2012年11月17日 星期六

入行-9智慧

第九智慧品
一、求解脫者需空慧
9.1
[梵] imaṃ parikaraṃ sarvaṃ prajñārthaṃ hi munir jagau
tasmād utpādayet prajñāṃ duḥkhanivṛttikāṅkṣayā // bca.9.1 //
[英譯] The Sage taught this entire system for the sake of wisdom. Therefore, with the desire to ward off suffering, one should develop this wisdom.
[天息災譯] 如來智慧仁,爲一切世間,令求遠離苦,是故智慧生。
[如石藏譯] 此前諸要目,佛爲智慧說。故欲息苦者,當啓空性慧。
前面所說的發心、受戒等一切學處要目,是佛爲了使人獲得斷二障的智慧而說的。因此,想要止息二障困苦的人,必須努力引生通達空性的智慧。
[梵文分析]
imaṃ parikaraṃ sarvaṃ prajñārthaṃ hi munir jagau |
   此       訓練       一切      爲智慧    實  牟尼    說  
tasmād utpādayet prajñāṃ duḥkha-nivṛtti-kāṅkṣayā ||
    故       應修          慧        苦        息        欲

二、引生空慧之方便
(一)建立二諦
1.二諦
9.2
[梵] saṃvṛtiḥ paramārthaś ca satyadvayam idaṃ mataṃ
buddher agocaras tattvaṃ buddhiḥ saṃvṛtir ucyate // bca.9.2 //
[英譯] This truth is recognized as being of two kinds: conventional and ultimate. Ultimate reality is beyond the scope of the intellect. The intellect is called conventional reality.
[天息災譯] 眞如及世間,今說此二法,知佛眞如故,說法而智慧。
[如石藏譯] 世俗與勝義,許之爲二諦;勝義非心境,說心是世俗。
世間公認的世俗諦和不迷惑人的勝義諦,是我所承認的兩種層面的真實。勝義諦,不是概念或分別心經驗的物件,無明的虛妄分別心,被稱爲世俗。
[梵文分析]
saṃvṛtiḥ paramārthaś ca satya-dvayam idaṃ mataṃ |
    世俗          勝義     與   諦       二       此    所知
buddher agocaras tattvaṃ buddhiḥ saṃvṛtir ucyate ||
  覺知      非行境    真如     覺知       世俗    說

2.二諦見之層次
9.3
[梵] tatra loko dvidhā dṛṣṭo yogī prākṛtakas tathā
tatra prākṛtako loko yogilokena bādhyate // bca.9.3 //
[英譯] In the light of this, people are seen to be of two types: the contemplative and the ordinary person; the ordinary folks are superseded by the contemplatives. [The contemplative perceives the ordinary, worldly persons viewpoint to be incorrect. (Ed.)]
[天息災譯] 彼世間凡夫,見二種相應。
[如石藏譯] 世見二種人:瑜伽師一般。一般世間師,前者所論破。
從經論中可以看出有兩種抉擇二諦的人:已得禪定的悟空瑜伽師和一般瑜伽師。其中,一般世間瑜伽師的觀點,被通達無自性的悟空瑜伽師所論破。
[梵文分析]
tatra loko dvidhā dṛṣṭo yogī prākṛtakas tathā |
  彼    世   二種    所見 瑜伽     一般     如是
tatra prākṛtako loko yogi-lokena bādhyate ||
  彼     一般     世間  瑜伽 世間     所論破

3.斷二諦有無自性之諍
9.4
[梵] bādhyante dhīviśeṣeṇa yogino 'py uttarottaraiḥ
dṛṣṭāntenobhayeṣṭena kāryārtham avicārataḥ // bca.9.4 //
[英譯] Due to the difference in their intelligence, even contemplatives are refuted by successfully higher ones by means of analogies accepted by both parties, regardless of what they aim to prove.
[天息災譯] 害及勝害等,乃世相應事,彼二事見已,見之乃爲智。
[如石藏譯] 復因慧差別,層層更超勝。以二同許喻,爲果不深察。
而悟空的世間瑜伽師,因慧力等功德差別,又被更高層次的凡、聖瑜伽師所超勝;如中觀師勝唯識師,定深者勝定淺者,乃至二地菩薩勝初地菩薩等等。如果諸法無自性,菩薩怎能修行而成佛呢?只要用你我兩宗所認同的幻喻就足以說明:修無自性的佈施等道可證無自性的佛果。故爲成佛而修如幻佈施等道時,不更深究。
[梵文分析]
bādhyante dhī-viśeṣeṇa yogino ’py uttara-uttaraiḥ |
   所論破   慧     差別      瑜伽   雖     勝       勝
dṛṣṭāntena ubhaya-iṣṭena kārya-artham avicārataḥ ||
      喻          二       許     應作    目標     不深察

9.5
[梵] lokena bhāvā dṛśyante kalpyante cāpi tattvataḥ
na tu māyāvad ity atra vivādo yogilokayoḥ // bca.9.5 //
[英譯] Ordinary people see and imagine things as real and not illusory. It is in this respect that there is disagreement between the contemplatives and the ordinary people.
[天息災譯] 智見世間性,是喻於眞如,此說無去來,智者無不見。
[如石藏譯] 世人見世俗,分別爲真實,而非如幻化,故諍瑜伽師。
若法無自性,子虛烏有,豈不違世間現量?世俗現象是世間人都共同現見的。你們實有論者執以爲實而不知如幻,而我們中觀瑜伽師則悟知諸法如幻非實,所以說實有宗便和中觀師發生了諍議。
[梵文分析]
lokena bhāvā dṛśyante kalpyante ca api tattvataḥ |
  世人   存在      見         分別     與 雖     真實
na tu māyāvad ity atra vivādo yogi-lokayoḥ ||
非 然  如幻化  謂   此     諍    瑜伽   世人

(1)總破說實有宗
9.6
[梵] pratyakṣam api rūpādi prasiddhyā na pramāṇataḥ
aśucyādiṣu śucyādiprasiddhir iva sā mṛṣā // bca.9.6 //
[英譯] Even the objects of direct perception, such as form and the like, are established by consensus and not by verifying cognition. That consensus is false, as is the general agreement that pure things are impure, for example.
[天息災譯] 色等甚分明,乃世相應事,不淨而爲淨,智者喻有利。
[如石藏譯] 色等現量境,共稱非智量;彼等誠虛僞,如垢而謂淨。
成立現量所見的色、聲等境相的存在,是用世間公認的名言量而非理智量;因此,儘管現見境相似真,卻都是虛假的,就像不淨的身體被世人稱爲潔淨一樣。
[梵文分析]
pratyakṣam api rūpādi prasiddhyā na pramāṇataḥ |
     現量      雖   色等        公認     非       量
aśucy-ādiṣu śucy-ādi-prasiddhir iva sā mṛṣā ||
 不淨    等     淨   等      公認     如  此   妄

9.7
[梵] lokāvatāraṇārthaṃ ca bhāvā nāthena deśitāḥ
tattvataḥ kṣaṇikā naite saṃvṛtyā ced virudhyate // bca.9.7 //
[英譯] The Protector taught things in order to bring people to understanding. Qualm: If these things are not ultimately, but only conventionally, momentary, this is inconsistent.
[天息災譯] 爲知世間故,是說世間性,爲見於眞如,見以刹那住。
[如石藏譯] 爲導世間人,佛說無常法;真實非刹那。豈不違世俗?
爲了漸次引導執著恒常的世間人證悟真實,佛在經中宣說諸行無常的教法。
[難]然而,在真實性中,諸法既非刹那,也非常恒。說有爲法刹那生滅豈非違反世俗現量嗎?
[梵文分析]
loka-avatāraṇa-arthaṃ ca bhāvā nāthena deśitāḥ |
世間     導引       為     與  存在     佛        所說
tattvataḥ kṣaṇikā na ete saṃvṛtyā ced virudhyate ||
   真實      刹那   非  此    世俗     若       相違

9.8
[梵] na doṣo yogisaṃvṛtyā lokātte tattvadarśinaḥ
anyathā lokabādhā syād aśucistrīnirūpaṇe // bca.9.8 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: There is no fault in the conventional truth of the contemplatives. In contrast to ordinary people, they see reality. Otherwise, ordinary people would invalidate the perception of women as impure.
[天息災譯] 世間行相應,此行無過失,知女人不淨,異世諸害事。
[如石藏譯] 瑜伽量無過。待世謂見真,否則觀不淨將違世間見。
[瑜]無過。瑜伽師的世俗瑜伽量可以證實這點。若觀待世間則可說:見到無常就是見真實,否則,修不淨觀的瑜伽師觀見女身不淨時,豈不是違反女身潔淨的世間看法嗎?
[梵文分析]
na doṣo yogi-saṃvṛtyā lokāt te tattva-darśinaḥ |
無   過  瑜伽     世俗    世間 彼 真實      見
anyathā loka-bādhā syād aśuci-strī-nirūpaṇe ||
   否則  世間    害     是   不淨  女       觀

9.9
[梵] māyopamāj jināt puṇyaṃ sadbhāve 'pi kathaṃ yathā
yadi māyopamaḥ sattvaḥ kiṃ punar jāyate mṛtaḥ // bca.9.9 //
[英譯] Qualm: How can there possibly be merit due to the Jina who is like an illusion, as is the case if he is truly existent? If a sentient being is like an illusion, why is he reborn again after he dies?
[天息災譯] 謂佛福虛幻,使我云何信,有情若幻境,云何復生滅?
[如石藏譯] 供幻佛生德,如供實有佛。有情若如幻,死已云何生?
[難]既然一切皆假,供養幻佛如何能生功德呢?供養如幻的佛可以生出如幻的功德,就像你主張供養實有的佛能生實功德一樣。如果有情如幻不實,猶如幻化人,那麼死了以後怎能再投生呢?
[梵文分析]
māyā-upamāj jināt puṇyaṃ sadbhāve ’pi kathaṃ yathā |
  幻       同       佛     福          實有    雖    如何     如
yadi māyā-upamaḥ sattvaḥ kiṃ punar jāyate mṛtaḥ ||
  若    幻        同      有情     何    再      生    死已

9.10
[梵] yāvat pratyayasāmagrī tāvan māyāpi vartate
dīrghasaṃtānamātreṇa kathaṃ sattvo 'sti satyataḥ // bca.9.10 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: Even an illusion lasts for as long as the collection of its conditions. Why should a sentient being truly exist merely because its continuum lasts a long time?
[天息災譯] 彼因集和合,乃得於幻緣,有情種子生,云何有眞實?
[如石藏譯] 衆緣聚合已,雖幻亦當生。云何因久住,有情成實有?
[中]只要衆緣在某段時間內聚齊了,縱然虛幻,生命的現象仍將生起。怎能只因爲生命假相呈現的時間較長,就使有情成爲實有呢?若然,夢長亦成真。
[梵文分析]
yāvat pratyaya-sāmagrī tāvan māyā api vartate |
  若        緣        聚合    乃至    幻    雖   存在
dīrgha-saṃtāna-mātreṇa kathaṃ sattvo ’sti satyataḥ ||
   久       相續       唯       云何    有情   是      實

9.11
[梵] māyāpuruṣaghātādau cittābhāvān na pāpakaṃ
cittamāyāsamete tu pāpapuṇyasamudbhavaḥ // bca.9.11 //
[英譯] Yogacarin: If consciousness does not exist, then there is no sin in killing an illusionary person. Madhyamika: On the contrary, when one is endowed with the illusion of consciousness, vice and merit do arise.
[天息災譯] 殺彼虛幻人,無心性等罪,平等心虛幻,罪福得生起。
[如石藏譯] 幻人行殺施,無心無罪福。於有幻心者,則生幻罪福。
[瑜]幻人殺幻人,或幻人行幻施等行爲,因爲事出無心,所以沒有罪福可言。
[中]但是,有如幻之心者殺了如幻的人或作了幻施,就會生出如幻的罪報或福德。
[梵文分析]
māyā-puruṣa-ghāta-ādau citta-abhāvān na pāpakaṃ |
   幻      人       殺     等    心       無     無     罪
citta-māyā-samete tu pāpa-puṇya-samudbhavaḥ ||
  心     幻    具有   然  罪       福            生

9.12
[梵] mantrādīnām asāmarthyān na māyācittasaṃbhavaḥ
sāpi nānāvidhā māyā nānāpratyayasaṃbhavā // bca.9.12 //
[英譯] Yogacarin: an illusionary mind is not possible, since mantras and the like are unable to produce it. Madhyamika: Diverse illusions originate on account of diverse conditions.
[天息災譯] 眞言力等持,幻境心無著,以彼種種幻,種種因業生。
[如石藏譯] 諸咒無情識,不生如幻心;種種因緣生種種如幻物。
[瑜]變出幻人的幻物和咒術是無情之物,沒有能力緣生如幻的有情心識。
[中]但是,種種適當因緣和合的時候,卻會産生種種與因緣同性質的如幻事物。
[梵文分析]
mantra-ādīnām asāmarthyān na māyā-citta-saṃbhavaḥ |
    咒       等         無功能      不    幻    心         生
sā api nānāvidhā māyā nānā-pratyaya-saṃbhavā ||
彼 雖     種種        幻   種種        緣          生

9.13
[梵] naikasya sarvasāmarthyaṃ pratyayasyāsti kutra cit
nirvṛtaḥ paramārthena saṃvṛtyā yadi saṃsaret // bca.9.13 //
[英譯] Nowhere does a single condition have the ability to produce everything. Yogacarin: If one could be ultimately emancipated, and yet transmigrate conventionally,
[天息災譯] 何有於一人,得於一切力,若住於眞如,或住於淨戒。
[如石藏譯] 一緣生一切,畢竟此非有。勝義若涅槃,世俗悉輪迴,
[中]不過,若說單因獨緣而能産生一切現象,這種情形絕對不可能存在。
[瑜]如果說,在勝義上一切法都自性涅槃,而在世俗上則完全呈現輪迴假相的話,
[梵文分析]
na ekasya sarva-sāmarthyaṃ pratyayasya asti kutra cit |
非     一    一切        能                緣         是     任何
nirvṛtaḥ paramārthena saṃvṛtyā yadi saṃsaret ||
  涅槃          勝義             世俗    若     輪迴

9.14
[梵] buddho 'pi saṃsared evaṃ tataḥ kiṃ bodhicaryayā
pratyayānām anucchede māyāpy ucchidyate na hi // bca.9.14 //
[英譯] then even the Buddha would transmigrate. So what would be the point of the Bodhisattva way of life? Madhyamika: When its conditions are not destroyed, an illusion does not cease either.
[天息災譯] 如是卽佛行,誰云菩提行?因緣當斷盡,幻化不可得。
[如石藏譯] 則佛亦輪迴,菩提行何用?諸緣若未絕,縱幻亦不滅;
[瑜]那麼入涅槃的佛陀豈不也在輪迴之中了?果真如此,修菩提行又有什麼用呢?
[中]不然。如果各種業惑因緣尚未斷絕,那麼輪迴的現象縱然虛幻,也不會消滅;
[梵文分析]
buddho ’pi saṃsared evaṃ tataḥ kiṃ bodhi-caryayā |
    佛     亦    輪迴     如是   此     何   菩提      行
pratyayānām anucchede māyā apy ucchidyate na hi ||
       緣              未絕       幻    亦         滅      不 實

(2)別破唯識宗
Ⅰ、破唯識無境
9.15
[梵] pratyayānāṃ tu vicchedāt saṃvṛtyāpi na saṃbhavaḥ
yadā na bhrāntir apy asti māyā kenopalabhyate // bca.9.15 //
[英譯] Due to a discontinuity of its conditions, it does not originate even conventionally. Yogacarin: When even a mistaken cognition does not exist, by what is an illusion ascertained?
[天息災譯] 因緣若斷盡,無生而自得,若不住疑妄,幻境而不立。
[如石藏譯] 諸緣若斷絕,俗中亦不生。亂識若亦無,以何緣幻境?
[中]如果各種業惑因緣斷絕而入了滅諦涅槃,那麼即使在世俗中也不會緣生輪迴的幻象。勝義上諸法自性涅槃不同於佛的滅諦涅槃。
[瑜]如果一切法無自性,連亂識也不存在,那麼要拿什麼去緣幻境呢?
[梵文分析]
pratyayānāṃ tu vicchedāt saṃvṛtyā api na saṃbhavaḥ |
        緣        然     斷絕         俗      亦 不       生
yadā na bhrāntir apy asti māyā kena upalabhyate ||
  若  不       亂    雖   是    幻     何        得

9.16
[梵] yadā māyaiva te nāsti tadā kim upalabhyate
cittasyaiva sa ākāro yady apy anyo 'sti tattvataḥ // bca.9.16 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: If, for you an illusion itself does not exist, what is apprehended? Even if it is an aspect of the mind itself, in reality it exists as something different.
[天息災譯] 幻境若彼無,一切不可得,如是卽眞如,得現於心體。
[如石藏譯] 若許無幻境,心識何所緣?所緣異實境,境相即心體。
[中]如果你唯識宗不主張有虛幻的外境,那麼心識有什麼可緣呢?
[瑜]所緣非實存的外境,而是另一方式的存在;所呈現的境相是以內心的本質而存在的。
[梵文分析]
yadā māyā eva te nāsti tadā kim upalabhyate |
  若     幻    實 你  無    則    何       所得
cittasya eva sa ākāro yady apy anyo ’sti tattvataḥ ||
    心     實  彼 行相    若    雖   他    是    真實

Ⅱ、破自證分
(Ⅰ)以經破
9.17
[梵] cittam eva yadā māyā tadā kiṃ kena dṛśyate
uktaṃ ca lokanāthena cittaṃ cittaṃ na paśyati // bca.9.17 //
[英譯] Yogacarin: If the mind itself is an illusion, then what is perceived by what? Madhyamika: The Protector of the World stated that the mind does not perceive the mind.
[天息災譯] 心如是若分,虛幻何由見,心不自見心,世尊之所說。
[如石藏譯] 幻境若即心,何者見何者?世間主亦言:心不自見心。
[瑜]如果所現的幻境就是心識本身,那麼到底是哪一個看見哪一個呢?
[中]世間的怙主佛陀也在《寶髻經》中說:自心不能看見自心。
[梵文分析]
cittam eva yadā māyā tadā kiṃ kena dṛśyate |
   心    實   若      幻    則    何    何    所見
uktaṃ ca loka-nāthena cittaṃ cittaṃ na paśyati ||
  所說 與 世間     主        心       心   不     見

(Ⅱ)以理破
ⅰ、破成立自證分之喻
9.18
[梵] na cchinatti yathātmānamasidhārā tathā manaḥ
ātmabhāvaṃ yathā dīpaḥ saṃprakāśayatīti cet // bca.9.18 //
[英譯] Just as a sword cannot cut itself, so it is with the mind. Yogacarin: It illuminates itself, as does a lamp.
[天息災譯] 如劍刃雖利,雖利不自斷,自性由若斯,復喻如燈光。
[如石藏譯] 猶如刀劍鋒,不能自割自。若謂如燈火如實明自身。
[中]就像刀鋒不能自己割自己一樣,同樣地,意識也不能自己看見自己。
[瑜]就像燈火能同時照明自己和外物一樣,心識同樣也能完全明瞭自己和所現的境相。
[梵文分析]
na cchinatti yathā ātmānam asidhārā tathā manaḥ |
不    能割     猶如    自己      刀劍     同樣    心
ātmabhāvaṃ yathā dīpaḥ saṃprakāśayati iti cet ||
       自身         如    燈           照明         謂  若

9.19
[梵] naiva prakāśyate dīpo yasmānna tamasāvṛtaḥ
na hi sphaṭikavannīlaṃ nīlatve 'nyam apekṣate // bca.9.19 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: A lamp does not illuminate itself, for it is not concealed by darkness. Yogacarin: A blue object does not require something else for its blueness, as does a crystal.
[天息災譯] 破闇然得名,而不云自照,又若水精珠,體本唯淸澈。
[如石藏譯] 燈火非自明,暗不自蔽故。如晶青依他,物青不依他;
[中]燈火本身並非自己照明的物件,就像暗不能自障,否則就看不見暗一樣。
[瑜]如水晶的青色必依其他青物才能映現,但是青琉璃的青卻是本來就有的。
[梵文分析]
na eva prakāśyate dīpo yasmān na tamas-āvṛtaḥ |
不  實       照明      燈       若    不   暗      所蔽
na hi sphaṭika-van nīlaṃ nīlatve ’nyam apekṣate ||
非 實   水晶     如     青     青性      他       依待

9.20
 [梵] tathā kiṃcit parāpekṣaman apekṣaṃ ca dṛśyate
anīlatve na tannīlaṃ kuryād ātmānam ātmanā // bca.9.20 //
[英譯] So something may or may not occur in dependence on something else. Madhyamika: As is the case of non-blueness, blue is not regarded as its own cause. What blue by itself could make itself blue?
[天息災譯] 因青而有青,影現隨衆色,非青而現青,如心而自作。
[如石藏譯] 如是亦得見識依不依他。非於非青性,而自成青性。
[瑜]同樣,我們也能看出:某些心識需要依他,例如眼識需要依他;而自證分則不需要。
[中]喻不成;因爲青琉璃並非不需其他因緣,就能使本非青色的琉璃自成青色。
[梵文分析]
tathā kiṃcit para-apekṣam anapekṣaṃ ca dṛśyate |
如是  任何    他      依            不依      與   所見
anīlatve na tan nīlaṃ kuryād ātmānam ātmanā ||
 非青性 非  此    青      作         自           自

