鑊中,經歷劫數乃得免脫。卿欲知者其事如是。」難陀聞已衣毛皆豎,形體戰慄顏色變異,往趣世尊前白佛言:「唯然天師二界大護,今睹此變倍懷恐懼。」尋於佛前而說此偈:「今捨天上位,不造生死本,求離地獄苦,願說泥洹滅。」爾時世尊漸與難陀說微妙法,安處無為令至道場。

30. cf. ud.7.5.
[] nelāṅgaḥ śvetasaṃchanna ekāro vartate rathaḥ |
anighaṃ paśyatāyāntaṃ chinnayoktram abandhanam ||
[] Look at that sinless being agreeable (to look at) in every limb, with a chariot well made (down to) the spokes, (see her) clothed in a white gown and free yourself of the stream of bondage.
[] 青衣白蓋身,御者御一輪,觀彼未斷垢,求便斷縛著。
[梵文分析]
nela-aṅgaḥ śveta-saṃchanna eka-āro vartate rathaḥ |
青 枝 白 覆 一 輻 轉 車
anighaṃ paśyata āyāntaṃ chinna-yoktram abandhanam ||
無罪 觀 來 斷 結 不縛
青枝白所覆,一輻車轉動,觀察無罪來,斷結不復縛。
[出曜經] 青衣白蓋覆,御者御一輪,觀彼末塵垢,永便斷縛者。
cf.
1.婆須蜜菩薩所集論
青數白所覆,一輻車而行,不勝觀此邊,斷諸流結縛。
2.雜阿含566
枝青以白覆,一輻轉之車,離結觀察來,斷流不復縛。
青者謂戒也。白覆謂解脫也。一輻者身念也。轉者轉出也。車者止觀也。離結者有三種結,謂貪、恚、癡。彼阿羅漢諸漏已盡、已滅、已知、已斷根本,如截多羅樹頭,更不復生,未來世成不起法。觀察者謂見也。來者人也。斷流者,愛流於生死。彼阿羅漢比丘,諸漏已盡、已知,斷其根本,如截多羅樹頭,不復生,於未來世成不起法。不縛者謂三縛,貪欲縛、瞋恚縛、愚癡縛。彼阿羅漢比丘,諸漏已盡、已斷、已知,斷其根本,如截多羅樹頭,更不復生,於未來世成不起法。
3.SN.41.5/ 5. Paṭhamakāmabhūsuttaṃ
Nelaṅgo setapacchādo, ekāro vattatī ratho;
Anīghaṃ passa āyantaṃ, chinnasotaṃ abandhanan”ti.
“‘Nelaṅgan’ti kho, bhante, sīlānametaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
Setapacchādo’ti kho, bhante, vimuttiyā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
Ekāro’ti kho, bhante, satiyā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
Vattatī’ti kho, bhante, abhikkamapaṭikkamassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ.
Ratho’ti kho, bhante, imassetaṃ cātumahābhūtikassa kāyassa adhivacanaṃ mātāpettikasambhavassa odanakummāsūpacayassa aniccucchādanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaṃsanadhammassa. Rāgo kho, bhante, nīgho, doso nīgho, moho nīgho. Te khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā. Tasmā khīṇāsavo bhikkhu ‘anīgho’ti vuccati. ‘Āyantan’ti kho, bhante, arahato etaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Soto’ti kho, bhante, taṇhāyetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. Sā khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā. Tasmā khīṇāsavo bhikkhu ‘chinnasoto’ti vuccati. Rāgo kho, bhante, bandhanaṃ, doso bandhanaṃ, moho bandhanaṃ. Te khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā. Tasmā khīṇāsavo bhikkhu ‘abandhano’ti vuccati.

31. cf.dhp188
[] bahavaḥ śaraṇaṃ yānti parvatāṃś ca vanāni ca |
ārāmāṃ vṛkṣacaityāṃś ca manuṣyā bhayatarjitāḥ ||
[] The common of men, driven by fear, seek a refuge in mountains, forests, groves, sacrificial places, and in great trees.
[] 人多求自歸,山川樹木神,園觀及神祀,望免苦患難。
[梵文分析]
bahavaḥ śaraṇaṃ yānti parvatāṃś ca vanāni ca |
多 依靠 趣 山 與 林 與
ārāmāṃ vṛkṣa-caityāṃś ca manuṣyā bhaya-tarjitāḥ ||
園 樹 神祀 與 人 怖 驚慌
大多數的人因恐怖而驚慌,歸依山、林、園、樹及神祀。
[出曜經]人多求自歸,山川樹木神,園觀及神祠,望免苦患難。
人懷恐懼意迷不寤,值前禱祀不別真偽。昔月支國有王名惡少,王此天下莫不靡伏。母教敕王:「設卿有臨死之難,慎莫左旋佛寺,當念右旋,慎莫違吾此教。」是時,惡少王大出兵眾攻純西城,手自執劍殺三億人,不滿四億,規滿五億,後戰不如,乘象奔走,顧見佛圖憶母教誡,便迴象右旋,敵國見之皆伏還國。王見賊退尋後追攝,即還壞賊擒獲王身,便憶佛語:「自歸佛者,為尊為上無有及者。設我不右旋者,豈能壞此賊乎?」是故說曰:人多求自歸,山川樹木神,園觀及神祠,望免苦患難也。

