2012年11月16日 星期五

法集要頌經善友品第二十五

25. mitra善友品
1.
[] aśrāddhebhiḥ kadaryebhiḥ piunair vibhūti nandibhiḥ |
sākhyaṃ kurvīta na prājñaḥ saṃgatiḥ pāpair hi pāpikā ||
[] The wise man should not know him who is without faith, who is avaricious, who stirs up strife, and who slanders ; he should not associate with the wicked.
[] 無信懷憎嫉,鬪亂彼此人,智者所棄嫌,愚習以為樂。
[梵文分析]
aśrāddhebhiḥ kadaryebhiḥ piunair vibhūti nandibhiḥ |
無信 吝嗇 ? ? ?
sākhyaṃ kurvīta na prājñaḥ saṃgatiḥ pāpair hi pāpikā ||
友 作 不 智 合 惡 實 惡者
[出曜經] 無信懷憎嫉,鬥亂彼此人,智者所屏棄,愚習以為樂。
無信懷憎嫉,鬥亂彼此人者,夫人在世信心不固,亦復不信佛法聖眾、真如四諦苦習盡道,積財至天猶不可恃怙,捨壽之日財不自隨,皆由今身不惠施故不造功德,畢故不造新。猶如有鳥素貪肉食,山樹有葉其像肉色,晝夜伺捕延頸仰望,在樹像肉墮即為葉,迷惑所纏不自覺寤,如是不息喪命於彼。所以然者?皆由貪心不自改更故。此間聞語傳至於彼,設從彼聞復傳於此,鬥亂彼此使不成就,意中興嫉轉生塵垢,是故說曰:無信懷憎嫉,鬥亂彼此人也。
智者所屏棄者,智人知禮節避嫌遠疑,不處惑亂之中,彈指之頃不與從事,況當至竟與共遊乎?所謂智者,明古知今博通眾事,防慮未然所行不左,心口相應言無有失,分別深義意不倒錯,從一句義演布無數,愚者所惑,是故說曰:智者所屏棄也。
愚習以為樂者,設復有人,善心勸諫誘進童蒙,訓之以道使見道門,不從其教反更疑惑,以地獄為堂室,不慮後世殃禍之根,教行惡業不從善教,轉復墮落地獄餓鬼畜生之中,是故說曰:愚習以為樂。

2.
[] śrāddhebhiḥ peśalebhiś ca śīlavadbhir bahu śrutaiḥ |
sākhyaṃ kurvīta saprajñaḥ saṃgatir bhadrair hi bhadrikā ||
[] The wise man should have as his friends those who have faith, who speak pleasingly, who are attentive, virtuous, and wise; he should associate with the best of men.
[] 有信無憎嫉,精進信多聞,智者所敬待,賢聖以為樂。
[梵文分析]
śrāddhebhiḥ peśalebhiś ca śīlavadbhir bahu śrutaiḥ |
信 柔和 與 有戒 多 聞
sākhyaṃ kurvīta saprajñaḥ saṃgatir bhadrair hi bhadrikā ||
友 作 有智 合 賢 實 賢者
有信及柔和,有戒且多聞,智者應親近,賢與賢者合。
[出曜經] 有信無憎嫉,精進信多聞,智者所敬待,賢聖以為樂。
有信無憎嫉者,如復有人篤信佛法聖眾,至意信解苦習盡道,不懷諛諂心意柔軟,承事敬待諸梵行人,晝則懃受夜則經行,孜孜汲汲不失威儀,和顏悅色先笑後言不傷人意,是故說曰:有信無憎嫉也。
精進信多聞者,人之修行精進為上,況復廣學採取多聞,戒聞施慧廣布一切,安處無為寧處道場,以己所見演示前人,是故說曰:精進信多聞也。
智者所敬待者,常當親近承受不及,戒身不具足者令使具足,定身慧身見身見解脫身不具足者令使具足,是故說曰:智者所敬待。
賢聖以為樂者,夫人修行追賢逐聖不辭寒苦,正使遭遇七千億難能捨身命,雖遭斯苦不分其意,是故說曰:賢聖以為樂。