9.21
[梵] nīlam eva hi ko nīlaṃ kuryād ātmānam ātmanā
anīlatve na tannīlaṃ kuryād ātmānam ātmanā // bca.9.21 //
[英譯] Likewise, what darkness can make itself dark by itself? It cannot make itself dark by itself when it is not dark.
[梵文分析]
nīlam eva hi ko nīlaṃ kuryād ātmānam ātmanā |
   青   實  實 何   青       作         自           自
anīlatve na tan nīlaṃ kuryād ātmānam ātmanā ||
非青性  非  此    青      作         自           自

9.22
[梵] dīpaḥ prakāśata iti jñātvā jñānena kathyate
buddhiḥ prakāśata iti jñātvedaṃ kena kathyate // bca.9.22 //
[英譯] Yogacarin: It is said: that a lamp illuminates once this is cognized with awareness. The mind is said to illuminate once this is cognized with what?
[天息災譯] 又如彼燈光,智者知此說,智慧此開通,知者何所說?
[如石藏譯] 若謂識了知,故說燈能明。自心本自明,由何識知耶?
[瑜]因爲異於燈的心識能了知:燈能照明,所以我們說:燈性本自明。
[中]那麼你所指的:心性本自明。又是由哪個不同的心識了知而說的呢?若由他識而知,他復由他識,成無窮過。
[梵文分析]
dīpaḥ prakāśata iti jñātvā jñānena kathyate |
  燈       能明     謂 了知     識          說
buddhiḥ prakāśata iti jñātvā idaṃ kena kathyate ||
    覺          明      謂  了知     此    何       說

9.23
[梵] prakāśā vāprakāśā vā yadā dṛṣṭā na kenacit
vandhyāduhitṛlīleva kathyamānāpi sā mudhā // bca.9.23 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: If no one perceives whether the mind is luminous or not, then there is no point in discussing it, like the beauty of a barren woman's daughter.
[天息災譯] 雖開而不開,如人無所睹,石女義不生,與此義不二。
[如石藏譯] 若識皆不見,則明或不明,猶如石女媚,說彼亦無義。
[中]如果任何其他的識都不能看見心識,那麼無論心識是明或不明,都像石女兒的嬌媚一樣,根本不存在,描述它也是沒有意義的。
[梵文分析]
prakāśā vā aprakāśā vā yadā dṛṣṭā na kenacit |
    明     或    不明   或   當    見    不   任何
vandhyā-duhitṛ-līlā iva kathyamānā api sā mudhā ||
   石女     女兒   媚  如          說      雖  彼  無義

ⅱ、破成立自證分之理
①無自證分也能回憶
9.24
[梵] yadi nāsti svasaṃvittir vijñānaṃ smaryate katham
anyānubhūte saṃbandhāt smṛtir ākhuviṣaṃ yathā // bca.9.24 //
[英譯] Yogacarin: If self-cognizing awareness does not exist, how is consciousness recalled? Madhyamika: Recollection comes from its relation to something else that was experienced, like a rats poison.
[天息災譯] 亦同無心識,緣念無所得,非念而別生,虛妄念如毒。
[如石藏譯] 若無自證分,心識怎憶念?心境相連故,能知如鼠毒。
唯:如果眼識等認知沒有自證分加以確認,那麼意識怎能回憶過去的認知呢?
中:因爲心境相連,所以由回憶所經驗的外境,就能順帶憶起經驗的心;就像冬季被鼠咬時,不知中毒,春雷響時毒發,才知被咬時已中了毒。因此,無自證分也能回憶。
[梵文分析]
yadi na asti svasaṃvittir vijñānaṃ smaryate kathaṃ |
  若  無  是      自證分         識          憶念      如何
anya-anubhūte saṃbandhāt smṛtir ākhu-viṣaṃ yathā ||
 他     所經驗        相連       憶念     鼠     毒      如

9.25
[梵] pratyayāntarayuktasya darśanāt svaṃ prakāśate
siddhāñjanavidherdṛṣṭo ghaṭo naivāñjanaṃ bhavet // bca.9.25 //
[英譯] Yogacarin: It illuminates itself, because the mind, endowed with other conditions, perceives. Madhyamika: A Jar seen due to the application of a magical ointment is not the ointment itself.
[天息災譯] 謂若因若果,爲法而自說,有談眼藥方,見甁而無藥。
[如石藏譯] 心通遠見他,近故心自明。然塗煉就藥,見瓶不見藥。
唯:有他心通的人能了知遠處他人的心思,所以自心更應該可以明見最近的自心。
中:不然。塗上煉成的藥,可以遠見地下的瓶,但是,卻看不見近在眼睛上的藥。
[梵文分析]
pratyaya-antara-yuktasya darśanāt svaṃ prakāśate |
    緣        他        相應        能見     自         明
siddha-añjana-vidher dṛṣṭo ghaṭo na eva añjanaṃ bhavet ||
已完成  眼藥    應用   所見    瓶   不  實      藥       是

②無自證分也能覺知
9.26
[梵] yathā dṛṣṭaṃ śrutaṃ jñātaṃ naiveha pratiṣidhyate
satyataḥ kalpanā tv atra duḥkhahetur nivāryate // bca.9.26 //
[英譯] The Manner in which something is seen, heard, or cognized is not what is refuted here, but the conceptualization of its true appearance, which is the cause of suffering, is rejected here.
[天息災譯] 若見聞覺知,此有而非有,念斷於苦因,此實念當念。
[如石藏譯] 見聞與覺知,於此不遮除。此處所遮者,苦因執諦實。
唯:若無自證則無憶念,亦無領受及見聞等。
中:在這裏,我們雖然否認自證分,但是並不破除世俗中見聞覺知等作用;因爲
見聞不會引生痛苦。這裏所要破除的是,痛苦的根本原因——執著諸法實有。
[梵文分析]
yathā dṛṣṭaṃ śrutaṃ jñātaṃ na eva iha pratiṣidhyate |
  如     所見    所聞    所覺   不 實   此        遮
satyataḥ kalpanā tv atra duḥkha-hetur nivāryate ||
    諦         執     然  此     苦       因         遮

9.27
[梵] cittād anyā na māyā cen nāpy ananyeti kalpyate
vastu cet sā kathaṃ nānyānanyā cen nāsti vastutaḥ // bca.9.27 //
[英譯] If you fancy that an illusion is neither different from the mind, nor non different, then if it is a really existing thing, how can it not be different? If it is not different, then it does not really exist.
[天息災譯] 念念而無別,此心當平等,前塵常惑人,了之無所有。
[如石藏譯] 幻境非心外,亦非全無異。若實怎非異?非異則非實。
唯:幻境並不是心外另一相異的事物,但也不能被看成與心完全相同。
中:如果色等是實有,那麼所現外境必然爲真;這樣,心境怎能不相異而違汝自宗呢?如果心境一如,則所現外境必定是假而非實。
[梵文分析]
cittād anyā na māyā cen na apy ananyā iti kalpyate |
   心    異   不   幻     若 非  亦    無異  謂    分別 
vastu cet sā kathaṃ na anyā ananyā cen nāsti vastutaḥ ||
  實    若 彼    何     非    異   非異    若   非       實

9.28
[梵] asaty api yathā māyā dṛśyā draṣṭṛ tathā manaḥ
vastv āśrayaś cet saṃsāraḥ so 'nyathākāśavad bhavet // bca.9.28 //
[英譯] Just as an illusion can be seen even though it does truly exist, so it is with the observer, the mind. Yogacarin: The cycle of existence has its basis in reality or else it would be like space.
[天息災譯] 如幻而不實,妄心而自見,住塵處輪迴,喻空無所依。
[如石藏譯] 幻境非實有,能見心亦然。輪迴依實法,否則如虛空。
就像所見的色等幻境不是實有,同樣,能見的六識心也不是實有。
唯:輪迴假立法必須依靠實有的心法而存在,否則就像虛空一樣空洞,毫無作用。
[梵文分析]
asaty api yathā māyā dṛśyā draṣṭṛ tathā manaḥ |
非有  雖    如     幻    所見  見者  亦然     心
vastv āśrayaś cet saṃsāraḥ so ’nyathā ākāśavad bhavet ||
  實      依      若     輪迴    彼    否則    如虛空    應是

9.29
[梵] vastv āśrayeṇābhāvasya kriyāvattvaṃ kathaṃ bhavet
asatsahāyam ekaṃ hi cittam āpadyate tava // bca.9.29 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: How can something that does not exist have any efficacy by being based on something real? You have approached the mind as being an isolated unity.
[天息災譯] 住塵性亦然,亦無有所得,若與不善俱,不善汝所得。
[如石藏譯] 無實若依實,云何有作用?汝心無助緣,應成獨一體。
中:如果說,無實法必須依實法才能有作用,而實有自性的心法又與輪迴假法無關,那麼輪迴假法怎會有業果的作用呢?再者,你所主張的心識沒有外境作認識的助緣,所以應該成爲自己認識自己的獨立體。
[梵文分析]
vastv āśrayeṇa abhāvasya kriyāvattvaṃ kathaṃ bhavet |
  實       依             無實      有作用性      云何    應是
asat-sahāyam ekaṃ hi cittam āpadyate tava ||
 無      伴         一   實   心       應成      汝

9.30
[梵] grāhyamuktaṃ yadā cittaṃ tadā sarve tathāgatāḥ
evaṃ ca ko guṇo labdhaś cittamātre 'pi kalpite // bca.9.30 //
[英譯] If the mind were free from any apprehended object, then all beings would be Tathāgatas. Thus, what good is gained by speculating that only the mind exists?
[天息災譯] 若心有取捨,施一切如來,如是用心意,而有何功德?
[如石藏譯] 若心離所取,衆皆成如來。施設唯識義,究竟有何德?
中:若心離所取境而獨存,必定不受客塵染汙,那麼一切有情衆生豈不都成了正覺如來!因此,你所施設萬法唯識的宗義,究竟有什麼意義和益處呢?
[梵文分析]
grāhya-muktaṃ yadā cittaṃ tadā sarve tathāgatāḥ |
  所取       離       若    心      則     衆      如來
evaṃ ca ko guṇo labdhaś cittamātre ’pi kalpite ||
 如是 與 何   德     所得        唯心    雖    施設

(3)破中觀宗悟空無用之諍
Ⅰ、起諍
9.31
[梵] māyopamatve 'pi jñāte kathaṃ kleśo nivartate
yadā māyāstriyāṃ rāgas tatkartur api jāyate // bca.9.31 //
[英譯] Yogacarin: Even when the similarity to illusion is recognized, how does a mental affliction cease, since lust for an illusory woman arises even in the mind of the one who created her?
[天息災譯] 幻境一切知,煩惱云何斷?於彼幻三毒,遠離而不作。
[如石藏譯] 雖知法如幻,豈能除煩惱?如彼幻變師,亦貪所變女。
唯:雖然了知諸法皆無自性,如幻如化,但是怎可能憑這樣的慧解就斷除煩惱呢?就像魔術師也會貪愛他所變的幻女一樣。因此,你們中觀師悟解空性也同樣無用。
[梵文分析]
māyā-upamatve ’pi jñāte kathaṃ kleśo nivartate |
   幻        如      雖 所知    如何    煩惱    遮止
yadā māyā-striyāṃ rāgas tat-kartur api jāyate ||
  若     幻       女      貪    彼  作者  雖    生

Ⅱ、答辨
(Ⅰ)幻師生貪之因
9.32
[梵] aprahīṇā hi tatkartur jñeyasaṃkleśavāsanā
taddṛṣṭikāle tasyāto durbalā śūnyavāsanā // bca.9.32 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: Because her creator's imprints of mental afflictions toward objects of knowledge have not been eliminated, when seeing her, his imprint of emptiness is weak.
[天息災譯] 知於煩惱心,彼作而未盡,於彼得見時,空有意無力。
[如石藏譯] 幻師於所知,未斷煩惱習,空性習氣弱,故見猶生貪。
中:由於幻師尚未斷除煩惱習氣,所以心中對所見的幻女仍然會有實執。換言之,由於修空的串習力太弱,因此雖知是幻,但因看起來太逼真了,所以仍會産生貪著。
[梵文分析]
aprahīṇā hi tatkartur jñeya-saṃkleśa-vāsanā |
   未斷    實   幻師    所知      煩惱      習氣
tad-dṛṣṭi-kāle tasya ato durbalā śūnya-vāsanā ||
 彼   見    時     彼   故     弱       空      習氣

(Ⅱ)修空能斷煩惱習
9.33
[梵] śūnyatāvāsanādhānād dhīyate bhāvavāsanā
kiṃcin nāstīti cābhyāsāt sāpi paścāt prahīyate // bca.9.33 //
[英譯] By building up the imprints of emptiness, the imprint of existence is diminished; and after accustoming oneself to the fact that nothing truly exists, even that diminishes.
[天息災譯] 煩惱性非盡,與空而相雜,至彼無所學,彼後乃得盡。
[如石藏譯] 若久修空性,必斷實有習;修空亦非實,復斷空性執。
如果久久修觀諸法空性成了習慣,就能斷除執著諸法實有的無明習氣;如果再進一步修習空性本身也空無自性,那麼後來也能斷除對空性的執著。
[梵文分析]
śūnyatā-vāsanā-ādhānād dhīyate bhāva-vāsanā |
  空性      習氣     任持       斷     實有     習氣
kiṃcin nāsti iti ca abhyāsāt sā api paścāt prahīyate ||
 任何     無  謂 與    串習    彼 雖     後        斷

9.34
[梵] yadā na labhyate bhāvo yo nāstīti prakalpyate
tadā nirāśrayo 'bhāvaḥ kathaṃ tiṣṭhenmateḥ puraḥ // bca.9.34 //
[英譯] Yogacarin: If it is conceived that a phenomenon that does not really exist cannot be perceived, then how can a non-entity, which is without basis, stand before the mind?
[天息災譯] 彼性而無得,亦復不能見,彼性若無住,云何住此身?
[如石藏譯] 觀法無諦實,不得諦實法。無實離所依,彼豈住心前?
唯:當我們觀察某法而發現它的實性了不可得,這時,理智就會認定:該法非真實存在。既然無實法性已經脫離了所依的實法,那麼實存的無實法又怎能呈現在心智前呢?
[梵文分析]
yadā na labhyate bhāvo yo nāsti iti prakalpyate |
  若   不     得      諦實  若    無  謂       分別
tadā nirāśrayo ’bhāvaḥ kathaṃ tiṣṭhen mateḥ puraḥ ||
 則     無所依     無實     如何      住       心      前

9.35
[梵] yadā na bhāvo nābhāvo mateḥ saṃtiṣṭhate puraḥ
tadānyagatyabhāvena nirālambā praśāmyate // bca.9.35 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: When neither an entity nor a non-entity remains before the mind, then since there is no other possibility, having no objects, it becomes calm.
[天息災譯] 若性而無有,身住於無性,是性如去來,隨現而無著。
[如石藏譯] 若實無實法,悉不住心前,彼時無餘相,無緣最寂滅。
中:當真實存在的實法和無實空法都不呈現在深觀法性的心智之前,這時,勝義心中再也呈現不出其他實有的行相,所以心無所緣而昇華入最寂滅的無二境界。
[梵文分析]
yadā na bhāvo na abhāvo mateḥ saṃtiṣṭhate puraḥ |
  若  無    實    無  無實      心           住         前
tadā anya-gaty-abhāvena nirālambā praśāmyati ||
 則    餘    趣      無實        無所緣        寂靜

(Ⅲ)斷煩惱能成菩提
i、雖無分別能滿衆願
9.36
[梵] cintāmaṇiḥ kalpatarur yathecchāparipūraṇaḥ
vineyapraṇidhānābhyāṃ jinabimbaṃ tathekṣyate // bca.9.36 //
[英譯] Just as a wish fulfilling gem, or a wish granting tree satisfies desires, so the image of the Jina is seen, because of his vow and his disciples.
[天息災譯] 劫樹與摩尼,能如意圓滿,佛變化亦然,當爲斯行願。
[如石藏譯] 摩尼如意樹,無心能滿願;因福與宿願,諸佛亦現身。
如果佛全無分別心,他怎能說法度衆生呢?就像摩尼珠和如意樹,它們雖無分別心,卻能圓滿祈求者的一切願望;同樣,由於衆生的福德和佛的宿願力,無分別心的諸佛也能爲之現身說法。
[梵文分析]
cintā-maṇiḥ kalpatarur yathā icchā-paripūraṇaḥ |
 思    摩尼      如意樹     如    希求       能滿
vineya-praṇidhānābhyāṃ jina-bimbaṃ tathā īkṣyate ||
  弟子             願              佛      像      同樣   所見

9.37
[梵] yathā gāruḍikaḥ stambhaṃ sādhayitvā vinaśyati
sa tasmiṃś ciranaṣṭe 'pi viṣādīn upaśāmayet // bca.9.37 //
[英譯] When a charmer against poison dies, after completing a pillar, that pillar neutralizes poisons and the like, even for a long time after his death.
[天息災譯] 喻法咒林樹,咒成而枯壞,毒等雖久害,彼彼皆消除。
[如石藏譯] 如人修鵬塔,塔成彼即逝。雖逝經久遠,滅毒用猶存。
多劫前的宿願,怎會在成佛後還有作用呢?例如有人爲了消災制毒而修建鵬塔,以咒力加持塔物以後,那人就逝世了。雖然那人已經逝世了很久,但是他所加持的塔仍有滅毒的作用。
[梵文分析]
yathā gāruḍikaḥ stambhaṃ sādhayitvā vinaśyati |
   如      巫士            柱             已成       死
sa tasmiṃś cira-naṣṭe ’pi viṣa-ādīn upaśāmayet ||
彼     彼       久   逝    雖   毒   等        能滅

9.38
[梵] bodhicaryānurūpyeṇa jinastambho 'pi sādhitaḥ
karoti sarvakāryāṇi bodhisattve 'pi nirvṛte // bca.9.38 //
[英譯] Likewise, the pillar of the Jina, completed with accordance with the Bodhisattva way of life, accomplishes all tasks, even when the bodhisattva has passed into Nirvana.
[天息災譯] 菩薩之修行,所作諸事業,菩提行最勝,佛樹能成就。
[如石藏譯] 隨修菩提行,圓成正覺塔。菩薩雖入滅,能成衆利益。
同樣地,菩薩隨順次第修習菩提之行,終於圓滿福慧資糧而修成佛果的靈塔。後來,菩薩的色身雖然入滅了,但是仍可間接助成一切衆生的利益。
[梵文分析]
bodhicaryā ānurūpyeṇa jina-stambho ’pi sādhitaḥ |
   菩提行         依據       佛       柱      雖    成就
karoti sarva-kāryāṇi bodhisattve ’pi nirvṛte ||
  作     一切     事          菩薩      雖   已滅

ii、斷諍
9.39
[梵] acittake kṛtā pūjā kathaṃ phalavatī bhavet
tulyaiva paṭhyate yasmāt tiṣṭhato nirvṛtasya ca // bca.9.39 //
[英譯] Hinayananist: How could worship offered to something that has no consciousness be fruitful? Madhyamika: Because it is taught that it is the same whether he is present or has passed into Nirvana.
[天息災譯] 以彼平等行,而住於寂靜,及作不思議,供養得何果?
[如石藏譯] 供佛無心物,云何能得果?供奉今昔佛,經說福等故。
供養無心受供的諸佛和佛塔等物,怎能獲得福德果報呢?因爲福德緣生於內心,故《彌勒獅子吼經》說:供養現住或已涅槃的佛陀,功德相等。
[梵文分析]
acittake kṛtā pūjā kathaṃ phalavatī bhavet |
  無心   所作  供    云何       有果     應是
tulya eva paṭhyate yasmāt tiṣṭhato nirvṛtasya ca ||
  等    實    所說       若        正住     已滅     與

9.40
[梵] āgamāc ca phalaṃ tatra saṃvṛtyā tattvato 'pi vā
satyabuddhe kṛtā pūjā saphaleti kathaṃ yathā // bca.9.40 //
[英譯] According to the scriptures, effects of worship do exist, whether conventionally or ultimately, in the same way that worship offered to the true Buddha is said to be fruitful.
[天息災譯] 隨彼所行因,而得於彼果,供養等眞實,得果而稱實。
[如石藏譯] 供以真俗心,經說皆獲福。如供實有佛,能得果報然。
經中又說:無論以執實或了空之心供佛,都能得到與供物和敬信心相應的果報。因此就像你們以執實心供佛能得果報一樣,我們以幻化觀供佛,也能獲致廣大的福報。
[梵文分析]
āgamāc ca phalaṃ tatra saṃvṛtyā tattvato ’pi vā |
   阿含  與    果       此       世俗     真實   雖  或
satya-buddhe kṛtā pūjā saphala iti kathaṃ yathā ||
   真     佛     所作  供    有果   謂      同樣的

(二)明唯求解脫亦需悟空
1.起諍
2.答辯
(1)空慧乃解脫三有之道
Ⅰ、以大乘經證成
(Ⅰ)引《般若經》
[梵] satyadarśanato muktiḥ śūnyatādarśanena kim
na vinānena mārgeṇa bodhir ity āgamo yataḥ // bca.9.41 //
[英譯] Hinayananist: Liberation comes from understanding the four noble truths, so what is the point of perceiving emptiness? Madhyamika: Because the scripture states that there is no awakening without this path.
[天息災譯] 云何得法空?實得解脫法。不離牟尼道,當得於菩提。
[如石藏譯] 見諦則解脫,何需見空性?般若經中說:無慧無菩提。
小:只要修四諦十六行相之道就足以解脫了,何必現見諸法無自性的空性呢?
中:因爲佛在《般若經》中說:沒有般若空慧就不能證得三乘菩提。
[梵文分析]
satya-darśanato muktiḥ śūnyatā-darśanena kiṃ |
  諦         見        解脫    空性           見      何
na vinā anena mārgeṇa bodhir ity āgamo yataḥ ||
無   無     此       道       菩提   謂     經    因為