32. cf.dhp189
[] naitadd hi śaraṇaṃ kṣemaṃ naitat śaraṇam uttamam |
naitat śaraṇaṃ āgamya sarvaduḥkhāt pramucyate ||
[] These are not the best of refuges, these are not the chief refuges, for a man who goes to them for a refuse is not freed from all suffering.
[] 此非自歸上,亦非有吉利,如有自歸者,不脫一切苦。
[梵文分析]
na etadd hi śaraṇaṃ kṣemaṃ na etat śaraṇam uttamam |
非 此 實 依 安穩 非 此 依 上
na etat śaraṇaṃ āgamya sarva-duḥkhāt pramucyate ||
非 此 依 來 一切 苦 脫
此非安穩依,亦非最上依,非有歸此依,能脫一切苦。
[出曜經] 此非自歸上,亦非有吉利,如有自歸者,不脫一切苦。
人之修道唯有信義,信根以全戒則不毀。諸有眾生能自歸此三寶者,無願不成,為天人所供養,自致得道,亦復受永劫之福。人之無怙猶樹之無根,若有所憑何事不果也。

33. cf.dhp190
[] yas tu buddhaṃ ca dharmaṃ ca saṃghaṃ ca śaraṇaṃ gataḥ |
catvāri cāryasatyāni prajñayā paśyate yadā ||
[] He who seeks a refuge in the Buddha, the law (dharma), and the church (sangha), (he who sees with understanding) suffering, the production of suffering, the destruction of suffering :
[] 若有自歸佛,及法苾芻僧,修習聖四諦,如慧之所見。
[梵文分析]
yas tu buddhaṃ ca dharmaṃ ca saṃghaṃ ca śaraṇaṃ gataḥ |
若 然 佛 與 法 與 僧 與 依 歸
catvāri ca āryasatyāni prajñayā paśyate yadā ||
四 與 聖諦 智 見 時
然若歸依佛、法及苾芻僧,彼時以智慧,得見四聖諦。
[出曜經] 若有自歸佛,歸法比丘僧,修習聖四諦,如慧之所見。

34.cf.dhp191
[] duḥkhaṃ duḥkhasamutpādaṃ duḥkhasya samatikramam |
āryaṃ cāṣṭāṅgikaṃ mārgaṃ duḥkhopaśamagāminam ||
[] He who sees with understanding happiness, the way to nirvana, the eightfold holy way and the four blessed truths :
[] 苦因緣苦生,當越此苦本,賢聖八品道,滅盡甘露際。
[梵文分析]
duḥkhaṃ duḥkha-samutpādaṃ duḥkhasya samatikramam |
苦 苦 集 苦 超越
āryaṃ ca aṣṭa-aṅgikaṃ mārgaṃ duḥkha-upaśama-gāminam ||
聖 與 八 品 道 苦 滅盡 去
四聖諦是苦、苦集,超越苦,與能向苦滅盡的聖八品道。
[出曜經] 苦因苦緣生,當越此苦本,賢聖八品道,滅盡甘露際。

35. cf.dhp192
[] etadd hi śaraṇaṃ kṣemam etat śaraṇam uttamam |
etat śaraṇaṃ āgamya sarvaduḥkhāt pramucyate ||
[] This is the chief refuge, this is the holy refuge ; he who goes to this refuge, becomes freed from all suffering.
[] 是為自歸上,非不有吉利,如有自歸者,得脫一切苦。
[梵文分析]
etadd hi śaraṇaṃ kṣemam etat śaraṇam uttamam |
此 實 依 安穩 此 依 上
etat śaraṇaṃ āgamya sarva-duḥkhāt pramucyate ||
此 依 來 一切 苦 脫
此實安穩依,亦為最上依,若有歸此依,能脫一切苦。
[出曜經] 是為自歸上,非不有吉利,如有自歸者,得脫一切苦。