3. cf.dhp078
[] na bhajet pāpakaṃ mitraṃ na bhajet puruṣādhamam |
bhajeta mitraṃ kalyāṇaṃ bhajed uttamapūruṣam ||
[] Do not keep sinful persons as associates, stay not with the wicked ; keep virtuous friends, stay with righteous men. If one associates with such as these, he becomes not sinful, but righteous.
[] 不親惡知識,不與非法會,親近善知識,恒與正法會。
[梵文分析]
na bhajet pāpakaṃ mitraṃ na bhajet puruṣa-adhamam |
不 親 惡 友 不 親 人 非法
bhajeta mitraṃ kalyāṇaṃ bhajed uttamapūruṣam ||
應親 友 善 親 上 人
莫與惡友交,莫友卑鄙者。應與善友交,應友高尚士。
[出曜經] 不親惡知識,不與非法會,親近善知識,恒與正法會。
不親惡知識者,彼修行人遭惡知識者日增惡行,墮入地獄餓鬼畜生,正使行清意潔隨惡染其素,由若有人愛犬豬羊心不遠離,豬犬隨逐亦不相離,豬犬所樂糞除為上,廁溷為浴池共相染污,親惡知識者亦復如是,共相追逐終以無善。是故說曰:不親惡知識也。
不與非法會者,非法人者五無救罪,無戒無信無聞無慧無施,如此之人不可親近,其有追逐以為伴者,墮入惡趣不至善處,是故說曰:不與非法會也。
親近善知識者,學有日新出言柔和心意相應,設有之造不傷人意,先笑後言文句相應,是故說曰:親近善知識。
恒與正法會者,所謂正法會,佛辟支佛聲聞是也,更無眾生出於佛者,除佛以更無眾生出於辟支佛者,除佛辟支佛更無眾生出於聲聞者,其有信心向此三者,得至究竟,不墜三塗厄難之處,是故說曰:恒與正法會也。

4.
[] addhā narāḥ sevitavyāḥ śrutāḍhyāḥ sthānacintakāḥ |
teṣāṃ hi śrutvā tu subhāṣitāni vināpi tebhyo labhate viśeṣam ||
[] Associate with them who have listened much, retained much, who reflect, who have faith and wisdom ; if one but hearken here to the pleasing words (of these men), he will attain that which surpasses everything.
[] 行路念防慮,持戒多聞人,思慮無量境,聞彼善言教。各各知差別。
[梵文分析]
addhā narāḥ sevitavyāḥ śruta-āḍhyāḥ sthāna-cintakāḥ |
實 人 應近 聞 富 處 思
teṣāṃ hi śrutvā tu subhāṣitāni vinā api tebhyo labhate viśeṣam ||
彼 實 聞 然 善所說 無 彼 得 殊勝
實應親近多聞、於處能思量的人,聞彼所善說,離彼得殊勝。
[出曜經] 行路念防慮,持戒多聞人,思慮無量境,聞彼善言教,各各知差別。
行路念防慮者,群徒在途出言防慮,曠野之中多諸鬼神,若論惡語神即得便,論說善者鬼神營護,所至到處不遇惡人,亦復不逢劫盜人者,是故說曰:行路念防慮。
持戒多聞人,受佛言教不去心首,如佛所說,告諸比丘當修三昧正受定意,若行若坐無令違失,便為諸天鬼神所見營護。所以然者?皆由承受正佛言教。是故說曰:持戒多聞人也。
思慮無量境者,晝夜思慮坐禪誦經戒聞施慧,是故說曰:思慮無量境也。
聞彼善言教,各各知差別,如彼學人聞彼善教,意不錯亂文句相應,便成道果,須陀洹果、斯陀含果、阿那含果、阿羅漢果,增益善根至無為道,是故說曰:聞彼善言教,各各知差別。