(Ⅱ)成立大乘是佛說
9.42
[梵] nanvasiddhaṃ mahāyānaṃ kathaṃ siddhas tvad āgamaḥ
yasmād ubhayasiddho 'sau na siddho 'sau tavāditaḥ // bca.9.42 //
[英譯] Hinayananist: The Mahayana is certainly not authenticated. Madhyamika: How is your scripture authenticated? Hinayananist: Because it is authenticated by both of us. Madhyamika: Then it is not authenticated by you from the beginning.
[天息災譯] 汝不求大乘,何法求圓滿?二乘得成就,成就非圓滿。
[如石藏譯] 大乘若不成,汝教云何成?二皆許此故。汝初亦不許。
小:大乘經非佛說,所以《般若經》不足爲證。
中:如果說,大乘經非佛說,不能成立;那麼你們小乘教典又怎能成立呢?
小:因爲你我兩宗都承認《阿含經》是佛說的。
中:不然。因爲最初在你尚未接受小乘教以前,你同樣也不承認小乘經藏是佛說的呀!
[梵文分析]
nanv asiddhaṃ mahāyānaṃ kathaṃ siddhas tvad āgamaḥ |
 實      不成           大乘        云何       成      汝      經
yasmād ubhaya-siddho ’sau na siddho ’sau tava āditaḥ ||
    若        二        成      此  不    成      此   汝     初

9.43
[梵] yatpratyayā ca tatrāsthā mahāyāne 'pi tāṃ kuru
anyobhayeṣṭasatyatve vedāder api satyatā // bca.9.43 //
[英譯] Apply the same faith and respect to the Mahayana as you do to it. If something is true because it is accepted by two different parties, then the Vedas and the like would also be true.
[天息災譯] 若彼所作因,怖畏於大乘,別怖怖非實,此怖實名怖。
[如石藏譯] 依何信彼典,大乘亦復然。二許若成真,吠陀亦成真。
你憑什麼理由相信小乘經典,我也可以用同樣的理由成立大乘經典。如果說,不同的兩個人認同了就算真的;那麼許多外道承認的吠陀豈不也成了真理?
[梵文分析]
yat-pratyayā ca tatra āsthā mahāyāne ’pi tāṃ kuru |
 若      信     與   彼   關注     大乘     亦   此 應作
anya-ubhaya-iṣṭa-satyatve veda-āder api satyatā ||
  他      二      許      諦      吠陀  等   亦      諦

9.44
[梵] savivādaṃ mahāyānam iti ced āgamaṃ tyaja
tīrthikaiḥ savivādatvāt svaiḥ paraiś cāgamāntaram // bca.9.44 //
[英譯] If you object that the Mahayana is controversial, then reject your own scripture because it is contested by heterodox groups and because parts of your scriptures are contested by your own people and others.
[天息災譯] 此法要當知,大乘之所論,離此爲他法,知彼外道論。
[如石藏譯] 小諍大乘故。外道于阿含,自他於他教,互諍悉應捨。
小:因爲我們小乘對大乘經典的諍議的原故。
中:不然。因爲外道對《阿含經》同樣有諍議。小乘自他各派對於他派的阿含也互有諍議,難道就因此捨棄所有的《阿含經》嗎?
[梵文分析]
savivādaṃ mahāyānam iti ced āgamaṃ tyaja |
    有諍          大乘       謂  若    阿含    應捨
tīrthikaiḥ savivādatvāt svaiḥ paraiś ca āgamāntaraṃ ||
   外道          有諍性      自      他   與      阿含    

Ⅱ、以理成立
(Ⅰ)無空慧不能證涅槃
9.45
[梵] śāsanaṃ bhikṣutāmūlaṃ bhikṣutaiva ca duḥkhitā
sāvalambanacittānāṃ nirvāṇam api duḥsthitam // bca.9.45 //
[英譯] The teaching has its root in the monk-hood and the monk-hood is not on a firm footing. For those whose minds are subject to grasping, Nirvana is not on a firm footing either.
[天息災譯] 法乃僧根本,僧知法出離,心若有著處,涅槃不可得。
[如石藏譯] 若僧爲教本,僧亦難安住;心有所緣者,亦難住涅槃。
佛滅以後,住持聖教的根本就是阿羅漢了。然而,沒有般若空慧就很難有阿羅漢住世,因爲心執諸法爲實有所緣的比丘,甚至連涅槃都不可能證得。
[梵文分析]
śāsanaṃ bhikṣutā-mūlaṃ bhikṣutā eva ca duḥkhitā |
     教          僧        本          僧     實  與     難安
sāvalambana-cittānāṃ nirvāṇam api duḥsthitam ||
    有所緣          心            涅槃   亦      難住

(Ⅱ)若以四諦十六行相之道能得解脫,則暫斷煩惱現行亦得解脫
9.46
[梵] kleśaprahāṇān muktiś cet tadanantaram astu sā
dṛṣṭaṃ ca teṣu sāmarthyaṃ niḥkleśasyāpi karmaṇaḥ // bca.9.46 //
[英譯] If your objection is that liberation is due to the elimination of mental afflictions, then it should occur immediately afterward. Yet one can see the power of Karma over those people, even though they had no mental afflictions.
[天息災譯] 解脫心無著,煩惱得消滅,煩惱業消除,斯由解脫力。
[如石藏譯] 斷惑若即脫,彼無間應爾。彼等雖無惑,猶見業功能。
小:斷惑解脫不需般若空慧,單修四諦就夠了。
中:如果說,單修四諦十六行相之道便能解脫,那麼斷除煩惱現行的人應該也能立即解脫。事實上,他們雖斷煩惱現行,但種子猶存,所以業緣還有結合惑種而引生後有的功能。
[梵文分析]
kleśa-prahāṇān muktiś cet tad-anantaram astu sā |
   惑         斷      解脫   若  彼       無間     是  彼
dṛṣṭaṃ ca teṣu sāmarthyaṃ niḥkleśasya api karmaṇaḥ ||
 現前   與  彼       功能             無惑      雖       業

9.47
[梵] tṛṣṇā tāvad upādānaṃ nāsti cet saṃpradhāryate
kim akliṣṭāpi tṛṣṇaiṣāṃ nāsti saṃmohavat satī // bca.9.47 //
[英譯] If you think that as long as there is no craving there is no grasping onto rebirth, why could their craving, even though free of mental afflictions, not exist as delusion? 
[天息災譯] 愛取不相緣,以此無執持,愛業而羸劣,是無有癡愛。
[如石藏譯] 若謂無愛取,故定無後有;此非染汙愛,如癡云何無?
小:阿羅漢已經斷除了取著後有的欲愛,所以一定不會因爲業力而引生來世。
中:就像已斷染汙無明者仍將留有非染汙無明;同樣,雖然阿羅漢已斷除了染汙愛,但怎可能因此就沒有非染汙愛呢?
[梵文分析]
tṛṣṇā tāvad upādānaṃ nāsti cet saṃpradhāryate |
  愛   乃至       取         無   若        所思量
kim akliṣṭā api tṛṣṇā eṣāṃ nāsti saṃmohavat satī ||
 何    非染  雖    愛    此    無        如癡        存

9.48
[梵] vedanāpratyayā tṛṣṇā vedanaiṣāṃ ca vidyate
sālambanena cittena sthātavyaṃ yatra tatra vā // bca.9.48 //
[英譯] Craving has its cause in feeling, and they have feeling. The mind that has mental objects has to dwell on one thing or another.
[天息災譯] 受愛得相緣,此受而有得,安住有著心,是得名處處。
[如石藏譯] 因受緣生愛。彼等仍有受,心識有所緣,受仍住其中。
如果執受實有並以此爲緣,就會引生貪愛。由於暫斷煩惱現行者的心中仍有受的種子,因此,他們執實的心識仍將有受緣可執取,所以未來還會執著有真實存在的受而生愛。
[梵文分析]
vedanā-pratyayā tṛṣṇā vedanā eṣāṃ ca vidyate |
   受           緣      愛       受      彼   與    有
sālambanena cittena sthātavyaṃ yatra tatra vā ||
    有所緣         心          應住       彼    此  或

(Ⅲ)結成唯求解脫亦需修空
9.49
[梵] vinā śūnyatayā cittaṃ baddham utpadyate punaḥ
yathāsaṃjñisamāpattau bhāvayettena śūnyatām // bca.9.49 //
[英譯] Without emptiness the mind is constrained and arises again, as in non-cognitive meditative equipoise. Therefore, one should meditate on emptiness.
[天息災譯] 若心之不空,復得名爲著,心性若云空,如識而無得。
[如石藏譯] 若無空性心,暫滅惑復生,猶如無想定;故應修空性。
如果只修習四諦而無徹悟空性的智慧,那麼煩惱心所的活動雖能暫時被伏滅,但還會再生煩惱,就像入出無想定一樣;所以應該努力修習能根除煩惱的空性。
[梵文分析]
vinā śūnyatayā cittaṃ baddham utpadyate punaḥ |
  無      空性       心       所縛          生         再
yathā asaṃjñi-samāpattau bhāvayet tena śūnyatāṃ ||
   如    無想          定            應修     此     空性

9.50
[梵] yatsūtre 'vatared vākyaṃ tacked buddhoktam iṣyate
mahāyānaṃ bhavatsūtraiḥ prāyas tulyaṃ na kiṃ matam // bca.9.50 //
[英譯] If you acknowledge the utterances that correspond to the sutras as the words of the Buddha, why do you not respect the Mahayana, which for the most part is similar to your sutras?
[天息災譯] 如應正等覺,所說之妙法,是義乃大乘,大乘行平等。
[如石藏譯] 若語入經藏,即許爲佛說,三藏大乘教,云何汝不許?
如果聖教一旦被編入三藏,就可以承認它們是佛說的,那麼多數大乘教典也被編入三藏,爲何你們不承認它們是佛說的呢?
[梵文分析]
yat sūtre ’vatared vākyaṃ tac ced buddha-uktam iṣyate |
 若   經        入       語       彼  若     佛      所說    所許
mahāyānaṃ bhavat-sūtraiḥ prāyas tulyaṃ na kiṃ mataṃ ||
     大乘            汝      經    大部份  相等   不  何   所敬

9.51
[梵] ekenāgamyamānena sakalaṃ yadi doṣavat
ekena sūtratulyena kiṃ na sarvaṃ jinoditam // bca.9.51 //
[英譯] If the whole is faulty because one part is not acceptable, why not consider the whole as taught by the Jina because one part is similar to the Sutras?
[天息災譯] 說法之一時,了一切過患,一味之平等,諸佛無不說。
[如石藏譯] 若因不解一,一切皆有過;則當以一同,一切成佛說。
若因你們不瞭解一部宣說空性的《般若經》,就認爲一切大乘經有過失,非佛所說;那麼何不因一部內容等同小乘的大乘經,而承認一切大乘經是佛說的呢?
[梵文分析]
ekena āgamyamānena sakalaṃ yadi doṣa-vat |
   一             ?            一切     若    過    有
ekena sūtra-tulyena kiṃ na sarvaṃ jina-uditaṃ ||
 一       經      同      何  不   一切    佛     所說

9.52
[梵] mahākāśyapamukhyaiś ca yadvākyaṃ nāvagāhyate
tattvayānavabuddhatvād agrāhyaṃ kaḥ kariṣyati // bca.9.52 //
[英譯] Who will not accept the teachings not fathomed by leaders such as Maha- Kassapa just because you failed to understand them?
[天息災譯] 迦葉大尊者,如言之不知,彼汝云不覺?不受當何作?
[如石藏譯] 諸聖大迦葉,佛語未盡測,誰因汝不解,廢持大乘教?
大迦葉等大阿羅漢,尚且不能透徹瞭解所有的佛語,誰會因爲你們不理解大乘經典,就認爲大乘經不應該信受奉行呢?
[梵文分析]
mahākāśyapa-mukhyaiś ca yad vākyaṃ na avagāhyate |
     大迦葉          首       與  若       語    未      深入
tat tvayā anavabuddhatvād agrāhyaṃ kaḥ kariṣyati ||
彼   汝           不知                不持     何      將作

(2)空慧乃無住涅槃之道
9.53
[梵] saktitrāsāt tv anirmuktyā saṃsāre sidhyati sthitiḥ
mohena duḥkhinām arthe śūnyatāyā idaṃ phalam // bca.9.53 //
[英譯] Remaining in the cycle of existence for the sake of those suffering due to delusion is achieved through freedom from attachment and fear. That is a fruit of emptiness.
[天息災譯] 解脫力若怖,輪迴得成就,迷彼苦空事,而得於此果。
[如石藏譯] 爲度愚苦衆,菩薩離貪懼,悲智住輪迴,此即悟空果。
爲了救度因愚癡煩惱而受苦的有情,已經解脫貪生怕死情結的菩薩,以大悲和大智留在輪迴中救度衆生;不墮有寂二邊,這就是證悟空性的效果。
[梵文分析]
sakti-trāsāt tv anirmuktyā saṃsāre sidhyati sthitiḥ |
  著     懼   然       離          輪迴      成就       住
mohena duḥkhinām arthe śūnyatāyā idaṃ phalaṃ ||
    愚           有苦       為      空性        此      果

(3)結勸修空莫疑懼
9.54
[梵] tad evaṃ śūnyatāpakṣe dūṣaṇaṃ nopapadyate
tasmān nirvicikitsena bhāvanīyaiva śūnyatā // bca.9.54 //
[英譯] Thus, no refutation is possible with regard to emptiness, so one should meditate on emptiness without hesitation.
[天息災譯] 迷空彼若此,不得謗於法,此空審觀察,是故得不疑。
[如石藏譯] 不應妄破除如上空性理。切莫心生疑,如理修空性。
上面所說的空性教理,因爲不瞭解就隨便加以破斥是不對的。應該不要心生懷疑,按部就班地去修習空性。
[梵文分析]
tad evaṃ śūnyatā-pakṣe dūṣaṇaṃ na upapadyate |
彼   如是   空性    教理       諍     不      生
tasmān nirvicikitsena bhāvanīyā eva śūnyatā ||
   故           無疑             應修     實    空性

9.55
[梵] kleśajñeyāvṛtitamaḥ pratipakṣo hi śūnyatā
śīghraṃ sarvajñatākāmo na bhāvayati tāṃ katham // bca.9.55 //
[英譯] Since emptiness is the antidote to the darkness of afflictive and cognitive obstructions, how is it that one desiring omniscience does not promptly meditate on it?
[天息災譯] 離闇知煩惱,因法知於空,欲速一切知,彼言審觀察。
[如石藏譯] 空性能對治煩惱所知障,欲速成佛者,何不修空性?
成佛的障礙有煩惱障和所知障,而對治這二障迷暗的利器就是空性。想要迅速成就一切種智的人,爲什麼不努力去修習空性呢?
[梵文分析]
kleśa-jñeya-āvṛti-tamaḥ pratipakṣo hi śūnyatā |
煩惱  所知    障     闇       能對治   實   空性
śīghraṃ sarvajñatā-kāmo na bhāvayati tāṃ kathaṃ ||
    速        一切智      欲   不       修       彼    如何

9.56
[梵] yad duḥkhajananaṃ vastu trāsas tasmāt prajāyatām
śūnyatā duḥkhaśamanī tataḥ kiṃ jāyate bhayam // bca.9.56 //
[英譯] Let fear arise towards something that produces suffering. Emptiness pacifies suffering. So why does fear of it arise?
[天息災譯] 若物生於苦,是苦怖得生,彼苦因空作,彼何得生怖?
[如石藏譯] 執實能生苦,于彼應生懼;悟空能息苦,云何畏空性?
執著諸法實有會産生輪迴的痛苦,所以我們應該打從心底畏懼實執才對;證悟空性能幫助我們止息輪迴的痛苦,那麼爲什麼要害怕修習空性呢?
[梵文分析]
yad duḥkha-jananaṃ vastu trāsas tasmāt prajāyatāṃ |
 若     苦         能生     實      懼       故      應生
śūnyatā duḥkha-śamanī tataḥ kiṃ jāyate bhayaṃ ||
  空性       苦       能息    故    何    生         畏

(三)廣說修空之理
1.廣說人無我
(1)破俱生我執之境
9.57
[梵] yatas tato vāstu bhayaṃ yadyahaṃ nāma kiṃcana
aham eva na kiṃcic ced bhayaṃ kasya bhaviṣyati // bca.9.57 //
[英譯] If there were something called "I," fear could come from anywhere. If there is no "I," whose fear would there be?
[天息災譯] 若於彼物怖,斯卽名我所,如是我無所,苦怖云何得?
[如石藏譯] 實我若稍存,於物則有懼;既無少分我,誰復生畏懼?
只要有少許真實存在的我,那麼當然會害怕被某些外物所傷害。既無真實存在的我,那麼害怕者又是誰呢?是身、心?或是四肢百骸、五臟六腑?
[梵文分析]
yatas tato vā astu bhayaṃ yady ahaṃ nāma kiṃcana |
   若   彼  或  是      畏        若     我   名為     任何
aham eva na kiṃcic ced bhayaṃ kasya bhaviṣyati ||
   我   實  無   任何   若     畏        誰        將是

9.58
[梵] dantakeśanakhā nāhaṃ nāsthi nāpy asmi śoṇitam
na śiṃghānaṃ na ca śleṣmā na pūyaṃ lasikāpi vā // bca.9.58 //
[英譯] Teeth, hair, and nails are not "I," nor am I bone, blood, mucus, phlegm, puss, or lymph.
[天息災譯] 牙齒髮爪甲,骨肉幷血髓。
[如石藏譯] 齒髮甲非我,我非骨及血,非涎非鼻涕、非膿非膽汁。
如果真實地追究起來,那麼牙齒、頭髮和指甲不是我;我也不是骨頭、血液、鼻涕、唾涎,不是膿,也不是膽汁。
[梵文分析]
danta-keśa-nakhā na ahaṃ na asthi na apy asmi śoṇitaṃ |
   齒    髮      甲   非    我   非   骨  非  亦   我是   血
na śiṃghānaṃ na ca śleṣmā na pūyaṃ lasikā api vā ||
非      鼻涕      非 與    痰    非    膿      膽汁  亦 或

9.59
[梵] nāhaṃ vasā na ca svedo na medo 'ntrāṇi nāpy aham
na cāham antranir guṇḍī gūthamūtram ahaṃ na ca // bca.9.59 //
[英譯] Bodily oil is not I, nor are sweat, fat, or entrails, the cavity of the entrails is not "I," nor is excrement or urine.
[天息災譯] 鼻洟唾膿涎,脂肪及腸胃。
[如石藏譯] 非脂亦非汗,非肺亦非肝,我非餘內臟,亦非屎與尿。
我不是脂肪,也不是汗水,不是肺臟,也不是肝臟,乃至不是其他任何的內臟;更不是大便和小便。
[梵文分析]
na ahaṃ vasā na ca svedo na medo ’ntrāṇi na apy ahaṃ |
非    我    油  非 與   汗   非    脂       腸    非  亦    我
na ca aham antranirguṇḍī gūtha-mūtram ahaṃ na ca ||
非 與   我           內臟        屎         尿      我   非 與

9.60
[梵] nāhaṃ māṃsaṃ na ca snāyur noṣmā vāyur ahaṃ na ca
na ca chidrāṇy ahaṃ nāpi ṣaḍvijñānāni sarvathā // bca.9.60 //
[英譯] Flesh is not "I," nor are sinews, heat, or wind. Bodily apertures are not "I," nor, in any way, are the six consciousnesses.
[天息災譯] 便痢汗熱風,九漏幷六識,如是諸法等,一切皆無我。
[如石藏譯] 肉與皮非我,脈氣熱非我,百竅亦復然,六識皆非我。
肌肉和皮膚不是我,體溫和運行於脈中的氣也不是我,百竅不是我,無論如何,眼等六根和識都不是我。
[梵文分析]
na ahaṃ māṃsaṃ na ca snāyur na ūṣmā vāyur ahaṃ na ca |
非    我        肉     非 與    筋    非   熱      風       我 非 與
na ca chidrāṇy ahaṃ na api ṣaḍvijñānāni sarvathā ||
非 與       竅      我   非  亦       六識          一切

(2)破遍計我執之境
Ⅰ、破數論派
9.61
[梵] śabdajñānaṃ yadi tadā śabdo gṛhyeta sarvadā
jñeyaṃ vinā tu kiṃ vetti yena jñānaṃ nirucyate // bca.9.61 //
[英譯] If the awareness of sound were "I," then sound would always be apprehended. But without an object of awareness, what does it cognize on account of which is called awareness?
[天息災譯] 說彼智與聲,聲恒受一切,若說聲智離,彼離云何知?
[如石藏譯] 聲識若是常,一切時應聞;若無所知聲,何理謂識聲?
如果了別聲音的識是常恒的,那麼任何時刻都應該聽得到聲音;如果沒有作爲認知物件的聲音,那麼憑何道理說有識聽到聲音呢?
[梵文分析]
śabda-jñānaṃ yadi tadā śabdo gṛhyeta sarvadā |
   聲      識       若    則    聲       所知   一切時
jñeyaṃ vinā tu kiṃ vetti yena jñānaṃ nirucyate ||
 所知     無  然   何   知    若      識         所稱