36.
[] paśyataḥ paśyate paśyaṃ paśyate cāpy apaśyataḥ |
apaśyan paśyate naiva paśyato nāpy apaśyataḥ ||
[] He who perceives (mentally) what he sees, can perceive also the unseen with his sight ; he who sees not the unseen does not perceive what he ought to see ;
[] 觀已觀當觀,不觀亦當觀,觀而復重觀,觀而不復觀。
[梵文分析]
paśyataḥ paśyate paśyaṃ paśyate ca apy apaśyataḥ |
正觀 觀 應觀 觀 與 也 不正觀
apaśyan paśyate na eva paśyato na apy apaśyataḥ ||
不正觀 觀 不 實 正觀 不 也 不正觀
????????
[出曜經] 觀以觀當觀,不觀亦當觀,觀而復重觀,觀而不復觀。
所謂觀者,苦習盡道真如四諦,彼執行人,以觀苦習盡道真如四諦,觀者現在,以觀過去,當觀未來,興於塵勞皆由三世,墜墮生死不至于道,是故說曰:觀以觀當觀也。
不觀亦當觀者,所謂不觀者,不見苦習盡道,如是當觀深察分明,知為不見苦習盡道真如四諦,是故說曰:不觀亦當觀也。
觀而復重觀者,信能分別苦習盡道,一一思惟究暢其義。觀而不復觀者,已觀已知不復思惟,是故說曰:不觀亦當觀,觀而復不觀也。

37.
[] anupaśyanayā ca paśyanā nānātvaṃ hi tayor ihocyate |
divasasya yathaiva rātribhiḥ saṃdhānaṃ ca tayor na vidyate ||
[] ordinary sight and spiritual insight (vipassana) are by their nature as different as day and night, which never are at the same time.
[] 觀而復重觀,分別彼性本,計晝以為夜,寶身壞不久。
[梵文分析]
anupaśyanayā ca paśyanā nānātvaṃ hi tayor iha ucyate |
隨觀 與 觀 不同 實 彼二 此 說
divasasya yathā eva rātribhiḥ saṃdhānaṃ ca tayor na vidyate ||
晝 如 實 夜 合 與 彼二 無 有
因隨觀的緣故,說彼二觀(肉眼的觀與內觀的觀)不同,就如白天與夜晚不同一樣,彼二不能合在一起。
[出曜經] 觀而復重觀,分別彼性本,計晝以為夜,寶身壞不久。
觀而復重觀者,觀有二種:一者財觀,二者第一義觀。夫財觀者增益結使,第一義者盡有漏成無漏行,是故說曰:觀而復重觀也。
分別彼性本者,或有人性造行不同,國界若干法教非一,聖人在中一一分別;或有意開寤者,或有意不開寤者,或有開寤不開寤者,眾生受性寤有遲疾,是以聖人訓之以道,懃加脩行晝夜匪懈,是故說曰:分別彼性本也。
計晝以為夜者,眾生之類性行不同,或思善本,或不思善本,是謂計晝以為夜也。
寶身壞不久者,世間財貨世之常法,終日聚集要當消壞,善根財貨者終不腐敗,是故律本說曰:「當以不寶之身易寶身,不寶之財易寶財,不寶之命易寶命。」是故說曰:寶身壞不久也。

38.
[] anupaśyati cen na paśyati tv atha cet paśyati nānupaśyati |
paśyann ayaṃ nānupaśyati tv anupaśyaṃs tu sadā na paśyati ||
[] With ordinary sight one cannot perceive (suffering, &c.); if one sees, he loses sight of form (rupa); with this sight (i.e., vipassana) one perceives not form; with ordinary sight one is without perceiving anything.
[] 觀而不重觀,雖見亦不見,如見而不見,觀而亦不見。
[梵文分析]
anupaśyati cen na paśyati tv atha cet paśyati na anupaśyati |
隨觀 若 無 觀 然 但 若 觀 非 隨觀
paśyann ayaṃ na anupaśyati tv anupaśyaṃs tu sadā na paśyati ||
正觀 此 非 隨觀 然 正隨觀 然 常 非 觀
如果能隨觀(苦等),就不能觀();如果能觀(),不能隨觀(苦等)。此正觀()時,就不能隨觀(苦等);正隨觀(苦等)時,常不能觀()
[出曜經]觀而不重觀,雖見亦不見,如見而不見,觀而亦不見。
觀而不重觀者,彼修行人思惟妙觀,道者觀察知彼行人亦無妙觀。得思惟定者有二種人:一人得觀,一者不得觀。復更有導師觀察行人,頗有應於聖諦者不?遍思觀之不應聖諦,是故說曰:觀而不重觀也。
觀而亦不見者,多有思惟修集道行,復觀久遠過去世事,或有達者,或有不達者,一一分別亦不錯亂,是故說曰:觀而亦不觀也。