5.
[] hīyati puruṣo nihīnasevī na tu khalu hāyeta tulyasevī |
śreṣṭham upagato hy upaiti śraiṣṭhyaṃ tasmāt śreṣṭham ihātmano bhajeta ||
[] He who associates with what is low is contaminated by (their) sinfulness ; he who associates with what is entirely fallen is held down to earth ; associating with what is best brings one to righteousness. Keep then to those who will raise you to excellence.
[] 近惡自陷溺,習善致名稱,妙者恒自妙,此由身真正。
[梵文分析]
hīyati puruṣo nihīnasevī na tu khalu hāyeta tulyasevī |
退失 人 近下劣 不 然 實 能退 近相等
śreṣṭham upagato hy upaiti śraiṣṭhyaṃ tasmāt śreṣṭham iha ātmano bhajeta ||
勝 親近 實 趣 勝 故 勝 此 己 親
接近下劣者會退失,但是親近等己者不會,親近勝己者能趣於勝,所以應親近勝己者。
[出曜經] 近惡自陷溺,習善致名稱,妙者恒自妙,此由身真正。
近惡自陷溺者,如復有人親近惡友,但有日損不至究竟,猶若半月日有闇冥無有大明,親近惡友亦復如是,日損善根增益惡法,是故說曰:近惡自陷溺也。
習善致名稱者,勝人所習日有名稱,猶如月欲盛滿日有光明遠照無外,修善之人亦復如是,善名廣著名稱遠布,是故說曰:習善致名稱也。
妙者恒自妙,所行專正修無上道,猶如須陀洹家仰修斯陀含道,斯陀含家仰修阿那含道,阿那含家仰修阿羅漢道,阿羅漢家轉自增益諸善功德,是故說曰:妙者恒自妙也。
此由身真正者,當求巧便求諸功德瓔珞其身,意中欲得名稱廣布者,欲得諸天世人敬待,當自謹慎不與塵勞懷來道故,是故說曰:此由身真正也。

6.
[] śreyo hi labhate nityaṃ yaḥ śreṣṭhān upasevate |
prajñayā cottamatamān śīlenopaśamena ca ||
[] If one associates with those best of men who are virtuous, dispassionate, who have the best of knowledge, though one be good, one will arrive at still greater excellence.
[] 善者終以善,斯由親近善,智慧為最上,持戒永寂滅。
[梵文分析]
śreyo hi labhate nityaṃ yaḥ śreṣṭhān upasevate |
較好 實 得 常 若 最勝 近
prajñayā ca uttamatamān śīlena upaśamena ca ||
智 與 最好 戒 寂靜 與
若親近諸最勝者,此人擁有智、戒、寂靜,(自己)能得實較好。
[出曜經] 善者終以善,斯由親近善,智慧為最上,禁戒永寂滅。
善者終以善,斯由親近善者,智人求於智,以成其聖道,猶如紫磨真金內外清徹,造作器皿無不成就;智者亦爾,賢聖相習留教在世永世不朽,是故說曰:善者終以善,斯由親近善也。
智慧為最上,禁戒永寂滅者,夫人習行先當求上人之法,是故說曰:智慧為最上,禁戒永寂滅者也。

7.
[] pūtimatsyān kuśāgreṇa yo naro hy upanahyate |
kuśā api pūtikā vānti hy evaṃ pāpopasevanāḥ ||
[] It is with him who associates with the sinful as with the sweet kusa grass in which a man wrapped up some decayed fish ; the kusa also became decayed.
[] 如魚湊臭爛,人貪競取之,意者不覺臭,習惡亦如是。
[梵文分析]
pūtimatsyān kuśa-agreṇa yo naro hy upanahyate |
腐魚 孤沙草端 若 人 實 綁
kuśā api pūtikā vānti hy evaṃ pāpa-upasevanāḥ ||
孤沙 連 腐 發出 實 如是 惡 近
若人以孤沙草端綁腐爛的魚,連孤沙草也發出腐爛的味道,親近惡人亦如是。
[出曜經] 如魚湍聚湊,人之貪著取,意著不覺臭,習惡亦如是。
如魚湍聚湊,人之貪著取者,猶如群魚集聚一處穢污難近,人意貪著不顧臭穢,愚人執意謂為甘美,不知久久不便於身,臭氣流溢布見於外;習惡之人亦復如是,與親近者即成其惡,損減善根增益惡部,是故說曰:如魚湍聚湊,人之貪著取,意著不覺臭,習惡亦如是也。