9.62
[梵] ajānānaṃ yadi jñānaṃ kāṣṭhaṃ jñānaṃ prasajyate
tenāsaṃnihitajñeyaṃ jñānaṃ nāstīti niścayaḥ // bca.9.62 //
[英譯] If that which is not cognizant were awareness, a piece of wood would be awareness. Therefore, it is certain there is no awareness in the absence of its object.
[天息災譯] 若智之不知,彼智難知故,彼智旣決定,乃近於智智。
[如石藏譯] 無識若能知,則樹亦應知;是故定應解:無境則無知。
如果沒有了知的識而能有認知,那麼樹木也應該有認知;所以應該可以肯定:沒有識就不能了知。反之沒有認知的物件,也不會有認知。
[梵文分析]
ajānānaṃ yadi jñānaṃ kāṣṭhaṃ jñānaṃ prasajyate |
    無識     若     能知        樹        知        跟隨
tena asaṃnihita-jñeyaṃ jñānaṃ nāsti iti niścayaḥ ||
 故        無          所知       知      無   謂    一定

9.63
[梵] tad eva rūpaṃ jānāti tadā kiṃ na śṛṇoty api
śabdasyāsaṃnidhānāc cet tatas taj jñānam apy asat // bca.9.63 //
[英譯] Why does that which cognizes form not hear it as well? Samkhya: Because of the absence of sound, there is no awareness of it.
[天息災譯] 此智非聲受,彼聲何以聞,彼聲近於心,彼知色如是。
[如石藏譯] 若謂彼知色,彼時何不聞?若謂聲不近,則知識亦無。
如果說,沒有聲音時,常我就了知色;那麼了知色的當下爲何聽不到聲音呢?如果說,是因爲聲音不在附近的原故;可見當時也沒有耳識,所以耳識非常恒。
[梵文分析]
tad eva rūpaṃ jānāti tadā kiṃ na śṛṇoty api |
 彼  實     色      知    則    何  不    聞    雖
śabdasya asaṃnidhānāc cet tatas taj jñānam apy asat ||
     聲         不在附近     若  因此 彼     知     亦   無

9.64
[梵] śabdagrahaṇarūpaṃ yat tad rūpagrahaṇaṃ katham
ekaḥ pitā ca putraś ca kalpyate na tu tattvataḥ // bca.9.64 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: How can something that is of the nature of the apprehension of sound be the apprehension of form? One person may be considered as a father and a son, but not in terms of ultimate reality,
[天息災譯] 若受於色聲,而色復何受?如彼一父子,思惟無眞實。
[如石藏譯] 聞聲自性者,云何成眼識?一人成父子,假名非真實。
本來具有聽聞聲音性質的耳識,怎能又變成另一有視覺作用的眼識呢?如果說是因觀待而假名,如一人而成父子;但假名父子,並非你們所主張的真實。
[梵文分析]
śabda-grahaṇa-rūpaṃ yat tad rūpa-grahaṇaṃ kathaṃ |
   聞       取        色     若  彼  色         取         如何
ekaḥ pitā ca putraś ca kalpyate na tu tattvataḥ ||
  一    父 與    子    與    假名   非 然   真實

9.65
[梵] sattvaṃ rajastamo vāpi na putro na pitā yataḥ
śabdagrahaṇayuktas tu svabhāvas tasya nekṣyate // bca.9.65 //
[英譯] Since Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas are neither a father nor a son. Moreover its nature is not seen as related to the apprehension of sound.
[天息災譯] 有情塵所翳,無父亦無子,知聲色如是,亦無於自性。
[如石藏譯] 憂喜暗三德,非子亦非父。彼無聞聲性,不見彼性故。
因爲你們主張:憂、喜和昏暗三德不平衡時的真實自性,既非子也不是父。此外,眼識也不具有聞聲識的性質,因爲找不到其中有聞聲的性質。
[梵文分析]
sattvaṃ rajas tamo vā api na putro na pitā yataḥ |
   有情    塵     暗   或 雖  無   子   非  父     若
śabda-grahaṇa-yuktas tu svabhāvas tasya na īkṣyate ||
   聲        取      相應  然    自性        彼   不   見

9.66
[梵] tadevānyena rūpeṇa naṭavatso 'py aśāśvataḥ
sa evānyasvabhāvaś ced apūrveyaṃ tadekatā // bca.9.66 //
[英譯] If it is the same thing taking another guise, like an actor, he too is not permanent. If he has different natures, then this unity of his is unprecedented.
[天息災譯] 彼色如是知,喻樂暫和合,彼自性如是,彼一而言有。
[如石藏譯] 如伎異狀見。是識即非常。謂異樣一體,彼一未曾有。
就像藝人,聞聲識可以其他的方式見色。果真如此,那麼聞聲識就成爲非常了。如果說,表現不同但自性爲一,所以是常;但那種自性爲一的常法,我卻不曾聽說過。
[梵文分析]
tad eva anyena rūpeṇa naṭavat so ’py aśāśvataḥ |
 彼  實     他        色      如伎  彼  雖      非常
sa eva anya-svabhāvaś ced apūrva iyaṃ tad ekatā ||
彼  實   他        自性     若  未曾有   此  彼   一性

9.67
[梵] anyadrūpam asatyaṃ cen nijaṃ tadrūpam ucyatām
jñānatā cet tataḥ sarvapuṃsām aikyaṃ prasajyate // bca.9.67 //
[英譯] If another guise is not the true one, then describe its natural appearance. If it were the nature of awareness, then it would follow that all people would be identical.
[天息災譯] 餘色咸不實,此說色下品,彼一切智心,煩惱悉淸淨。
[如石藏譯] 異樣若非真,自性復爲何?若謂即是識,衆生將成一。
如果說,現爲異樣是不真實的;那麼你所說異樣的自性又是什麼?如果說,就是神識本身;那麼不同心識的衆生也將成爲一了。而且
[梵文分析]
anyad-rūpam asatyaṃ cen nijaṃ tadrūpam ucyatāṃ |
   他       色      非真     若 自性      彼色      應被說
jñānatā cet tataḥ sarva-puṃsām aikyaṃ prasajyate ||
   識性  若   此   一切     衆生        一         跟隨

9.68
[梵] cetanācetane caikyaṃ tayor yenāstitā samā
viśeṣaś ca yadā mithyā kaḥ sādṛśyāśrayas tadā // bca.9.68 //
[英譯] That which has volition and that which has no volition would be identical because their existence would be the same. If difference were false, then what would be the basis for similarity?
[天息災譯] 思惟一覺心,彼等彼若無,愛若虛不實,云何住於見?
[如石藏譯] 心無心亦一,同爲常有故。差殊成妄時,何爲共同依?
有心的神識和無心的自性也將合而爲一,因爲它們同樣是永恒普遍的存在。如果說,它們所變現的差別現象是假;那麼假相共同的依據怎會是真呢?
[梵文分析]
cetana-acetane ca aikyaṃ tayor yena astitā samā |
    心     無心   與    一       彼     若     有     同
viśeṣaś ca yadā mithyā kaḥ sādṛśya-āśrayas tadā ||
  差別  與   若      妄     何    共同       依      則

Ⅱ、破理論派
9.69
[梵] acetanaś ca naivāham acaitanyāt paṭādivat
atha jñaś cetanāyogād ajño naṣṭaḥ prasajyate // bca.9.69 //
[英譯] That which is not conscious is not "I", because it lacks consciousness, like a cloth and the like. If it were consciousness because it has consciousness, than it would follow that when it stops being conscious of anything, it would vanish.
[天息災譯] 無我而無心,此心喻畫像,是心智相應,淸淨愚癡破。
[如石藏譯] 無心亦非我,無心則如瓶。謂合有心故,知成無知滅。
無心的我也不是我,因爲它沒有心,就像瓶子一樣。雖本質上無知,但附上暫時的心就有知了既然無知成爲知,那麼無知就壞滅了。
[梵文分析]
acetanaś ca na eva aham acaitanyāt paṭa-ādi-vat |
   無心   與 非  實    我        無心     瓶    等  如
atha jñaś cetanā-yogād ajño naṣṭaḥ prasajyate ||
  則  知      心     相應  無知    滅       跟隨

9.70
[梵] athāvikṛta evātmā caitanyenāsya kiṃ kṛtam
ajñasya niṣkriyasyaivam ākāśasyātmatā matā // bca.9.70 //
[英譯] If the self is not subject to change, what is the use of its consciousness? Thus, this implies that space, which lacks consciousness and activity, has a self.
[天息災譯] 如是之自心,彼作云何作,彼愚癡無行,此我而虛作。
[如石藏譯] 若我無變異,心于彼何用?無知復無用,虛空亦成我。
如果我是常恒不變之物,那麼心對於它又有什麼作用呢?如果我沒有作用而且無知,那麼虛空也可以作爲我了。
[梵文分析]
atha avikṛta eva ātmā caitanyena asya kiṃ kṛtaṃ |
 若   無變異 實    我        心         彼    何   所作
ajñasya niṣkriyasya evam ākāśasya ātmatā matā ||
  無知         無用      如是    虛空      我性   所思

Ⅲ、斷諍
9.71
[梵] na karmaphalasaṃbandho yuktaś ced ātmanā vinā
karma kṛtvā vinaṣṭe hi phalaṃ kasya bhaviṣyati // bca.9.71 //
[英譯] Objection: Without the self, the relationship between an action and its result is not possible, for if the agent of an action has perished, who will have the result?
[天息災譯] 有行自出離,而無惡業果,破壞業若爲,善果云何得?
[如石藏譯] 若我非實有,業果繫非理;已作我既滅,誰復受業報?
如果沒有真實不變的我,那麼業果之間的連繫就不合理;既然業完成的下一刹那,我就消失了,那麼應該由誰去承受業報呢?
[梵文分析]
na karma-phala-saṃbandho yuktaś ced ātmanā vinā |
非    業       果          繫          理     若      我     無
karma kṛtvā vinaṣṭe hi phalaṃ kasya bhaviṣyati ||
    業   已作     滅    實    果       誰        將是

9.72
[梵] dvayor apy āvayoḥ siddhe bhinnādhāre kriyāphale
nirvyāpāraś ca tatrātmety atra vādo vṛthā nanu // bca.9.72 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: When both of us have agreed that an action and its result have different bases and that the self has no influence in this matter, then there is no point in arguing about this.
[天息災譯] 此二之行果,互相破成就,彼說知不虛,彼自而無事。
[如石藏譯] 作者受者異,報時作者亡。汝我若共許,諍此有何義?
今生造業和後世受報的生命個體是不同的,受報時叫做我的造業者已經不存在了。如果這是我們兩人共同承認的看法,那麼諍論這個問題豈非毫無意義?
[梵文分析]
dvayor apy āvayoḥ siddhe bhinna-ādhāre kriyā-phale |
   二     雖    我倆      成       不同   支持     作     果
nirvyāpāraś ca tatra ātmā ity atra vādo vṛthā nanu ||
    無作用    與   彼    我   謂   此   諍   無用  豈非

9.73
[梵] hetumān phalayogīti dṛśyate naiṣa saṃbhavaḥ
saṃtānasyaikyamāśritya kartā bhokteti deśitam // bca.9.73 //
[英譯] One who has the cause cannot possibly be seen as being endowed with the result. It is pointed out that the existence of the agent and the experiencer (sic) of the consequences depends upon the unity of their continuum of consciousness.
[天息災譯] 因果定相應,惡見要不生,此行而實住,作受今當說。
[如石藏譯] 因時見有果,此見不可能。依一相續故,佛說作者受。
如果你認爲作者造業時應該受到報應,那表示在因位就可以看到果,這不可能;就好像父子同時出生一樣。佛經說造業者受報,是基於作、受二者都是同一個五蘊相續系列上的假名施設。
[梵文分析]
hetumān phala-yogī iti dṛśyate na eṣa saṃbhavaḥ |
     因        果  具有 謂    見     不  此       起   
saṃtānasya aikyam āśritya kartā bhoktā iti deśitaṃ ||
     相續         一        依     作者  受者   謂   說

9.74
[梵] atītānāgataṃ cittaṃ nāhaṃ taddhi na vidyate
athotpannam ahaṃ cittaṃ naṣṭe 'smin nasty ahaṃ punaḥ // bca.9.74 //
[英譯] The past or future mind is not "I", since it does not exist. If the mind were "I", then when it had vanished, the "I" would not exist anymore.
[天息災譯] 過去未來心,彼我無有生,此心生我破,我無復生起。
[如石藏譯] 過去未來心,俱無故非我。今心若是我,彼滅則我亡。
過去心和未來的心都不是我,因過去已滅而未來未生,這兩者都不存在。如果說,現在出生的心是我;那麼它消逝的時候,豈不是就沒有我了?
[梵文分析]
atīta-anāgataṃ cittaṃ na ahaṃ tad dhi na vidyate |
過去    未來        心    無    我   彼  實  不   有
atha utpannam ahaṃ cittaṃ naṣṭe ’smin nāsty ahaṃ punaḥ ||
  則      已生      我       心      滅     此      無    我       再

9.75
[梵] yathaiva kadalīstambho na kaścid bhāgaśaḥ kṛtaḥ
tathāham apy asadbhūto mṛgyamāṇo vicārataḥ // bca.9.75 //
[英譯] Just as the trunk of a plantain tree is nothing when cut into pieces, in the same way, the "I" is non-existence when sought analytically.
[天息災譯] 如芭蕉作柱,無所能勝任,我心生亦然,是得善觀察。
[如石藏譯] 猶如芭蕉樹,剝析無所有;如是以慧觀,覓我見非實。
譬如把芭蕉樹幹一層層地剝開,最後將會發現裏面一無所有;同樣,如果以理性的智慧去找尋我,那麼將會發現:我也是架空、不真實的。
[梵文分析]
yathā eva kadalī-stambho na kaścid bhāgaśaḥ kṛtaḥ |
 猶如  實  芭蕉        柱     無  任何      部份    所作
tathā aham apy asadbhūto mṛgyamāṇo vicārataḥ ||
 如是   我   也       非實          尋求          伺察

9.76
[梵] yadi sattvo na vidyeta kasyopari kṛpeti cet
kāryārtham abhyupetena yo mohena prakalpitaḥ // bca.9.76 //
[英譯] Qualm: If no sentient being exists, for whom is there compassion? Madhyamika: For one who is imagined through delusion, which is accepted for the sake of the task.
[天息災譯] 有情若不有,此行云何爲?彼行今若爲,而爲有癡事。
[如石藏譯] 有情若非有,於誰起悲愍?立誓成佛者,因癡虛設有。
如果所度的有情不是真實存在,那麼誰是菩薩悲愍的物件呢?由於爲利衆生而發願成佛的菩薩還有無明,所以由無明虛構出來的有情宛然存在。
[梵文分析]
yadi sattvo na vidyeta kasya upari kṛpā iti cet |
 若    有情  非     有      誰      對     悲  謂 若
kārya-artham abhyupetena yo mohena prakalpitaḥ ||
  事       為            承諾     若       癡        所分別

9.77
[梵] kāryaṃ kasya na cet sattvaḥ satyam īhā tu mohataḥ
duḥkhavyupaśamārthaṃ tu kāryamoho na vāryate // bca.9.77 //
[英譯] Qualm: If there is no sentient being, whose is the task? Madhyamika: True. The effort, too, is due to delusion. Nevertheless, in order to alleviate suffering, delusion with regard to one's task is not averted.
[天息災譯] 有情何實無,癡喻其愛事,若滅於苦惱,當斷於癡事。
[如石藏譯] 無人誰得果?許由癡心得。爲息衆生苦,不應除此癡。
若無真實的有情,誰能發心而成佛呢?我的確主張勝義無佛無衆生,但名言上,在無明所虛構的發心推動下,仍可證果。因此,爲除如幻衆生之苦而欲成佛的發心,雖然出自無明的虛妄分別,也不該消除。
[梵文分析]
kāryaṃ kasya na cet sattvaḥ satyam īhā tu mohataḥ |
    事       誰   無  若   有情      諦     勤 然      癡
duḥkha-vyupaśama-arthaṃ tu kārya-moho na vāryate ||
    苦          息             爲   然   事      癡    不    遮

9.78
[梵] duḥkhahetur ahaṃkāra ātmamohāttu vardhate
tato 'pi na nivartyaś cet varaṃ nairātmyabhāvanā // bca.9.78 //
[英譯] However, grasping onto the "I", which is a cause of suffering, increases because of the delusion with regard to the self. If this is the unavoidable result of that, meditation on identity-less-ness is the best.
[天息災譯] 我慢爲苦因,癡是得增長,彼事心不迴,觀空爲最上。
[如石藏譯] 我慢痛苦因,惑我得增長。謂慢不能除;修無我最勝。
執著實我而生的我慢,是痛苦的原因,而它又因爲理智看不透自我而得以增長。如果你認爲我慢是無法根除的,那麼修習無我正是最好的根治方法。
[梵文分析]
duḥkha-hetur ahaṃkāra ātma-mohāt tu vardhate |
    苦       因      我行       我     惑    然    增長
tato ’pi na nivartyaś cet varaṃ nairātmya-bhāvanā ||
  故 雖  不    應除     若    勝        無我         修

2.廣說法無我
(1)由念處門說
Ⅰ、身念處
9.79
[梵] kāyo na pādau na jaṅghā norū kāyaḥ kaṭir na ca
nodaraṃ nāpy ayaṃ pṛṣṭhaṃ noro bāhū na cāpi saḥ // bca.9.79 //
[英譯] The body is not the feet, the calves, nor the thighs. Nor is the body the hips, the abdomen. The back, the chest, or the arms.
[天息災譯] 無足無脛膝,無腰復無腿,無臂亦無肩,無臍無胸背。
[如石藏譯] 身非足小腿,腿臀亦非身,腹背及胸肩,彼等復非身。
如果真實地加以追究,那麼身體不等於足部、小腿;大腿、臀、腹與背部也不能代表身體胸部和肩膀也都不是身體。
[梵文分析]
kāyo na pādau na jaṅghā na urū kāyaḥ kaṭir na ca |
   身  非   足    非  小腿   非  腿    身     臀   非 與
na udaraṃ na apy ayaṃ pṛṣṭhaṃ na uro bāhū na ca api saḥ ||
非     腹    非  雖     此       背     非 胸    臂   非 與 雖  彼

9.80
[梵] na hastau nāpyayaṃ pārśvau na kakṣau nāṃsalakṣaṇaḥ
na grīvā na śiraḥ kāyaḥ kayo 'tra kataraḥ punaḥ // bca.9.80 //
[英譯] It is not the hands, the sides of the torso, or the armpits, nor is it characterized by the shoulders. Nor is the body the neck or the head. Then what here is the body?
[天息災譯] 無肋兼無脅,無手亦無鼻,無項復無頭,骨鎖等皆爾。
[如石藏譯] 側肋手非身,腋窩肩非身,內臟頭與頸,彼等皆非身,此中孰爲身?
肋骨和手臂不是身體,腋窩和肩膀也不是身體,每一個內臟、頭部和頸子也不算是身體,那麼哪一個部分才是身體呢?
[梵文分析]
na hastau na apy ayaṃ pārśvau na kakṣau na aṃsa-lakṣaṇaḥ |
非    手    非  雖    此       脅     非     腋    非   肩       相
na grīvā na śiraḥ kāyaḥ kāyo ’tra kataraḥ punaḥ ||
非   頸   非    頭    身      身    此     何       再

9.81
[梵] yadi sarveṣu kāyo 'yam ekadeśena vartate
aṃśā aṃśeṣu vartante sa ca kutra svayaṃ sthitaḥ // bca.9.81 //
[英譯] If this body partially exists in all of these, and its parts exist in their parts, where does it stand by itself? 
[天息災譯] 觀此一切身,不行於一處,彼行於處處,何處自安住?
[如石藏譯] 若身遍散住一切諸肢分,分復住自分,身應住何處?
如果一個人的身體普遍散佈於四肢百骸之中,而每一部分又散佈在它們自己的部分中,那麼身體自己應該住在哪里昵?
[梵文分析]
yadi sarveṣu kāyo ’yam ekadeśena vartate |
  若    一切    身      此       一分        在
aṃśā aṃśeṣu vartante sa ca kutra svayaṃ sthitaḥ ||
   分      分          在   彼 與 何處      自        住

9.82
[梵] sarvātmanā cet sarvatra sthitaḥ kāyaḥ karādiṣu
kāyās tāvanta eva syur yāvantas te karādayaḥ // bca.9.82 //
[英譯] If the body were located in its entirety in the hands and other limbs, there would be just as many bodies as there are hands and so forth.
[天息災譯] 以彼身手等,一切處皆住,彼一身如是,乃至於手等。
[如石藏譯] 若謂吾一身,分住手等分;則盡手等數,應成等數身。
如果說,我整個的身體,分別地住在手和腳等部分;那麼有多少數量的手腳等部分,就該有同等數目的身體。這怎麼可能呢?
[梵文分析]
sarva-ātmanā cet sarvatra sthitaḥ kāyaḥ kara-ādiṣu |
 一切     我     若  一切處     住       身     手     等
kāyās tāvanta eva syur yāvantas te karādayaḥ ||
   身     如是   則    是    乃至    彼    手等

9.83
[梵] naivāntarna bahiḥ kāyaḥ kathaṃ kāyaḥ karādiṣu
karādibhyaḥ pṛthag nāsti kathaṃ nu khalu vidyate // bca.9.83 //
[英譯] The body is neither inside nor outside. How can the body be in the hands and other limbs? It is not separate from the hands and the like. How, then, can it be found at all?
[天息災譯] 無內無外身,何獨身手等?手等無分別,云何彼復有?
[如石藏譯] 內外若無身,云何手有身?手等外無它,云何有彼身?
如果內外都沒有真實存在的身體,那麼手腳等部分中怎會有身體呢?又,身體除了手腳等部分外既無它物,那麼怎會有手腳以外的身體呢?
[梵文分析]
na eva antar na bahiḥ kāyaḥ kathaṃ kāyaḥ karādiṣu |
無  實    內  無    外      身     云何      身      手等
karādibhyaḥ pṛthag nāsti kathaṃ nu khalu vidyate ||
       手等       異       無     云何     實           有