39.
[] paśyan nu kiṃ nānupaśyate kim apaśyan nānupaśyate sadā |
kasmin sati hānupaśyanā kasmin na sati nānupaśyanā ||
[] He who perceives nothing, sees (but), form ; he who perceives, sees not form ; thus they who perceive not form have freed themselves of ordinary sight (i.e., have obtained vipassana).
[] 云何見不見,何說見不見,因何見不見,因為出何見。
[梵文分析]
paśyan nu kiṃ na anupaśyate kim apaśyan na anupaśyate sadā |
正觀 實 何 無 隨觀 何 無觀 非 隨觀 常
kasmin sati ha anupaśyanā kasmin na sati na anupaśyanā ||
何 是 實 隨觀 何 無 是 無 隨觀
什麼是正觀()時,就不能隨觀(苦等)?什麼是不正觀()時,常不能隨觀(苦等)?當什麼存在的時候,能隨觀?當什麼不存在的時候,不能隨觀?
[出曜經] 云何見不見?何說見不見?因何見不見?因為出何見。
云何見不見者,行人修法計有是常清淨之法,所謂不見者,不見苦習盡道,是故說曰:云何見不見也。
何說見不見者,行人唯見一緣,或緣色或緣色聲香味,或有思惟或不思惟,是故說曰:何說見不見也。
因何見不見者,猶如二人眾行以具功德備悉,雖在生死不懷怯弱,意求斷結亦無疑滯,一人意偏不達究竟,一者不見斷諸有漏,一者不見在諸生死,是故說曰:因何見不見也。
因為出何見者,由賢聖法自見出要義,所願必剋無所畏忌,是故說曰:因何出何見也。

40.
[] duḥkhaṃ yad ayaṃ na paśyati tad apaśyann ātmeti paśyati |
duḥkhaṃ tu yathā tathā prapaśyann ayaṃ ātmeti sadānupaśyati ||
[] When one perceives not suffering, then he considers but the self (i.e., he has ordinary sight) ; but when one distinguishes suffering, then he perceives not form.
[] 猶若不觀苦,常當深自觀,以解苦根原,是為明妙觀。
[梵文分析]
duḥkhaṃ yad ayaṃ na paśyati tad apaśyann ātmā iti paśyati |
苦 若 此 不 觀 則 不正觀 我 觀
duḥkhaṃ tu yathā tathā prapaśyann ayaṃ ātmā iti sadā anupaśyati ||
苦 然 如 如是 善觀 此 我 常 隨觀
如果不能觀苦,那麼不能觀者,觀()為我;然而能如是善觀苦者,常能隨觀此我(是苦)
[出曜經] 猶若不觀苦,常當深自觀,以解苦根源,是謂明妙觀。
猶若不觀苦者,如彼學人不見苦空非身無我,亦不分別於諸行陰,便為墮落;自觀身中污穢不淨,從頭至足無一可貪,我自我有色自我色,亦不分別色之本末,是故說曰:猶若不觀苦,常當深自觀也。
以解苦根源,是謂明妙觀者,所解苦空無常非身之義,身之為患流溢萬病,行人思惟意不亂錯,深知病之根源,身寄於世四大合成,從無數劫以來不睹大明,斯由癡惑所纏裹故,我今以脫不造彼緣。是故說曰:以解苦根源,是謂明妙觀也。

41.
[] yenāvṛtaḥ pṛthagjanaḥ saṃskārān duḥkhaṃ na paśyati |
tasmin sati hānupaśyanā vigate ’smin vigatānupaśyanā ||
[] He who is in the midst of darkness of repeated regeneration perceives not the suffering of the sanskara, consequently he has but ordinary sight, and does not perceive how to put an end to form.
[] 誰令凡夫人,不觀眾行本,因彼而觀察,去冥見大明。
[梵文分析]
yena āvṛtaḥ pṛthagjanaḥ saṃskārān duḥkhaṃ na paśyati |
因彼 所覆 凡夫 諸行 苦 不 見
tasmin sati ha anupaśyanā vigate ’smin vigata-anupaśyanā ||
彼 是 實 隨觀 不在 此 離 觀
為彼所覆的凡夫不能見到諸行是苦;當彼有時,能隨觀,當此無時,能隨觀()已離。
[出曜經] 誰令凡夫人,不睹眾行本,因彼而觀察,去冥見大明。
誰令凡夫人,不睹眾行本者,世間盲冥不睹大明誰之所造,眾生遊遊不識正路,現有四大陰持入苦,愚者染著不信為患,興諸邪見遂增塵勞;因彼行人而自觀察,晝夜思惟斷結為業,去冥見大明,大明之本無冥根是,不識佛不識法不識比丘僧,亦復不識真如四諦苦習盡道,不修境界清淨之行,是故說曰:誰令凡夫人,不睹眾行本也。

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