9.84
[梵] tan nāsti kāyo mohāt tu kāyabuddhiḥ karādiṣu
saṃniveśaviśeṣeṇa sthānau puruṣabuddhivat // bca.9.84 //
[英譯] Thus, the body does not exist. However, on account of delusion, there is the impression of the body with regard to the hands and the like, because of their specific configuration, just as there is the impression of a person with regard to a pillar.
[天息災譯] 彼旣無癡身,寧云意手等,住已近殊勝,觀者知人喻。
[如石藏譯] 無身因愚迷,於手生身覺。如因石狀殊,誤彼爲真人。
因此,根本沒有真實存在的身體,只因爲有迷惑,才對手等生起身體的感覺;就像是形狀特殊的石堆,會被誤認爲真實的人一樣。
[梵文分析]
tan nāsti kāyo mohāt tu kāya-buddhiḥ karādiṣu |
 彼   無     身     愚    然  身       覺        手等
saṃniveśa-viśeṣeṇa sthānau puruṣa-buddhi-vat ||
    形相         特殊       處         人        覺    如

9.85
[梵] yāvat pratyayasāmagrī tāvat kāyaḥ pumāniva
evaṃ karādau sā yāvat tāvat kāyo 'tra dṛśyate // bca.9.85 //
[英譯] As long as a collection of conditions lasts, the body appears like a person. Likewise, as long as it lasts with regard to the hands and the like, the body continues to be seen in them.
[天息災譯] 若彼因和合,木人此可同,若了如是相,彼身同此見。
[如石藏譯] 衆緣聚合時,見石狀似人。如是於手等,亦見實有身。
任何時候,只要導致錯覺的因緣齊全了,石頭就會被誤看成真實的人身。同樣,只要手腳等肢體和生理功能齊全,整個複合有機體就會被誤認爲實有的人身。
[梵文分析]
yāvat pratyaya-sāmagrī tāvat kāyaḥ pumān iva |
 乃至     緣        聚合    如是    身        人   如
evaṃ karādau sā yāvat tāvat kāyo ’tra dṛśyate ||
 如是   手等    彼  乃至 如是   身    此    見

9.86
[梵] evam aṅgulipuñjatvāt pādo 'pi kataro bhavet
so 'pi parvasamūhatvāt parvāpi svāṃśabhedataḥ // bca.9.86 //
[英譯] In the same way, since it is an assemblage of toes, which one would be a foot? The same applies to a toe, since it is an assemblage of joints, and to a joint as well, because of its division into its own parts.
[天息災譯] 如是捨足指,手指亦皆捨,彼初觀節合,後見節自離。
[如石藏譯] 手復指聚故,理當成何物?能聚由聚成,聚者猶可分。
由於手也是指甲等支分聚合而成的,那麼手本身又應該算是什麼呢?再者,指甲也是更小的成分聚合而成的,而聚合成分又可再細分成更細小的部分。
[梵文分析]
evam aṅguli-puñjatvāt pādo ’pi kataro bhavet |
 如是    指         聚        足   雖    何      應是
so ’pi parva-samūhatvāt parva api sva-aṃśa-bhedataḥ ||
彼  雖 關節         聚        關節  雖  自     分       析

9.87
[梵] aṃśā apy aṇubhedena so 'py aṇurdigvibhāgataḥ
digvibhāgo niraṃśatvād ākāśaṃ tena nāstyaṇuḥ // bca.9.87 //
[英譯] Even the parts can be divided into atoms, and an atom itself can be divided according to its cardinal directions. The section of a cardinal direction is space, because it is without parts. Therefore, an atom does not exist.
[天息災譯] 此身破已竟,彼住分別見,分別見此身,得喻如虛空。
[如石藏譯] 分復析爲塵,塵析爲方分,方分離部分,如空無微塵。
這些小成分又可以再分解成微塵,微塵又可以再分析爲方分,而方分也沒有真實的部分,猶如虛空一般。因此連微塵也不是真實存在的,何況身體?
[梵文分析]
aṃśā apy aṇu-bhedena so ’py aṇur dig-vibhāgataḥ |
    分  雖   塵       析    彼  雖   塵    方        分
digvibhāgo niraṃśatvād ākāśaṃ tena nāsty aṇuḥ ||
     方分         離部分        空       故     無   微塵

9.88
[梵] evaṃ svapnopame rūpe ko rajyeta vicārakaḥ
kāyaś caivaṃ yadā nāsti tadā kā strī pumāṃś ca kaḥ // bca.9.88 //
[英譯] What discerning person would be attached to form, which is just like a dream? Since the body does not exist, then who is a woman and who is a man?
[天息災譯] 如是之夢色,智者何所樂?設施若無身,何有男女等?
[如石藏譯] 是故聰智者,誰貪如夢身?如是身若無,豈貪男女相?
所以一個有智慧的人,怎會貪著如夢幻般不實的色身呢?如果能如實瞭解沒有真實存在的身體,哪里還會執著實有男女之身而生貪愛呢?
[梵文分析]
evaṃ svapna-upame rūpe ko rajyeta vicārakaḥ |
 如是     夢        如     色  誰     貪        伺察
kāyaś ca evaṃ yadā nāsti tadā kā strī pumāṃś ca kaḥ ||
   身   與 如是    若    無    則  誰  女       男    與  誰

Ⅱ、受念處
(Ⅰ)破受有自性
9.89
[梵] yady asti duḥkhaṃ tattvena prahṛṣṭān kiṃ na bādhate
śokādyārtāya mṛṣṭādi sukhaṃ cet kiṃ na rocate // bca.9.89 //
[英譯] If suffering truly exists, why does it not oppress the joyful? If delicacies and the like are a pleasure, why do they not please someone struck by grief and so forth?
[天息災譯] 若喜眞得苦,此者何不解?觀察此云何,愛樂深煩惱。
[如石藏譯] 苦性若實有,何不損極樂?樂實則甘等,何不解憂苦?
如果痛苦是真實不變地存在,那麼它爲何不會障蔽大樂的生起呢?如果快樂是真實地存在,那麼美味等令人愉悅的事物,爲何不能使憂惱病苦的人快樂呢?
[梵文分析]
yady asti duḥkhaṃ tattvena prahṛṣṭān kiṃ na bādhate |
  若    是       苦        真實       極樂     何  不    損
śoka-ādy-ārtāya mṛṣṭa-ādi sukhaṃ cet kiṃ na rocate ||
  憂   等     苦       甘   等      樂     若   何  不    喜

9.90
[梵] balīyasābhibhūtatvād yadi tannānubhūyate
vedanātvaṃ kathaṃ tasya yasya nānubhavātmatā // bca.9.90 //
[英譯] If it is not experienced because it is overpowered by something more intense, how can that which is not of the nature of experience be a feeling?
[天息災譯] 樂者之不實,如彼無執受,汝苦復云何,如彼自無得?
[如石藏譯] 若謂苦強故,不覺彼樂受。既非領納性,云何可謂受?
如果說,因爲痛苦太強以至於蓋過了快樂,所以才感覺不到快樂的感受。既然這種樂受具有不能被經驗的性質,那麼它又怎能算是受呢?
[梵文分析]
balīyasā abhibhūtatvād yadi tan na anubhūyate |
      強           所勝         若   彼 不       覺受
vedanātvaṃ kathaṃ tasya yasya na anubhava-ātmatā ||
     受性         云何     彼      若   非    領納        我

9.91
[梵] asti sūkṣmatayā duḥkhaṃ sthaulyaṃ tasya hṛtaṃ nanu
tuṣṭimātrā 'parā cet syāt tasmāt sāpy asya sūkṣmatā // bca.9.91 //
[英譯] Objection: Surely there is suffering in its subtle state while its gross state is removed. Madhyamika: If it is simply another pleasure, then that subtle state is a subtle state of pleasure.
[天息災譯] 彼有苦微細,旣微而不說,以彼微細故,不說令他喜。
[如石藏譯] 若謂有微苦;豈非已除苦?謂彼即余樂:微苦豈非樂?
是受,因爲大樂時仍存在有輕微的苦受。那麼大樂豈非已經消除了較大的痛苦嗎?如果說,微苦就是消除大苦所余的微樂;那麼微苦豈不成了快樂,怎能說是苦呢?
[梵文分析]
asti sūkṣmatayā duḥkhaṃ sthaulyaṃ tasya hṛtaṃ nanu |
 是          微           苦            大         彼   已除   豈非
tuṣṭi-mātrā ’parā cet syāt tasmāt sa apy asya sūkṣmatā ||
 喜     僅       他  若   是     故    彼 雖    此        微

9.92
[梵] viruddhapratyayotpattau duḥkhasyānudayo yadi
kalpanābhiniveśo hi vedanety āgataṃ nanu // bca.9.92 //
[英譯] If suffering does not arise when the conditions for its opposite have arisen, does it not follow that a "feeling" is a false notion created by conceptual fabrication?
[天息災譯] 因瞋而苦生,旣生而有滅,若於定有見,於生自不受。
[如石藏譯] 倘因逆緣故,苦受不得生,此豈非成立:分別受是執?
如果苦受因爲逆緣存在而不能生起,那就表示受是隨緣生滅的,毫無自性。那麼這豈不正好成立:分別感受爲實有是一種錯誤的執著嗎?
[梵文分析]
viruddha-pratyaya-utpattau duḥkhasya anudayo yadi |
     逆           緣          生          苦          不生      若
kalpana-abhiniveśo hi vedanā ity āgataṃ nanu ||
   分別         執       實     受   謂     來     豈非

9.93
[梵] ata eva vicāro 'yaṃ pratipakṣo 'sya bhāvyate
vikalpakṣetrasaṃbhūtadhyānāhārā hi yoginaḥ // bca.9.93 //
[英譯] Therefore, this analysis is created as an antidote to that false notion. For the meditative stabilizations that arise from the field of investigations are the food of contemplatives.
[天息災譯] 如是而旣知,如是觀因果,禪愛或相應,得生彼疑地。
[如石藏譯] 故應修空觀對治實有執。觀慧良田中,能長瑜伽食。
因此,爲了達成解脫,應該多修習這種對治實執的空性觀慧。從如理觀察諸法實性的良田中,將能長出滋養瑜伽士定慧的糧食。
[梵文分析]
ata eva vicāro ’yaṃ pratipakṣo ’sya bhāvyate |
故  實    伺察    此       對治       此     所修
vikalpa-kṣetra-saṃbhūta-dhyāna-āhārā hi yoginaḥ ||
   分別     田         生           禪      食   實   瑜伽

(Ⅱ)破受因——觸有自性
i、破根境相遇有自性
9.94
[梵] sāntarāv indriyārthau cet saṃsargaḥ kuta etayoḥ
nirantaratve 'py ekatvaṃ kasya kenāstu saṃgatiḥ // bca.9.94 //
[英譯] If there is an interval between a sense faculty and its object, where is the contact between the two? If there is no interval, they would be identical. In that case, what would be in contact with what?
[天息災譯] 善根之所利,皆爲於何人?彼此何和合,和合而何得?
[如石藏譯] 根境若間隔,彼二怎會遇?無隔二成一,誰復遇於誰?
如果內根和外境有間隔,那麼根境二者要如何相遇而生觸呢?如果根境之間沒有間隔,它們將成爲一體,那麼誰能遇到誰呢?
[梵文分析]
sāntarāv indriya-arthau cet saṃsargaḥ kuta etayoḥ |
   間隔       根       境     若     會遇       何    彼二
nirantaratve ’py ekatvaṃ kasya kena astu saṃgatiḥ ||
    無隔        雖       一      誰       誰   是       遇

9.95
[梵] nāṇor aṇau praveśo 'sti nirākāśaḥ samaś ca saḥ
apraveśe na miśratvam amiśratve na saṃgatiḥ // bca.9.95 //
[英譯] One Atom cannot penetrate another, because it is without empty space and is of the same size as the other. When there is no penetration, there is no mingling there is no contact.
[天息災譯] 人喻於虛空,雖合而無入,無入而非合,是無分別行。
[如石藏譯] 塵塵不相入,無間等大故。不入則無合,無合則不遇。
但根塵和境塵是不可能互入而成爲一體的,因爲這兩者沒有內在的空間,大小也相等。不能互入就不能完全混合,不完全混合就不能每一邊都相遇而成一體。
[梵文分析]
na aṇor aṇau praveśo ’sti nirākāśaḥ samaś ca saḥ |
不   塵    塵      相入   是      無空       等   與 彼
apraveśe na miśratvam amiśratve na saṃgatiḥ ||
  不相入 不         合         無合     不     遇

9.96
[梵] niraṃśasya ca saṃsargaḥ kathaṃ nāmopapadyate
saṃsarge ca niraṃśatvaṃ yadi dṛṣṭaṃ nidarśaya // bca.9.96 //
[英譯] How, indeed, can there be contact with something that has no parts? If part-less-ness can be observed when there is contact, demonstrate this.
[天息災譯] 不求和合名,若見而無見,和合彼不求,云何名得生?
[如石藏譯] 無分而能遇,云何有此理?若見請示我,無分相遇塵。
如果說,無方分的微塵在某一邊能相遇;那麼無分塵就變成多邊了,這怎會合理呢?如果你看到沒有方分而能相遇的微塵,那麼請你指出來讓我看看。
[梵文分析]
niraṃśasya ca saṃsargaḥ kathaṃ nāma upapadyate |
       無分   與        遇        云何     實         起
saṃsarge ca niraṃśatvaṃ yadi dṛṣṭaṃ nidarśaya ||
     遇      與       無分        若    所見         示

ii、破境識相遇有自性
iii、破三者相遇有自性
9.97
[梵] vijñānasya tv amūrtasya saṃsargo naiva yujyate
samūhasyāpy avastutvād yathā pūrvaṃ vicāritam // bca.9.97 //
[英譯] It is impossible for consciousness, which has no form, to have contact; nor is it possible for a composite, because it is not a truly existent thing, as investigated earlier.
[天息災譯] 有物非和合,如導而先知,而彼識無相,不住於和合。
[如石藏譯] 意識無色身,遇境不應理。聚亦無實故,如前應觀察。
外境和沒有色身的意識相遇,這是不合理的。根塵識三者聚合而生觸也不合理,因爲聚合也沒有實體,一如前面的分析。
[梵文分析]
vijñānasya tv amūrtasya saṃsargo na eva yujyate |
      識       然     無色           遇     不  實    相應
samūhasya apy avastutvād yathā pūrvaṃ vicāritaṃ ||
      聚         亦      無實        如       前        所察

iv、結成觸無自性
9.98
[梵] tad evaṃ sparśanābhāve vedanāsaṃbhavaḥ kutaḥ
kim artham ayam āyāsaḥ bādhā kasya kuto bhavet // bca.9.98 //
[英譯] Thus, when there is no contact, how can feeling arise? What is the reason for this exertion? Who can be harmed by what?
[天息災譯] 彼觸法如是,何受而得生?我今何所爲,而得於苦害?
[如石藏譯] 若觸非真有,則受從何生?何故逐塵勞?何苦傷何人?
如果觸不是真實存在,那麼觸的果——感受將從哪里産生呢?世人辛苦地追求樂受到底爲了什麼?到底有什麼苦受會傷害什麼人呢?
[梵文分析]
tad evaṃ sparśana-abhāve vedanā-saṃbhavaḥ kutaḥ |
彼   如是      觸       非有       受          生         何
kim artham ayam āyāsaḥ bādhā kasya kuto bhavet ||
  何    義       此      勤        害    何人   何     應是

9.99
[梵] yadā na vedakaḥ kaścid vedanā ca na vidyate
tadāvasthām imāṃ dṛṣṭvā tṛṣṇe kiṃ na vidīryase // bca.9.99 //
[英譯] If there is no one to experience feeling and if feeling does not exist, then after understanding this situation, why, oh craving, are you not shattered?
[天息災譯] 若不得所受,苦害而不覺,此位彼得見,何愛不遠離?
[如石藏譯] 若見無受者,亦無實領受,見此實性已,云何愛不滅?
 如果有人能洞見沒有真實的受者,也沒有真實存在的感受,那麼在洞見這種真實性的當下,對樂受的貪愛怎會不息滅呢?
[梵文分析]
yadā na vedakaḥ kaścid vedanā ca na vidyate |
   若 無      受者    任何      受   與 無    有
tadā avasthām imāṃ dṛṣṭvā tṛṣṇe kiṃ na vidīryase ||
 則     情況        此     見已    愛    何 不       壞

(Ⅲ)破受境有自性
(Ⅳ)破受者有自性
9.100
[梵] dṛśyate spṛśyate cāpi svapnamāyopamātmanā
cittena sahajātatvād vedanā tena nekṣyate // bca.9.100 //
[英譯] The mind that has a dream-like and illusion-like nature sees and touches. Since feeling arises together with the mind, it is not perceived by the mind.
[天息災譯] 今見此夢觸,自心之幻化,旣見彼觸性,彼受汝亦得。
[如石藏譯] 所見或所觸,性皆如夢幻。與心俱生故,受非心能見。
眼等諸識所見或所經驗到的現象,都是如夢如幻的,毫無真實性。因爲受心所和自性相異的心識同時俱起,所以心識不能客觀地經驗到不相干的受。
[梵文分析]
dṛśyate spṛśyate ca api svapna-māyā-upama-ātmanā |
   所見    所觸    與 雖     夢       幻       如       我
cittena sahajātatvād vedanā tena na īkṣyate ||
   心          俱生性       受     故   非   能見

9.101
[梵] pūrvaṃ paścāc ca jātena smaryate nānubhūyate
svātmānaṃ nānubhavati na cānyenānubhūyate // bca.9.101 //
[英譯] What happen earlier is remembered but not experienced by what arises later. It does not experience itself, nor is it experienced by something else.
[天息災譯] 先世與後世,念念而無受,若此觀自身,受亦無所得。
[如石藏譯] 後念唯能憶,非能受前心;不能自領納,亦非它能受。
後生的心也只能回憶已滅的前刹那心,不能當下經驗到前一刹那的感受本身;感受本身又不能經驗它自己,其他的事物也不能經驗感受。
[梵文分析]
pūrvaṃ paścāc ca jātena smaryate na anubhūyate |
     前       後    與  所生       憶     非     被經驗
svātmānaṃ na anubhavati na ca anyena anubhūyate ||
       自        不      經驗    非 與     他        被經驗

 9.102
[梵] na cāsti vedakaḥ kaścid vedanāto na tattvataḥ
nirātmake kalāpe 'smin ka eva bādhyate 'nayā // bca.9.102 //
[英譯] There is no one who experiences feeling. Hence, in reality, there is no feeling. Thus, in this identity-less bundle, who can be hurt by it?
[天息災譯] 所受旣不實,彼卽知無有,若此無自身,云何如是害?
[如石藏譯] 畢竟無受者,故受非真有。誰言此幻受,能害無我聚?
因此,真實的感受者終究是不存在的,所以感受也不是真實存在。既然如此,那麼如幻的苦樂感受怎能損益這個無我的五蘊聚合體呢?
[梵文分析]
na ca asti vedakaḥ kaścid vedanā ato na tattvataḥ |
不 與  是     受者    任何       受    故 非       有
nirātmake kalāpe ’smin ka eva bādhyate ’nayā ||
   無我         聚        此  誰 實     所害        他

Ⅲ、心念處
9.103
[梵] nendriyeṣu na rūpādau nāntarāle manaḥ sthitam
nāpy antarna bahiś cittam anyatrāpi na labhyate // bca.9.103 //
[英譯] The mind is not located in the sense facilities, or in form and other sense-objects, or in between them. The mind is also not found inside, or outside, or anywhere else.
[天息災譯] 色性之自住,無根無中間,無內無外色,別處亦不得。
[如石藏譯] 意不住諸根,不住色與中,不住內或外,餘處亦不得。
心意不住在各種感官中,不住在色等外境上,也不住在根境之間;心意既不在身內,也不在身外,在其他地方也找不到心意的實體。
[梵文分析]
na indriyeṣu na rūpādau na antarāle manaḥ sthitaṃ |
不        根    不     色     不      中        意       住
na apy antar na bahiś cittam anyatra api na labhyate ||
不  雖    內   不   外      心     餘處    亦 不      得

9.104
[梵] yan na kāye na cānyatra na miśraṃ na pṛthak kvacit
tan na kiṃcid ataḥ sattvāḥ prakṛtyā parinirvṛtāḥ // bca.9.104 //
[英譯] That which is not in the body nor anywhere else, neither intermingled nor somewhere separate, is nothing. Therefore, sentient beings are by nature liberated.
[天息災譯] 身若無異處,無合無分別,有情之自性,寂靜彼無所。
[如石藏譯] 非身非異身,非合亦非離,無少實性故;有情性涅槃。
心既不是身體,也不異於身體;既不和身體混合爲一,也不另外獨立存在;因此,心意沒有絲毫的真實性;有情心識的本性是超越一切憂苦的。
[梵文分析]
yan na kāye na ca anyatra na miśraṃ na pṛthak kvacit |
 若  非   身  非 與   餘處   非     合     非    異    任何處
tan na kiṃcid ataḥ sattvāḥ prakṛtyā parinirvṛtāḥ ||
彼  無   任何    故    有情      自性       涅槃

9.105
[梵] jñeyāt pūrvaṃ yadi jñānaṃ kim ālambyāsya saṃbhavaḥ
jñeyena saha cej jñānaṃ kim ālambyāsya saṃbhavaḥ // bca.9.105 //
[英譯] If cognition is prior to the object of cognition, in dependence on what does it arise? If cognition is simultaneous with the object of cognition, in dependence on what does it arise?
[天息災譯] 智者若先知,云何而有著?智者同智故,彼生何得著?
[如石藏譯] 離境先有識,緣何而生識?識境若同時,已生何待緣?
如果離開所緣的境相就先有根識,那麼根識是緣什麼境相而生起的呢?如果說境識同時存在;既然根識已經生起,那又何必緣境相而生呢?
[梵文分析]
jñeyāt pūrvaṃ yadi jñānaṃ kim ālambya asya saṃbhavaḥ |
 所識       先     若      識      何       緣       此         生
jñeyena saha cej jñānaṃ kim ālambya asya saṃbhavaḥ ||
 所識      同   若      識     何        緣      此         生

Ⅳ、法念處
9.106
[梵] atha jñeyād bhavet paścāt tadā jñānaṃ kuto bhavet
evaṃ ca sarvadharmāṇām utpattir nāvasīyate // bca.9.106 //
[英譯] If it arises after the object of cognition, from what would cognition arise? In this way it is ascertained that no phenomenon comes into existence.
[天息災譯] 是智是後得,是智云何得?如是一切法,雖生而無得。
[如石藏譯] 識若後境起,緣何而得生?故應不能知:諸法實有生。
如果說,根識是在所緣境生成以後才有的;但是根識生時境已滅,識能緣什麼生起呢?因此我們不可能以正理推知:一切諸法的生起是真實存在的。
[梵文分析]
atha jñeyād bhavet paścāt tadā jñānaṃ kuto bhavet |
 若    所識    應是      後    則     識        何    應是
evaṃ ca sarva-dharmāṇām utpattir na avasīyate ||
 如是 與  一切       法             生    不    決定

(2)斷二諦諍
Ⅰ、斷太過諍
9.107
[梵] yady evaṃ saṃvṛtir nāsti tataḥ satyadvayaṃ kutaḥ
atha sāpy anyasaṃvṛtyā syāt sattvo nirvṛtaḥ kutaḥ // bca.9.107 //
[英譯] Objection: If conventional truth does not exist, how can there be the two truths? If it does exist due to another conventional truth, how can there be a liberated sentient being?
[天息災譯] 如是法若無,是法云何二?彼餘法若是,有情皆寂靜。
[如石藏譯] 若無世俗諦,云何有二諦?世俗若因他,有情豈涅槃?
諍:如你所說諸法無自性,那麼也就無俗諦了。如果沒有俗諦又怎能成立真俗二諦呢?再者,如果世俗有是因爲實執分別而存在,而凡夫的分別所見,一切皆是虛妄顛倒,那麼已悟空斷惑的有情又怎能現證涅槃呢?
[梵文分析]
yady evaṃ saṃvṛtir na asti tataḥ satya-dvayaṃ kutaḥ |
  若   如是     世俗   無  是    彼    諦       二        何
atha sā apy anya-saṃvṛtyā syāt sattvo nirvṛtaḥ kutaḥ ||
 則   彼 雖    他      世俗     是    有情     涅槃    何

9.108
[梵] paracittavikalpo 'sau svasaṃvṛtyā tu nāsti saḥ
sa paścān niyataḥ so 'sti na cen nāsty eva saṃvṛtiḥ // bca.9.108 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: One is an ideation of someone else's mind, and one does not exist by one's own conventional truth. After something has been ascertained, it exists; if not, it does not exist as a conventional reality either.
[天息災譯] 彼他心有疑,於自卽無有,彼定彼後有,此法無彼此。
[如石藏譯] 此由他分別,彼非自世俗。後認定則有,否則無世俗。
答:這種單由主觀實執分別所安立的實有法,根本不存在,不是我所說的世俗有。須是了悟諸法無自性以後,不更尋求,純以名言量當下決定爲有的,才是世俗有;否則像虛空花一樣,就不能成立世俗了。
[梵文分析]
para-citta-vikalpo ’sau sva-saṃvṛtyā tu nāsti saḥ |
  他    心   分別      彼   自     世俗    然  非    此
sa paścān niyataḥ so ’sti na cen nāsty eva saṃvṛtiḥ ||
此     後       定     此  是 無  若   無    實      世俗

9.109
[梵] kalpanā kalpitaṃ ceti dvayam anyonyaniśritam
yathāprasiddham āśritya vicāraḥ sarva ucyate // bca.9.109 //
[英譯] The two, conception and the conceived, are mutually dependent; just as every analysis is expressed by referring to what is commonly known.
[天息災譯] 思惟於自心,是二互相住,如得於正住,一切智者說。
[如石藏譯] 分別所分別,二者相依存。是故諸觀察,皆依世共稱。
又,能分別的名言心和所分別的境,這兩者是相互依存的,因此毫無自性。所以一切法和思想體系的建構,都依靠世間公認的名言量施設而存在。
[梵文分析]
kalpanā kalpitaṃ ca iti dvayam anyonya-niśritaṃ |
   分別    所分別  與 謂     二         相        依存
yathā prasiddham āśritya vicāraḥ sarva ucyate ||
   如         公認        依       觀察  一切   所說

Ⅱ、斷無窮過諍
9.110
[梵] vicāritena tu yadā vicāreṇa vicāryate
tadānavasthā tasyāpi vicārasya vicāraṇāt // bca.9.110 //
[英譯] Objection: But if one analyzes by means of analysis which itself is analyzed, then there is an infinite regress, because that analysis can also be analyzed.
[天息災譯] 若有諸智者,獲得於智智,智者得是智,彼卽是無位。
[如石藏譯] 以析空性心,究彼空性時,若復究空智,應成無窮過。
當我們以分析一切法無自性的理智來分析並成立諸法空性的時候,如果悟空的理智還須另外被分析爲空,那麼觀空豈不是沒完沒了嗎?
[梵文分析]
vicāritena tu yadā vicāreṇa vicāryate |
   所察     然  若        察        所察
tadā anavasthā tasya api vicārasya vicāraṇāt ||
 則      無窮       彼    雖        察          察

9.111
[梵] vicārite vicārye tu vicārasyāsti nāśrayaḥ
nirāśrayatvān nodeti tacca nirvāṇamucyate // bca.9.111 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: When the object of analysis is analyzed, no basis for analysis is left. Since there is no basis, it does not arise, and that is called "nirvana."
[天息災譯] 智者得是智,有得而無住,無住卽無生,彼說於涅槃。
[如石藏譯] 悟明所析空,理智無所依。無依故不生,說此即涅槃。
當我們悟解所分析的法是空性以後,能分析的理智便無所依存了。既無所依之境,真實的能依之心自然不生;能所不生,也就是所謂的涅槃的本然狀態。
[梵文分析]
vicārite vicārye tu vicārasya asti na āśrayaḥ |
   所察     應察  然     察        是 無    所依
nirāśrayatvān na udeti tac ca nirvāṇam ucyate ||
      無依性     不   生   此 與     涅槃      說

Ⅲ、心境諦實於理無據
9.112
[梵] yasya tv etad dvayaṃ satyaṃ sa evātyantaduḥsthitaḥ
yadi jñānavaśād artho jñānāstitve tu kā gatiḥ // bca.9.112 //
[英譯] A person for whom these two are truly existent is in an extremely shaky position. If an object exists because of the power of cognition, how does one arrive at the true existence of cognition?
[天息災譯] 若彼之二法,如是極難住,若法由於智,智者何因有?
[如石藏譯] 心境實有宗,理極難安立。若境由識成,依何立識有?
說實有宗主張:心境兩者都是實有的,這種立論很難成立。如果說,外境實存可以由根識成立;那麼憑什麼可以成立心識實有呢?自證分和其他識都不能成立,前已破故。
[梵文分析]
yasya tv etad dvayaṃ satyaṃ sa eva atyanta-duḥsthitaḥ |
   若   然   此    二         諦     彼 實      極         難立
yadi jñāna-vaśād artho jñāna-astitve tu kā gatiḥ ||
  若    識      力      境     識       有   然 何   趣

9.113
[梵] atha jñeyavaśāj jñānaṃ jñeyāstitve tu kā gatiḥ
athānyonyavaśāt sattvam abhāvaḥ syād dvayor api // bca.9.113 //
[英譯] If cognition exists because of the power of the object of cognition, how does one arrive at the true existence of cognition? If their existence is due to their mutual power, neither can exist.
[天息災譯] 是智由於知,知者無所得,二法互相由,是有情無性。
[如石藏譯] 若識由境成,依何立所知?心境相待有,二者皆非實。
如果說,識是由所知境成立的;那麼有何依據可以成立所知境爲有呢?心境是相互依賴而緣起的,所以兩者都不是真實的存在。
[梵文分析]
atha jñeya-vaśāj jñānaṃ jñeya-astitve tu kā gatiḥ |
  若   所識   力       識     所識     有    然 何  趣
atha anyonya-vaśāt sattvam abhāvaḥ syād dvayor api ||
  若     互相     力       有        無有     是       二    雖

9.114
[梵] pitā cen na vinā putrāt kutaḥ putrasya saṃbhavaḥ
putrābhāve pitā nāsti tathā sattvaṃ tayor dvayoḥ // bca.9.114 //
[英譯] Objection: If there is no father without a son, how can there be a son? Madhyamika: Just as in the absence of a son there is no father, in the same way these two do not exist.
[天息災譯] 無父定無子,欲子生何得?有父而有子,彼二法亦爾。
[如石藏譯] 無子則無父,無父誰生子?父子相待有,如是無心境。
 如果一個人沒有兒子就不能被稱爲父親,那麼沒有父親,兒子又從何而生呢?既然無子就無父,父子相待而有,那麼同樣也應該沒有真實存在的心和境。
[梵文分析]
pitā cen na vinā putrāt kutaḥ putrasya saṃbhavaḥ |
 父   若  無  無     子    從何        子         生
putra-abhāve pitā nāsti tathā asattvaṃ tayor dvayoḥ ||
  子      無       父    無  如是     無有     彼       二

9.115
[梵] aṅkuro jāyate bījād bījaṃ tenaiva sūcyate
jñeyāj jñānena jātena tatsattā kiṃ na gamyate // bca.9.115 //
[英譯] Objection: A sprout arises from a seed. The seed is indicated by that sprout. Why does cognition that arises from the object of cognition not ascertain the true existence of that object of cognition?
[天息災譯] 芽從種子生,種子得何求?知從智所生,彼實何不行?
[如石藏譯] 如芽從種生,因芽知有種。由境所生識,何不知有境?
例如真實存在的苗芽是從種子生長出來的,所以可從苗芽推知種子真實存在。同理,從所知境生出來的識,爲何不能推知有真實存在的境呢?
[梵文分析]
aṅkuro jāyate bījād bījaṃ tena eva sūcyate |
     芽     生      種     種     此   實     所知
jñeyāj jñānena jātena tatsattā kiṃ na gamyate ||
 所識      識      所生  彼實性   何  不    知

9.116
[梵] aṅkurād anyato jñānād bījam astīti gamyate
jñānāstitvaṃ kuto jñātaṃ jñeyaṃ yattena gamyate // bca.9.116 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: It is ascertained that a seed exists owing to a cognition that is not the same as a sprout. How is the existence of a cognition cognized, since the object of cognition is ascertained by that cognition?
[天息災譯] 芽從智種生,知從智芽有,若彼知不知,何得有智智?
[如石藏譯] 由彼異芽識,雖知有芽種,然心了境時,憑何知有識?
藉由異于苗芽的眼識,雖然可以看見苗芽而推知有芽種,但是,當心認識所知境時,還有什麼其他的認知者可以推知有真實存在的識呢?這一點前面已經破除過了。
[梵文分析]
aṅkurād anyato jñānād bījam asti iti gamyate |
     芽       他        識       種    是 謂     所知
jñāna-astitvaṃ kuto jñātaṃ jñeyaṃ yat tena gamyate ||
   識         有      何   所知     所識   若    此     所知

(3)成立法無我的正因
Ⅰ、金剛屑因
(Ⅰ)破無因生
9.117
[梵] lokaḥ pratyakṣatas tāvat sarvaṃ hetum udīkṣate
padman ālādibhedo hi hetubhedena jāyate // bca.9.117 //
[英譯] People observe every cause through direct perception, since the components of a lotus, such as the stalk and so forth, are produced by a variety of causes.
[天息災譯] 一切人因緣,彼前皆已說,因果所生起,等喻如蓮花。
[如石藏譯] 世人亦能見一切能生因,如蓮根莖等差別前因生。
無因生不合理。因爲世間人也能看出:一般事物的一切能生因,例如池蓮的根、莖、葉等種種差別,也是它們各自不同的前因所産生的。
[梵文分析]
lokaḥ pratyakṣatas tāvat sarvaṃ hetum udīkṣate |
 世人       現見      乃至    一切      因       見
padma-nāla-ādi-bhedo hi hetu-bhedena jāyate ||
    蓮     莖   等  差別   實  因      差別      生

9.118
[梵] kiṃ kṛto hetubhedaś cet pūrvahetuprabhedataḥ
kasmāc cet phalado hetuḥ pūrvahetuprabhāvataḥ // bca.9.118 //
[英譯] Qualm: What makes the variety of causes? Madhyamika: a preceding variety of causes. Qualm: How can a cause give an effect? Madhyamika: Because of the power of the preceding causes.
[天息災譯] 因果何由作?皆從於過去,此果云何得?由過去業力。
[如石藏譯] 誰作因差別?由昔諸異因。何故因生果?從昔因力故。
是什麼造成了因的種種差別呢?是從産生此因的前因之種種差別造成的。爲什麼因能産生果呢?因爲前因有産生後果的能力,法爾如是。
[梵文分析]
kiṃ kṛto hetu-bhedaś cet pūrva-hetu-prabhedataḥ |
 誰    作    因    差別   若    昔     因       差別
kasmāc cet phalado hetuḥ pūrva-hetu-prabhāvataḥ ||
  何故    若   與果      因     昔      因         力

(Ⅱ)破他——常因生
i、破自在天因生
9.119
[梵] īśvaro jagato hetuḥ vada kas tāvad īśvaraḥ
bhūtāni ced bhavatv evaṃ nāmamātre 'pi kiṃ śramaḥ // bca.9.119 //
[英譯] Nyaya-Vaisesika: Isvara is the cause of the world. Madhyamika: Then explain who Isvara is. If he is the elements, so be it; but then why tussle over a mere name?
[天息災譯] 世間因自在,自在彼何說?如是得後有,彼彼名何雜?
[如石藏譯] 自在天是因;何爲自在天?雖許謂大種,何必唯執名?
如果說,自在天是創造衆生的因;那麼你且說說看,什麼是自在天?雖然我可以同意他就是你所說的大種,但是你又何必執著自在天的虛名呢?
[梵文分析]
īśvaro jagato hetuḥ vada kas tāvad īśvaraḥ |
自在天 衆生    因    你說  何 乃至  自在天
bhūtāni ced bhavatv evaṃ nāma-mātre ’pi kiṃ śramaḥ ||
  大種    若     是      如是     名      唯   雖  何    努力

9.120
[梵] api tv aneke 'nityāś ca niśceṣṭā na ca devatāḥ
laṅghyāś cāśucayaś caiva kṣmādayo na sa īśvaraḥ // bca.9.120 //
[英譯] Moreover, the earth and other elements are not one; they are impermanent, inactive, and not divine. They can be stepped on and are impure. That is not Isvara.
[天息災譯] 是事唯不定,非心非賢聖,過惡無善報,彼何得自在?
[如石藏譯] 無心大種衆、非常亦非天、不淨衆所踐,定非自在天。
再者,由於地、水等大種的數目衆多、非常恒、沒有心識活動、不是天神、是被踐踏和不乾淨的事物,所以它們絕對不是常恒獨一的大自在天。
[梵文分析]
api tv aneke ’nityāś ca niśceṣṭā na ca devatāḥ |
 雖 然   多     非常   亦   不動   非 與      天
laṅghyāś ca aśucayaś ca eva kṣmā-ādayo na sa īśvaraḥ ||
  所踐踏  與    不淨    與 實     地      等   非 彼 自在天

9.121
[梵] nākāśamīśo 'ceṣṭatvāt nātmā pūrvaniṣedhataḥ
acintyasya ca kartṛtvam apy acintyaṃ kim ucyate // bca.9.121 //
[英譯] Space is not the Lord because it is inactive. Nor is it the Self, because that has been refuted. How can the inconceivable creatorship of the Inconceivable One be describes?
[天息災譯] 不見如虛空,不見自過去,自在不思議,此理不應說。
[如石藏譯] 彼天非虛空,非我前已破。若謂非思議;說彼有何義?
此外,自在天也不是虛空,更不是我;這一點前面已經破除了。如果說,自在天是不可思議的作者;那麼你們描述他豈不是白費力氣嗎?
[梵文分析]
na ākāśam īśo ’ceṣṭatvāt na ātmā pūrva-niṣedhataḥ |
非    虛空 自在     不動  非    我     前        已遮
acintyasya ca kartṛtvam apy acintyaṃ kim ucyate ||
    非思議  與    作者性   雖    非思議    何    說

9.122
[梵] tena kiṃ sraṣṭum iṣṭaṃ ca ātmā cet nanv asau dhruvaḥ
kṣmādisvabhāva īśaś ca jñānaṃ jñeyād anādi ca // bca.9.122 //
[英譯] What does he desire to create? If he desires to create a self, are not that self, the nature of the earth and other elements, and Isvara eternal? Cognition is due to the object of cognition and is without beginning.
[天息災譯] 彼主何最上,彼亦自無定,善惡各自性,智者知無邊。
[如石藏譯] 何爲所欲生?我及自在天、大種豈非常?識從所知生,
再者,自在天想創生的是什麼呢?如果說,是我、大種和後續的自在天;然而它們豈不都是常恒不變的嗎?心識,一方面從所知的境緣而生,
[梵文分析]
tena kiṃ sraṣṭum iṣṭaṃ ca ātmā cet nanv asau dhruvaḥ |
 此    何     創造   所欲 與   我   若  豈非   此      常
kṣmādi-svabhāva īśaś ca jñānaṃ jñeyād anādi ca ||
  地等        自性  自在 與    識      所識   無始 與

9.123
[梵] karmaṇaḥ sukhaduḥkhe ca vada kiṃ tena virmitam
hetor ādir na ced asti phalasyādiḥ kuto bhavet // bca.9.123 //
[英譯] Happiness and suffering are the result of action. Say then, what did he create? If the cause has no beginning, how can its effect have a beginning?
[天息災譯] 因業有苦樂,彼說何等作?先因若不有,果報誰云得?
[如石藏譯] 復緣無始業。何爲彼所生?若謂因無始;彼果豈有始?
另一方面,從無始以來的善惡業因而生。你且說說看,什麼是自在天所生的?如果說,因——自在天沒有開始;那麼他所生的果怎會有開始呢?
[梵文分析]
karmaṇaḥ sukha-duḥkhe ca vada kiṃ tena nirmitaṃ |
     業          樂       苦    與 你說   何   彼    所造
hetor ādir na ced asti phalasya ādiḥ kuto bhavet ||
  因    始  無  若   是       果       始   何     應是

9.124
[梵] kasmāt sadā na kurute na hi so 'nyam apekṣate
tenākṛto 'nyo nasty eva tenāsau kim apekṣatām // bca.9.124 //
[英譯] If he does not depend on anything else, why does he not always create? There is nothing whatsoever that is not created by him. So on what would he depend?
[天息災譯] 云何不作恒?彼無於別見,彼作旣無別,何得見彼彼?
[如石藏譯] 彼既不依他,何故不常作?若皆彼所造,則彼何所需?
既然是獨立的,不必依賴其他條件,那麼爲何自在天不永遠創造萬物呢?如果說,自在天仍需其他條件才能創生;既然一切都是他創生的,他還需要什麼呢?
[梵文分析]
kasmāt sadā na kurute na hi so ’nyam apekṣate |
  何故    常  不     作   不 實 彼     他        依
tena akṛto ’nyo nāsty eva tena asau kim apekṣatāṃ ||
 彼  非所造 他    無    實   彼    此    何      應依

9.125
[梵] apekṣate cet sāmagrīṃ hetur na punar īśvaraḥ
nākartum īśaḥ sāmagryāṃ na kartuṃ tadabhāvataḥ // bca.9.125 //
[英譯] If Isvara depends on a collection of conditions, then again, he is not the cause. He cannot refrain from creating when there is a collection of conditions, nor can he create in their absence.
[天息災譯] 若見和合因,無復云自在?此和合無主,彼法乃無主。
[如石藏譯] 若依緣聚生,生因則非彼。緣聚定緣生,不聚無生力。
如果說,他依靠因緣聚合而生萬物;那麼能生因應該是聚合的因緣,而不是他。因爲一旦因緣聚合,他就非創生不可;如果因緣不聚合,他就沒有創生的能力。
[梵文分析]
apekṣate cet sāmagrīṃ hetur na punar īśvaraḥ |
     依     若         聚       因  非   再      自在
na akartum īśaḥ sāmagryāṃ na kartuṃ tad-abhāvataḥ ||
非    不作  自在        聚       不     作     彼      無

9.126
[梵] karoty anicchann īśaś cet parāyattaḥ prasajyate
icchann apīcchāyattaḥ syāt kurvataḥ kuta īśatā // bca.9.126 //
[英譯] If Isvara creates without desiring to do so, it would follow that he is dependent on something other than himself. Even if he desires to create, he is dependent on that desire. Whence is the supremacy of the creator?
[天息災譯] 彼愛不自愛,此愛而無作,所得而由他,何云自在作?
[如石藏譯] 若非自在欲,緣生依他力。若因欲乃作,何名自在天?
如果萬物不因自在天的欲望而創生,那麼就是依其他的因緣力而生的。反之,如果是依靠他的欲望而創生,那麼自在天豈不變成無常和不自在了嗎?
[梵文分析]
karoty anicchann īśaś cet para-āyattaḥ prasajyate |
   作        非欲    自在 若   他      依          隨
icchann api icchā-āyattaḥ syāt kurvataḥ kuta īśatā ||
      欲   雖     欲      依      是        作      何  自在

ⅱ、破極微因生
(Ⅲ)破他——主體因生
9.127
[梵] ye 'pi nityān aṇūn āhus te 'pi pūrvaṃ nivāritāḥ
sāṃkhyāḥ pradhānam icchanti nityaṃ lokasya kāraṇam // bca.9.127 //
[英譯] Those who claim the atoms are permanent have been refuted earlier. The Samkhyas consider a primal substance as the permanent cause of the world.
[天息災譯] 彼不作過去,謂若恒不滅,愛此最上數,謂世間恒常。
[如石藏譯] 微塵萬法因,於前已破訖。常主衆生因,數論師所許。
勝論師說:常恒的微塵是萬法之因;這些說法前面都已經破斥過了。
認爲永恒的主體是衆生之因,那是數論師的主張。
[梵文分析]
ye ’pi nityān aṇūn āhus te ’pi pūrvaṃ nivāritāḥ |
若  雖   常    微塵   說  彼 雖      前        已遮
sāṃkhyāḥ pradhānam icchanti nityaṃ lokasya kāraṇaṃ ||
    數論         主體           欲       常        世界      因

ⅰ、敘數論見
9.128
[梵] sattvaṃ rajas tamaś ceti guṇā aviṣamasthitāḥ
pradhānam iti kathyante viṣamair jagad ucyate // bca.9.128 //
[英譯] The universal constituents-sattva, rajas, and tamas-remaining in equilibrium, are called the primal substance. The universe is explained by their dis-equilibrium.
[天息災譯] 有情塵闇蔽,住此惡功德,謂此說最上,此說世間惡。
[如石藏譯] 喜樂憂與暗,三德平衡狀,說彼爲主體;失衡變衆生。
他們說:喜、憂和暗三種原質,處於均衡狀態的時候,就是所謂的主體;而當它們彼此不諧調的時候,就會變化出衆生與萬物。
[梵文分析]
sattvaṃ rajas tamaś ca iti guṇā aviṣama-sthitāḥ |
  喜樂     憂     暗    與 謂   德     平衡       處
pradhānam iti kathyante viṣamair jagad ucyate ||
   主體       謂        說        失衡    衆生      說

ⅱ、破數論見
①辯破
9.129
[梵] ekasya trisvabhāvatvam ayuktaṃ tena nāsti tat
evaṃ guṇā na vidyante pratyekaṃ te 'pi hi tridhā // bca.9.129 //
[英譯] It is implausible that a single thing has three natures, so it does not exist. Likewise, he universal constituents do not exist, since they would each be comprised of three constituents.
[天息災譯] 一三之自性,不合而無有,是德無所有,彼各各三種。
[如石藏譯] 一體有三性,非理故彼無。如是德非有,彼復各三故。
獨一的主體具有三種不同的性質,這是不合理的;所以主體不存在。同樣地,三原質也不是真實存在,因爲一一原質也都同樣具有三種原質。
[梵文分析]
ekasya tri-svabhāvatvam ayuktaṃ tena nāsti tat |
  一      三      自性性         非理     彼     無  此
evaṃ guṇā na vidyante pratyekaṃ te ’pi hi tridhā ||
 如是   德   非       是          各      彼 復 實   三

9.130
[梵] guṇābhāve ca śabdāder astitvam atidūrataḥ
acetane ca vastrādau sukhāder apy asaṃbhavaḥ // bca.9.130 //
[英譯] In the absence of the three universal constituents, the existence of sound and other sense objects is far fetched. There is also no possibility of pleasure and the like in unconscious things such as cloth and so on.
[天息災譯] 功德雖無聲,此聲有還遠,如衣等無心,由此生快樂。
[如石藏譯] 若無此三德,杳然不聞聲。衣等無心故,亦無苦樂受。
如果沒有真實的三種原質作爲因,那麼它們所形成的聲音也杳不可得。再說,在沒有情識的衣服等物質上,也不可能有憂喜或苦樂等感受。
[梵文分析]
guṇa-abhāve ca śabda-āder astitvam atidūrataḥ |
  德      無     與    聲   等       有            極遠
acetane ca vastra-ādau sukha-āder apy asaṃbhavaḥ ||
  無心   與     衣     等     樂    等    亦        無生

9.131
[梵] taddheturūpā bhāvāś cen nanu bhāvā vicāritāḥ
sukhādy eva ca te hetuḥ na ca tasmāt paṭādayaḥ // bca.9.131 //
[英譯] If you argue that things have the nature of causes, have things not been analyzed away? For you, pleasure and the like are the cause, but cloth and the like are not the result of that cause.
[天息災譯] 色性之亦然,觀之性無有,彼等快樂因,有無若衣等。
[如石藏譯] 謂法具因性;豈非已究訖?汝因具三德,從彼不生布。
如果說,諸法都具有真實的樂等因性;然而前面不是已經釐清諸法無實了嗎?你主張因是有樂等三德的,但是,從三德也不能生出布衣等諸法。
[梵文分析]
tad dhetu-rūpā bhāvāś cen nanu bhāvā vicāritāḥ |
彼    因      色     有     若  豈非    有        所察
sukhādy eva ca te hetuḥ na ca tasmāt paṭa-ādayaḥ ||
   樂等    實  與 汝   因  不  與    故     布     等

9.132
[梵] paṭādes tu sukhādi syāt tad abhāvāt sukhādyasat
sukhādīnāṃ ca nityatvaṃ kadācin nopalabhyate // bca.9.132 //
[英譯] Happiness and other feelings may be due to things such as a cloth, but in their absence, there would be no happiness and so on. The permanence of happiness and other feelings is never ascertained.
[天息災譯] 此衣等快樂,此乃性快樂,彼等之快樂,不能得久遠。
[如石藏譯] 若布生樂等,無布則無樂;故樂等常性,畢竟不可得。
如果我們從布匹可以生出樂等三德,那麼沒有布匹就沒有樂等三德了。所以樂等三德的常恒性,完全是不存在的。
[梵文分析]
paṭādes tu sukhādi syāt tad abhāvāt sukhādy-asat |
   布等  然   樂等    是   彼      無        樂等    無
sukha-ādīnāṃ ca nityatvaṃ kadācin na upalabhyate ||
  樂        等    與       常性      任何   不      所得

9.133
[梵] satyām eva sukhavyaktau saṃvittiḥ kiṃ na gṛhyate
tad eva sūkṣmatāṃ yāti sthūlaṃ sūkṣmaṃ ca tatkatham // bca.9.133 //
[英譯] If the manifestation of happiness truly exists, why is the feeling not apprehended? If you see that it becomes subtle, how can it be gross and subtle?
[天息災譯] 彼得是微細,云何彼麤細?快樂如是實,思惟何不受?
[如石藏譯] 樂等若恒存,苦時怎無樂?若謂樂衰減;彼豈有強弱?
如果樂等三德明顯地經常存在,那麼痛苦時爲何感受不到樂呢?如果說,受苦時樂受就減弱了;然而,真實恒存的事物怎會有強弱的變化呢?
[梵文分析]
satyām eva sukha-vyaktau saṃvittiḥ kiṃ na gṛhyate |
    有     實      樂     明顯        受       何  不    所取
tad eva sūkṣmatāṃ yāti sthūlaṃ sūkṣmaṃ ca tat kathaṃ ||
彼   實       微細      趣       麤          細      與 彼  如何

9.134
[梵] sthaulyaṃ tyaktvā bhavet sūkṣmam anitye sthaulyasūkṣmate
sarvasya vastunas tadvat kiṃ nānityatvam iṣyate // bca.9.134 //
[英譯] Objection: It is subtle upon leaving its gross state. Its grossness and subtlety are impermanent. Madhyamika: Why do you not consider everything impermanent in that way?
[天息災譯] 離麤得微細,微細不久遠,一切物亦然,久遠何不得?
[如石藏譯] 捨粗而變細,彼樂應非常。如是何不許:一切法非常?
既然脫離了粗樂而變成細樂,那麼有粗細之分的樂受顯然是非常的。同理,你爲什麼不承認:一切有爲法都是非常的呢?
[梵文分析]
sthaulyaṃ tyaktvā bhavet sūkṣmam anitye sthaulya-sūkṣmate |
       粗         捨      應是         細      非常      粗           細
sarvasya vastunas tadvat kiṃ na anityatvam iṣyate ||
   一切       事物     如彼   何  不     非常性    所許

9.135
[梵] na sthaulyaṃ cet sukhād anyat sukhasyānityatā sphuṭam
nāsad utpadyate kiṃcid asattvād iti cen matam // bca.9.135 //
[英譯] If its gross state is not different from happiness, then the impermanence of happiness is obvious. If you think that something non-existent does not arise, because it has no existence whatsoever,
[天息災譯] 快樂得不麤,快樂不常定,彼無有所生,此說不眞實。
[如石藏譯] 粗既不異樂,顯然樂非常。因位須許有,無終不生故。
既然樂與粗細有關並且隨之而變化,那麼樂受顯然是非常的。如果你認爲:凡是生,必須是因位就有,因爲在因位時沒有的東西完全不能生;
[梵文分析]
na sthaulyaṃ cet sukhād anyat sukhasya anityatā sphuṭam |
不      粗        若     樂       異        樂      非常性     顯然
na asad utpadyate kiṃcid asattvād iti cen mataṃ ||
不  無          生      任何    無有性  謂  若   所思

9.136
[梵] vyaktasyāsata utpattir akāmasyāpi te sthitā
annādo 'medhyabhakṣaḥ syāt phalaṃ hetau yadi sthitam // bca.9.136 //
[英譯] then you have accepted, even against your will, the origination of something manifest that was non-existent. If you accept that the effect is present in the cause, then one who eats food would be eating excrements,
[天息災譯] 彼眞實德生,彼得無欲住,爲食不淨食,而有於因果。
[如石藏譯] 顯果雖不許,隱果仍許存。因時若有果,食成啖不淨。
生,只不過是顯現因位隱含的果性而已。雖然你不承認先無新生的顯果,但你還是主張因中存有不明顯的果。如果在因的階段就有果存在,那麼吃食物豈不成了吃糞便?
[梵文分析]
vyaktasya asata utpattir akāmasya api te sthitā |
    明顯     不有      生        無欲    雖 你   住
annādo ’medhya-bhakṣaḥ syāt phalaṃ hetau yadi sthitaṃ ||
   食         不淨         啖      成     果       因     若     住

9.137
[梵] paṭārgheṇaiva karpāsabījaṃ krītvā nivasyatām
mohāc cen nekṣate lokaḥ tattvajñasyāpi sā sthitiḥ // bca.9.137 //
[英譯] and a cotton tree seed would be bought at the price of a cloth and worn as a garment. If you argue that ordinary people do not see this because of delusion, this is the case even for one who knows reality.
[天息災譯] 愛無價之衣,買睹羅種子,不愛世間癡,彼住眞如智。
[如石藏譯] 復應以布值,購穿棉花種。謂愚不見此,然智所立言,
再說,你也應該用買布的錢去買棉花的種子來穿才對。如果說,世人愚癡,看不出種子裏有布;但從你們了知真理的祖師所說的道理,
[梵文分析]
paṭa-argheṇa eva karpāsa-bījaṃ krītvā nivasyatāṃ |
  布       值     實    棉花      種      購         應穿
mohāc cen na īkṣate lokaḥ tattva-jñasya api sā sthitiḥ ||
     愚   若  不   見     世間  真實      智   雖  彼    立

9.138
[梵] lokasyāpi ca tajjñānam asti kasmān na paśyati
lokāpramāṇatāyāṃ cet vyaktadarśanam apy asat // bca.9.138 //
[英譯] Even ordinary people know that. Why do they not see it? If you argue that ordinary people have no verifying cognition, then even their perception of something manifest is false.
[天息災譯] 彼智世間有,云何而不見?同彼世間量,若此分明見。
[如石藏譯] 世間亦應知。何故不見果?世見若非量,所見應失真。
世間人也應該知道才對呀!爲什麼他們看不出因中有果呢?如果世間人的見識不能作爲准量,那麼世人明見的現象豈非全都失真?事實上,名言量還是能相對地正確認知它的物件。
[梵文分析]
lokasya api ca taj jñānam asti kasmān na paśyati |
   世間   亦 與 彼      知    是    何故    不     見
loka-apramāṇatāyāṃ cet vyakta-darśanam apy asat ||
世間         非量         若   明顯         見       雖 不有

②中觀宗不犯同過
A.諍
9.139
[梵] pramāṇam apramāṇaṃ cen nanu tatpramitaṃ mṛṣā
tattvataḥ śūnyatā tasmād bhāvānāṃ nopapadyate // bca.9.139 //
[英譯] Samkhya: If verifying cognition is not verifying cognition, then what is not verified falsely? In reality, the emptiness of phenomena is not ascertained through that verifying cognition.
[天息災譯] 世量而非量,彼無妄言說,是故觀眞如,彼空而不生。
[如石藏譯] 若量皆非量,量果豈非假?故汝修空性,亦應成錯謬。
如果正確認知的量非實有,不能作爲准量,那麼它所量得的知識豈不都是虛假的?因此,你們依量所認知、所修習的空性,應該也是錯誤、無意義的。
[梵文分析]
pramāṇam apramāṇaṃ cen nanu tat-pramitaṃ mṛṣā |
       量           非量       若  豈非 彼      所量      妄
tattvataḥ śūnyatā tasmād bhāvānāṃ na upapadyate ||
    真實    空性       故           有      不       生

B.答
9.140
[梵] kalpitaṃ bhāvam aspṛṣṭvā tadabhāvo na gṛhyate
tasmād bhāvo mṛṣā yo hi tasyābhāvaḥ sphuṭaṃ mṛṣā // bca.9.140 //
[英譯] Madhyamika: Without detecting an imagined thing, its non-existence is not apprehended. Therefore, if a thing is false, its non-existence is clearly false.
[天息災譯] 知性之不觸,是性而無執,彼性實非實,是故非實性。
[如石藏譯] 未辨假立實,不識彼無實。所破實既假,無實定亦假。
沒錯。修習空性時,如果不能辨識無明所虛構的實有法,就不能確認彼法實有被排除後的空性。再者既然被排除的實有法是虛構的,那麼實有被遮除後所現的空性顯然也是假的。不過,空性與空觀雖假,仍具有蕩相遣執的作用。
[梵文分析]
kalpitaṃ bhāvam aspṛṣṭvā tad abhāvo na gṛhyate |
  所分別      有        未觸    彼   無有  不      知
tasmād bhāvo mṛṣā yo hi tasya abhāvaḥ sphuṭaṃ mṛṣā ||
   故        有      妄  若 實  彼      無有      明顯       妄

9.141
[梵] tasmāt svapne sute naṣṭe sa nāstīti vikalpanā
tadbhāvakalpanotpādaṃ vibadhnāti mṛṣā ca sā // bca.9.141 //
[英譯] Thus, when in a dream a son has died, the thought 'he does not exist' prevents the arising of the thought of his existence; and that too is false.
[天息災譯] 是故彼夢覺,此疑彼無有,彼性若見有,乃不實生者。
[如石藏譯] 如人夢子死,夢中知無子,能遮有子想,彼遮亦是假。
例如,有人夢見夢中所生的兒子死了,這時,夢知兒子不存在的理智,雖能消除夢執實有兒子的妄想,但是,這具有對治作用的夢中理智畢竟還是夢想。
[梵文分析]
tasmāt svapne sute naṣṭe so nāsti iti vikalpanā |
    故       夢     子     失  彼   無  謂     分別
tad-bhāva-kalpana-utpādaṃ vibadhnāti mṛṣā ca sā ||
 彼    有       分別     生起         阻礙       假  與 彼

(Ⅳ)結破四邊生
9.142
[梵] tasmād evaṃ vicāreṇa nāsti kiṃcid ahetutaḥ
na ca vyastasamas teṣu pratyayeṣu vyavasthitam // bca.9.142 //
[英譯] Therefore, with this analysis, nothing exists without a cause, nor is it contained in its individual, or combined causal conditions.
[天息災譯] 是故知彼性,無因卽無所,一切皆無主,因緣中安住。
[如石藏譯] 如是究諸法,則知非無因,亦非住各別、合集諸因緣;
像這樣分析過以後,就可以了知:諸法既不從他因生,也不是無因而生;也沒有一法真實存在於各別的緣上,或存在於有自性的各種合集緣上;
[梵文分析]
tasmād evaṃ vicāreṇa nāsti kiṃcid ahetutaḥ |
   故      如是       察      非    任何      無因
na ca vyasta-samasteṣu pratyayeṣu vyavasthitaṃ ||
非 與  各別       合集             緣            安立

Ⅱ、緣生正因
9.143
[梵] anyato nāpi cāyātaṃ na tiṣṭhati na gacchati
māyātaḥ ko viśeṣo 'sya yanmūḍhaiḥ satyataḥ kṛtam // bca.9.143 //
[英譯] Nothing comes from something else, nothing remains, and nothing departs. What is the difference between an illusion and that which is considered by fools as real?
[天息災譯] 由彼無別異,不住復不去,於實彼若迷,返爲世間勝。
[如石藏譯] 亦非由他生;非住非趨行。愚癡所執諦,何異幻化物?
更不是由因緣以外的其他事物所創生;形成後既不住留,壞滅時也不消散他去。
由於無明愚癡而被執爲真實的這些事物,和魔術師所變的幻物有何實質上的差別呢?
[梵文分析]
anyato na api ca āyātaṃ na tiṣṭhati na gacchati |
     他  非  亦 與    來     非     住   非     去
māyātaḥ ko viśeṣo ’sya yan mūḍhaiḥ satyataḥ kṛtaṃ ||
    幻      何   差別   此   若     愚癡        諦       所作

9.144
[梵] māyayā nirmitaṃ yac ca hetubhir yac ca nirmitam
āyāti tatkutaḥ kutra yāti ceti nirūpyatām // bca.9.144 //
[英譯] Examine this: As for that which is created by illusion and that which is created by causes, where do they come from and where do they go?
[天息災譯] 爲從因所生?爲從幻化作?何來彼何去?了知而若此。
[如石藏譯] 幻物及衆因所變諸事物,應詳審觀彼,何來何所之?
魔術師用幻術變現出具有真實感的幻像和因緣和合所成而有實際作用的俗諦事物,應該仔細地觀察它們,到底真實地從何而來?向何處去?
[梵文分析]
māyayā nirmitaṃ yac ca hetubhir yac ca nirmitaṃ |
     幻        所生    若  與       因    若  與    所生
āyāti tat kutaḥ kutra yāti ca iti nirūpyatām ||
  來   彼   何   何處   去  與 謂      應觀

9.145
[梵] yad anyasaṃnidhānena dṛṣṭaṃ na tad abhāvataḥ
pratibimbasame tasmin kṛtrime satyatā katham // bca.9.145 //
[英譯] How can there be true existence in something artificial, like a reflection, which is perceived only in conjunction with something else, and not in its absence?
[天息災譯] 若此而了知,乃見彼無性,云何知假實?同於影像等。
[如石藏譯] 緣合見諸物,無因則不見。虛僞如影像,彼中豈有真?
由於因緣聚合,就可以見到現象的生起;如果沒有因緣,就看不見有現象生起。所以現象都是虛僞的,就如同影像一般,那裏面怎會有真實存在的自性呢?
[梵文分析]
yad anya-saṃnidhānena dṛṣṭaṃ na tad abhāvataḥ |
 若    他          現前           見    無 彼     不有 
pratibimba-same tasmin kṛtrime satyatā kathaṃ ||
     影像       同      此      虛僞      諦性     如何

Ⅲ、破有無生正因
(Ⅰ)破生有自性
9.146
[梵] vidyamānasya bhāvasya hetunā kiṃ prayojanam
athāpy avidyamāno 'sau hetunā kiṃ prayojanam // bca.9.146 //
[英譯] For something that already exists, what need is there for a cause? If something does not exist, what is the need for a cause?
[天息災譯] 性若云自有?是因何所立?彼若是不有,彼因故不用。
[如石藏譯] 若法已成有,其因何所需?若法本來無,云何需彼因?
如果諸法已經真實存在了,那麼何必還要它的因呢?如果諸法本來就不存在,那麼縱使有因又有什麼用呢?
[梵文分析]
vidyamānasya bhāvasya hetunā kiṃ prayojanaṃ |
        存                 有        因     何      需要
atha apy avidyamāno ’sau hetunā kiṃ prayojanaṃ ||
 若   雖           無         彼    因      何          需

9.147
[梵] nābhāvasya vikāro 'sti hetukoṭiśatair api
tadavasthaḥ kathaṃ bhāvaḥ ko vānyo bhāvatāṃ gataḥ // bca.9.147 //
[英譯] Something that does not exist will not be subject to change, even with millions of causes. How can something in that state be existent. What else can come into existence?
[天息災譯] 有無之性相,因俱胝百千,彼位云何性?何得於別性?
[如石藏譯] 縱以億萬因,無不變成有。無時怎成有?成有者爲何?
縱然藉用億萬的因緣,也不能把無變成有。如果無保持原狀,怎能成爲有呢?如果無已失原狀,有什麼可轉成有呢?
[梵文分析]
na abhāvasya vikāro ’sti hetu-koṭi-śatair api |
無     不有        變成  是  因  俱胝   百    雖
tad avasthaḥ kathaṃ bhāvaḥ ko vā anyo bhāvatāṃ gataḥ ||
彼    狀態        如何      有    誰 或  他        成有      去

9.148
[梵] nābhāvakāle bhāvaś cet kadā bhāvo bhaviṣyati
nājātena hi bhāvena so 'bhāvo 'pagamiṣyati // bca.9.148 //
[英譯] If there is no existent thing at the time of non-existent, when will an existent thing come into existence? For that non-existent thing will not disappear as long as the existent thing is not produced.
[天息災譯] 彼性無性時,是性何時得?無性卽無生,當依彼性行。
[如石藏譯] 無時若無有,何時方成有?于有未生時,是猶未離無。
如果在無的狀態下沒有有,那麼何時才能成爲有呢?而且,在有尚未生成的時候,應該還沒有脫離無的狀態。
[梵文分析]
na abhāva-kāle bhāvaś cet kadā bhāvo bhaviṣyati |
無   無有    時      有     若 何時     有        將是
na ajātena hi bhāvena so ’bhāvo ’pagamiṣyati ||
無   未生  實      有    彼   無有           將離

9.149
[梵] na cānapagate 'bhāve bhāvāvasarasaṃbhavaḥ
bhāvaś cābhāvatāṃ naiti dvisvabhāvaprasaṅgataḥ // bca.9.149 //
[英譯] When a non-existent thing has not disappeared, there is no opportunity for the existent thing. An existent thing does not does not become non-existent; since it would follow that it would be of two natures.
[天息災譯] 性無過去性,而由性不生,無有性無性,喻幻化和合。
[如石藏譯] 倘若未離無,則無生有時。有亦不成無,應成二性故。
如果還沒有脫離無的狀態,就不會有有出現的時機。反之,有也不會變成無;否則,有就變成有兩種性質了。因此,生無自性。
[梵文分析]
na ca anapagate ’bhāve bhāva-avasara-saṃbhavaḥ |
無 與     未離        無      有       機會        生
bhāvaś ca abhāvatāṃ na eti dvi-svabhāva-prasaṅgataḥ ||
    有    與       無       不 去  二         性      應成

(Ⅱ)結破滅有自性
9.150
[梵] tevaṃ ca na virodho 'sti na ca bhāvo 'sti sarvadā
ajātam aniruddhaṃ ca tasmāt sarvam idaṃ jagat // bca.9.150 //
[英譯] Thus, there is neither cessation nor coming into existence at any time. Therefore, this entire world does not arise or cease.
[天息災譯] 一切有無性,有如是不滅,此一切世間,是故不生滅。
[如石藏譯] 自性不成滅,有法性亦無。是故諸衆生畢竟不生滅。
既無有自性的生,就無以自性成就的滅;而且有法也不是以自性成就的有。所以法界的一切衆生,永遠不以自性而生,也不以自性而滅。
[梵文分析]
evaṃ ca na virodho ’sti na ca bhāvo ’sti sarvadā |
 如是 與 不     滅      是 不 與   有     是    時時
ajātam aniruddhaṃ ca tasmāt sarvam idaṃ jagat ||
 不生        不滅      與  是故    一切     此    衆生

(Ⅲ)結成輪涅不二
9.151
[梵] svapnopamās tu gatayo vicāre kadalīsamāḥ
nirvṛtānirvṛtānāṃ ca viśeṣo nāsti vastutaḥ // bca.9.151 //
[英譯] States of existence are like dreams; upon analysis, they are similar to plantain trees. In reality, there is no difference between those who have attained Nirvana and those who have not.
[天息災譯] 知行空不實,喻夢喻芭蕉,分別滅不滅,一切不可得。
[如石藏譯] 衆生如夢幻,究時同芭蕉。涅槃不涅槃,其性悉無別。
衆生就像是夢境一般虛幻地存在著,一旦加以分析,又像芭蕉一樣空洞不實。因此,解脫的涅槃和憂苦的輪回,在本性上是沒有任何差別的。
[梵文分析]
svapna-upamās tu gatayo vicāre kadalī-samāḥ |
     夢      如     然   諸趣     察     芭蕉     同
nirvṛta-anirvṛtānāṃ ca viśeṣo nāsti vastutaḥ ||
  涅槃      不涅槃     與  差別   無        實

三、勤修空性利自他
(一)悟空能淨自心田
9.152
[梵] evaṃ śūnyeṣu dharmeṣu kiṃ labdhaṃ kiṃ hṛtaṃ bhavet
satkṛtaḥ paribhūto vā kena kaḥ saṃbhaviṣyati // bca.9.152 //
[英譯] When all phenomena are empty in this way, what can be gained and what can be lost? Who will be honored or despised by whom?
[天息災譯] 性空乃如是,何得而何受?不實恒若斯,彼彼云何得?
[如石藏譯] 故于諸空法,何有得與失?誰人恭敬我?誰復輕蔑我?
因此,在一切自性皆空的諸法上,有什麼東西是可以真實地得到和失去呢?有誰真實地恭敬對待我呢?或有誰真實地輕視侮辱我呢?
[梵文分析]
evaṃ śūnyeṣu dharmeṣu kiṃ labdhaṃ kiṃ hṛtaṃ bhavet |
 如是      空           法       何      得      何      失     應是
satkṛtaḥ paribhūto vā kena kaḥ saṃbhaviṣyati ||
    恭敬     輕蔑     或   誰    誰        將是

9.153
[梵] kutaḥ sukhaṃ vā duḥkhaṃ vā kiṃ priyaṃ vā kimapriyam
kā tṛṣṇā kutra sā tṛṣṇā mṛgyamāṇā svabhāvataḥ // bca.9.153 //
[英譯] Whence comes happiness or suffering? What is pleasant and what is unpleasant? When investigated in its own nature, what is craving and for what is craving?
[天息災譯] 何苦何快樂?何愛何不愛?彼愛何所愛?要當知自性。
[如石藏譯] 苦樂由何生?何足憂與喜?若於性中覓,孰爲愛所愛?
苦樂是從哪里産生的呢?有什麼值得高興或哀愁的呢?如果在諸法的真實性中尋求,誰是貪愛者?所貪愛的又是什麼呢?
[梵文分析]
kutaḥ sukhaṃ vā duḥkhaṃ vā kiṃ priyaṃ vā kim apriyam |
   何      樂      或      苦      或 何      喜     或  何     不喜
kā tṛṣṇā kutra sā tṛṣṇā mṛgyamāṇā svabhāvataḥ ||
何   貪     何  彼   貪        尋求            自性

9.154
[梵] vicāre jīvalokaḥ kaḥ ko nāmātra mariṣyati
ko bhaviṣyati ko bhūtaḥ ko bandhuḥ kasya kaḥ suhṛt // bca.9.154 //
[英譯] Upon investigation what is the world of living beings, and who will really die here? Who will come into existence, and who has come into existence, who is a relative, and who is a friend of whom?
[天息災譯] 世間亦可知,何名爲無上?何人何所親?何生而何得?
[如石藏譯] 細究此世人,誰將辭此世?孰生孰當生?孰爲親與友?
如果細加探究,這些活生生的世人,誰將在這世界上真實地死亡呢?將出生的和已出生的到底是誰?到底什麼是真實的親戚和朋友呢?
[梵文分析]
vicāre jīva-lokaḥ kaḥ ko nāma atra mariṣyati |
 細究   命   世間   誰  誰   實    此       將死
ko bhaviṣyati ko bhūtaḥ ko bandhuḥ kasya kaḥ suhṛt ||
誰      將生    誰    已生  誰      親       誰     誰    友

(二)悟空能興無緣悲
1.從輪回過患開示大悲所緣
(1)現生過患
9.155
[梵] sarvam ākāśasaṃkāśaṃ parigṛhṇantu madvidhāḥ
prakupyanti prahṛṣyanti kalahotsavahetubhiḥ // bca.9.155 //
[英譯] May those who are like me apprehend everything as being like space. They rage and rejoice by means of dispute and jubilation.
[天息災譯] 一切喻虛空,彼此受皆失,歡喜瞋相對,因喜或鬥諍。
[如石藏譯] 何不齊受持:一切似虛空?世人欲求樂,然由爭愛因,頻生煩亂喜。
既然一切諸法都像虛空一般空洞虛寂,那麼何不和我一同受持這究竟的空性見呢?
雖然人們都想在今生獲得快樂,但由於不斷地爭鬥怨敵和熱愛親友,卻頻頻産生了極端煩亂和歡喜的情緒。
[梵文分析]
sarvam ākāśa-saṃkāśaṃ parigṛhṇantu madvidhāḥ |
  一切    虛空        似          願受持           似我
prakupyanti prahṛṣyanti kalaha-utsava-hetubhiḥ ||
     激怒            歡喜      爭吵      喜        因

9.156
[梵] śokāyāsair viṣādaiś ca mithaś chedanabhedanaiḥ
yāpayanti sukṛcchreṇa pāpair ātmasukhecchavaḥ // bca.9.156 //
[英譯] Seeking their own happiness with evil deeds they live miserably with grief, troubles, despair, and cutting and stabbing each other.
[天息災譯] 瞋惱諸邪行,一切令破壞,罪惡自愛樂,是得惡趣名。
[如石藏譯] 勤求生憂苦、互諍相殺戮,造罪艱困活。
愚昧使人們盲目地追求導致憂苦的事物,並因此而與他人爭論,互相砍殺戮刺;活得這麼艱苦,卻換來了一身的罪業。
[梵文分析]
śoka-āyāsair viṣādaiś ca mithaś chedana-bhedanaiḥ |
  憂      惱        失望  與  互相        砍          刺
yāpayanti sukṛcchreṇa pāpair ātma-sukha-icchavaḥ ||
      活          極艱困       惡     己      樂       希求

(2)後世過患
9.157
[梵] mṛtāḥ patanty apāyeṣu dīrghatīvravyatheṣu ca
āgatyāgatya sugatiṃ bhūtvā bhūtvā sukhocitāḥ // bca.9.157 //
[英譯] After repeatedly entering the fortunate states of existence and becoming accustomed to pleasure again and again, they die and fall into the miserable states of existence in which there is long and intense anguish.
[天息災譯] 死卽墮惡趣,得苦而無悔,或往來天中,生生而得樂。
[如石藏譯] 雖數至善趣,頻享衆歡樂,死已墮惡趣,久歷難忍苦。
雖因往昔的福德而屢次投生人天善道,而且又在善道中頻頻享受歡樂,但死後仍須感受惡報,墮落惡趣,長久經歷難以忍受的痛苦。
[梵文分析]
mṛtāḥ patanty apāyeṣu dīrgha-tīvra-vyatheṣu ca |
 死已      墮       惡趣      久    難忍       苦     與
āgatya āgatya sugatiṃ bhūtvā bhūtvā sukha-ucitāḥ ||
   至       至      善趣        享       享       樂      喜

9.158
[梵] bhave bahuprapātaś ca tatra cāsattvam īdṛśam
tatrānyonyavirodhaś ca na bhavet tattvam īdṛśam // bca.9.158 //
[英譯] There are many pitfalls in mundane existence, but there is not this truth here. There is mutual incompatibility. Reality could not be like this.
[天息災譯] 捨於多罪崖,謂眞實如是,如是眞無性,復互相憎愛。
[如石藏譯] 三有多險地,于此易迷真,迷悟復相違,生時盡迷真;
總之,三界中充滿了墮落的危險,而且置身其中被無明所蒙蔽,很難瞭解真實性;再者,悟真解脫的反面就是執實而輪迴,而我有生之年又難以究明諸法的真實性;
[梵文分析]
bhave bahu-prapātaś ca tatra ca asattvam īdṛśam |
   有     多      險地    與  彼  與    無真      如是
tatra anyonya-virodhaś ca na bhavet tattvam īdṛśam ||
  彼     互相       違       與 無   應是     真       如是

9.159
[梵] tatra cānupamās tīvrā anantaduḥkhasāgarāḥ
tatraivam alpabalatā tatrāpy alpatvam āyuṣaḥ // bca.9.159 //
[英譯] There are incomparable, violent, boundless oceans of suffering. Strength is scanty there; and the life span is short there as well.
[天息災譯] 說彼將來惡,溺無邊苦海,色力幷壽命,彼得而唯少。
[如石藏譯] 將歷難忍苦無邊如大海。苦海善力微,壽命亦短促。
所以我將經歷的痛苦一定無法譬喻,而且就像大海一樣,無有邊際。在三界的苦海裏,我修善的能力一定很弱;在那兒,我的壽命也一定很短促。
[梵文分析]
tatra ca anupamās tīvrā ananta-duḥkha-sāgarāḥ |
 彼   與     無喻     難忍  無邊     苦         大海
tatra evam alpa-balatā tatra apy alpa-tvam āyuṣaḥ ||
 彼    如是  少     力      彼   亦      短促       壽命

(3)暇滿難得
9.160
[梵] tatrāpi jīvitārogyavyāpāraiḥ kṣutklam aśramaiḥ
nidrayopadravair bālasaṃsargair niṣphalais tathā // bca.9.160 //
[英譯] There, too, in practices for long life and health, in hunger, fatigue, and weariness, in sleep and calamities, and in unprofitable associations with fools,
[天息災譯] 雖獲於快樂,而由飢困者,眠睡災昏迷,如虛幻和合。
[如石藏譯] 汲汲爲身命,強忍饑疲苦,昏眠受他害,伴愚行無義。
爲了活命和健康而努力工作,我必須遭受饑渴和疲乏的痛苦,又需睡眠以恢復疲勞,有時還會受人傷害;甚至還要陪伴愚友去做無聊的俗事等等。
[梵文分析]
tatra api jīvita-ārogya-vyāpāraiḥ kṣut-klama-śramaiḥ |
 彼   雖    活      健康       工作     饑     疲        乏
nidraya-upadravair bāla-saṃsargair niṣphalais tathā ||
     眠       災患        愚       交往          無義     如是

9.161
[梵] vṛthaivāyur vahaty āśu vivekas tu sudurlabhaḥ
tatrāpy abhyas tavikṣepanivāraṇagatiḥ kutaḥ // bca.9.161 //
[英譯] Life passes by swiftly and in vain. Discrimination is difficult to obtain there. How could there be a way to prevent habitual distractions?
[天息災譯] 當盡彼虛幻,若此而難得,彼學何所作?何行何斷除?
[如石藏譯] 無義命速逝,觀慧極難得。此生有何法,除滅散亂習?
這無意義的一生,稍縱即逝;而觀察空性真理的智慧,卻又極難獲得。除了空慧以外,今生還有什麼方法可以斷除無始以來執實而生的散亂習氣呢?
[梵文分析]
vṛthā eva āyur vahaty āśu vivekas tu sudurlabhaḥ |
無用   實   命     逝     速     觀慧  然     極難得
tatra apy abhyasta-vikṣepa-nivāraṇa-gatiḥ kutaḥ ||
  此  雖       串習      散亂       遮       趣    從何

9.162
[梵] tatrāpi māro yatate mahāpāyaprapātane
tatrāsanmārgabāhulyād vicikitsā ca durjayā // bca.9.162 //
[英譯] There, too, Mara tries to throw them into very wretched states. There, because of the abundance of wrong paths, doubt is difficult to overcome.
[天息災譯] 彼彼諸魔事,斯爲大罪崖,於彼多正道,難勝而不行。
[如石藏譯] 今生魔亦勤,誘墮大惡趣。今生邪道多,難卻正法疑。
今生,妖魔鬼怪也正在努力,設法誘使我們墮落非常可怕的惡趣。今生,世間上充斥著顛倒惑人的邪見,因此也很難使人消除對空性正法的疑慮。
[梵文分析]
tatra api māro yatate mahā-apāya-prapātane |
  彼  雖     魔    勤       大    惡趣      令墮
tatra asan-mārga-bāhulyād vicikitsā ca durjayā ||
  彼    邪     道         多            疑    與   難勝

9.163
[梵] punaś ca kṣaṇadaurlamyaṃ buddhotpādo 'tidurlabhaḥ
kleśaugho durnivāraś cet yaho duḥkhaparamparā // bca.9.163 //
[英譯] And leisure is hard to obtain again. The appearance of a Buddha is extremely rare. The flood of mental afflictions is difficult to impede. Alas, what a succession of suffering!
[天息災譯] 復於刹那中,難得生覺悟,過去未來苦,難竭煩惱海。
[如石藏譯] 暇滿難再得,佛世難復值,惑流不易斷,嗚呼苦相續!
暇滿的人身很難失而復得;雖得人身,也很難值遇出世的佛陀;縱值佛化,要斷除煩惱的濁流也不容易;唉!痛苦將永遠不斷地跟隨著可憐的衆生。
[梵文分析]
punaś ca kṣaṇa-daurlabhyaṃ buddha-utpādo ’tidurlabhaḥ |
   再   與  暇滿      難被得         佛        出       極難得
kleśa-ogho durnivāraś ca ity aho duḥkha-paramparā ||
    惑    瀑      難遮      與 謂 嗚呼    苦       相續

(4)緣生興悲
9.164
[梵] aho batātiśocyatvam eṣāṃ duḥkhaughavartinām
ye nekṣante svadauḥsthityam evam apy atiduḥsthitāḥ // bca.9.164 //
[英譯] Ah, there should be a great pity for those adrift in the flood of suffering, who, although miserable in this way, do not recognize their wretched situation.
[天息災譯] 而於此苦海,我恨苦求離,如是此安住,若自不樂住。
[如石藏譯] 輪迴雖極苦,癡故不自覺。衆生溺苦流,鳴呼堪悲愍!
雖然輪迴是如此地痛苦不堪,但是愚癡的衆生卻毫不自覺。對於那些沈淪在痛苦洪流中的衆生,的確是應該心生悲湣而志求無上菩提啊!
[梵文分析]
aho bata atiśocyatvam eṣāṃ duḥkha-ogha-vartinām |
   鳴呼        極憂苦性    此       苦       瀑       存
ye na īkṣante sva-dauḥsthityam evam apy atiduḥsthitāḥ ||
若 不     觀     自       惡境         如是  雖      極惡境

9.165
[梵] snātvā snātvā yathā kaścid viśed vahniṃ muhur muhuḥ
svasausthityaṃ ca manyanta evam apy atiduḥsthitāḥ // bca.9.165 //
[英譯] Just like one who repeatedly immerses himself in water but must enter fire again and again, so they consider themselves fortunate, although they are extremely miserable.
[天息災譯] 如須臾須臾,入火而澡浴,見如是自利,而受於此苦。
[如石藏譯] 如人數沐浴,復數入火中,如是雖極苦,猶自引爲樂。
例如有些外道人士爲了追求解脫,竟然一再沐浴身體又一再走入火堆之中,雖然他們處在極端的痛苦之中,但是仍然自豪地引以爲樂。鳴呼哀哉!
[梵文分析]
snātvā snātvā yathā kaścid viśed vahniṃ muhur muhuḥ |
 沐浴    沐浴     如    有人    入        火       數      數
svasausthityaṃ ca manyanta evam apy atiduḥsthitāḥ ||
     自安樂        與     想        如是   雖         極苦

9.166
[梵] ajarāmaralīlānām evaṃ viharatāṃ satām
āyāsyanty āpado ghorāḥ kṛtvā maraṇam agrataḥ // bca.9.166 //
[英譯] As they live like this, pretending that they are not subject to aging and death, terrible calamities come, with death the foremost of them.
[天息災譯] 無老死自在,彼行因如是,從彼惡法來,感惡而前死。
[如石藏譯] 如是諸衆生,度日若無死。今生遭弑殺,後世墮惡趣。
此外,還有些人悠哉遊哉地過日子,彷佛就像根本沒有老死一般。這些可憐的衆生被死神處死之後,都將墮落惡趣,遭受難忍的痛苦。
[梵文分析]
ajara-amara-līlānām evaṃ viharatāṃ satāṃ |
無老   無死   偽裝     如是       住         是
āyāsyanty āpado ghorāḥ kṛtvā maraṇam agrataḥ ||
     將到    惡趣    可怖   已作       死        上

2.示無緣大悲意相
9.167
[梵] evaṃ duḥkhāgnitaptānāṃ śāntiṃ kuryām ahaṃ kadā
puṇyameghasamudbhūtaiḥ sukhopakaraṇaiḥ svakaiḥ // bca.9.167 //
[英譯] Thus, when might I bring relief to those tormented by the fire of suffering, with the requisites of happiness springing forth from the clouds of my merit?
[天息災譯] 苦火熱如是,我何時得息?自作於快樂,福雲生繚繞。
[如石藏譯] 自集福德雲,何時方能降,利生安樂雨,爲衆息苦火?
要到什麼時候,我才能從自己所修集的福德雲中,飄降下廣大無邊的安樂甘霖,消除衆生飽受三界苦火燃燒的折磨?
[梵文分析]
evaṃ duḥkha-agni-taptānāṃ śāntiṃ kuryām ahaṃ kadā |
  如是    苦      火     所折磨    寂滅    我作     我    何時
puṇya-megha-samudbhūtaiḥ sukha-upakaraṇaiḥ svakaiḥ ||
   福       雲           已生           樂          協助          自

9.168
[梵] kadopalambhadṛṣṭibhyo deśayiṣyāmi śūnyatām
saṃvṛtyānupalambhena puṇyasaṃbhāramādarāt // bca.9.168 //
[英譯] When shall I respectfully teach emptiness and the accumulation of merit-in terms of conventional truth and without reification-to those whose views are reified?
[天息災譯] 以我何見知,而說知慧空,稽首具足知,稽首福德重。
[如石藏譯] 何時心無緣,誠敬集福德,于執有衆生,開示空性理?
什麼時候我才能心無所緣,意現明空,隨緣虔敬地修集清淨的福德資糧,並對心有所緣而受苦的芸芸衆生,開示諸法緣生無自性的空理?
[梵文分析]
kadā upalambha-dṛṣṭibhyo deśayiṣyāmi śūnyatām |
何時      執著          見            我將說        空性
saṃvṛtyā anupalambhena puṇya-saṃbhāram ādarāt ||
  世俗諦          無執            福         資糧        敬

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