8.
[] tagaraṃ palāśapattreṇa yo naro hy upanahyati |
pattrāṇy api sugandhīni sad evaṃ saṃgamāt satām ||
[] It is with him who associates with the virtuous as with the palasa leaves in which a man wrapped up some incense (tagara) ; the leaves also became scented.
[] 多誐波羅葉,眾生往採取,葉薰香遠布,習善亦如是。
[梵文分析]
tagaraṃ palāśapattreṇa yo naro hy upanahyati |
多伽羅香 波羅伽葉 若 人 實 綁
pattrāṇy api sugandhīni sad evaṃ saṃgamāt satām ||
葉 連 好香 存有 如是 交往 好
若人以波羅伽葉綁多伽羅香,連葉子也有好的香味,親近好人亦如是。
[出曜經] 木榓葵霍葉,眾生往採取,葉薰香遠布,習善亦如是。
木榓霍葵葉,眾生往採取者,如有善察之人往採其香,雖不得根而獲香葉香氣苾芬,正使捨彼故處猶香;善知識從事者亦復如是,成人之德功德日積,是故說曰:木榓葵霍葉,眾生往採取,葉薰香遠布,習善亦如是也。

9.
[] akurvann api pāpāni kurvāṇam upasevate |
śaṅkito bhavati pāpasyāvarṇaś cāsya vardhate ||
[] If those who are not wicked associate with the wicked, there arises an inclination to do evil, which will grow into open acts of wickedness : by associating with those with whom one ought not to associate, one becomes sinful through their sinfulness.
[] 親近惡知識,罪垢日夜增,如猪身不淨,自污兼污他。
己自不習惡,親近習惡者,為人所輕笑,惡名日夜熾。
[梵文分析]
akurvann api pāpāni kurvāṇam upasevate |
不作 雖 惡 作 親
śaṅkito bhavati pāpasya avarṇaś ca asya vardhate ||
疑 是 惡 誹謗 與 彼 增
己雖不作惡,親近習惡者,人疑其為惡,彼之誹謗增。
[出曜經] 已自不習惡,親近習惡者,為人所誣笑,惡名日增熾。
已自不習惡,親近習惡者,世多有人不行惡事婬[*]盜竊,性不飲酒、不博弈戲樂,然彼眾生或在酤酒家坐,或入婬種村中,或在博弈家坐,為主人所見,謂為斯人習此非法興猶豫想:「此人先自貞潔清淨,今日何為習此非法?」惡聲遂顯流聞四遠,百千眾生共相告語,誹謗之名從是日滋。是故說曰:已自不習惡,親近習惡者,為人所誣笑,惡名日增熾也。

10.
[] saṃsevamānaḥ pāpo hi saṃspṛṣṭaḥ saṃspṛśet parān |
śaro liptaḥ kalāpasthān aliptān upalimpati |
upalepabhayād dhīro naiva pāpasakhā bhavet ||
[] As when an arrow has been dipped in poison, even where the poison has not come in contact with it, it is poisonous, so are those who are clothed in sin, that source of terror : keep not wicked friends.
[] 觀習而習之,知近而親近,毒箭在其束,淨者被其污,勇夫能除污,去惡不為伴。
[梵文分析]
saṃsevamānaḥ pāpo hi saṃspṛṣṭaḥ saṃspṛśet parān |
正親近 惡 實 所觸 能觸 別
śaro liptaḥ kalāpasthān aliptān upalimpati |
箭 塗 成束 未塗 塗
upalepa-bhayād dhīro na eva pāpasakhā bhavet ||
塗 怖 智 不 實 惡友 是
親近污惡者,能觸污他人,毒箭在其束,淨者被其污,智者因怖污,不與惡為伴。
[出曜經]
觀習而習之,知近而親近,毒箭在其束,淨者被其污,勇夫能除污,去惡不為伴。
觀習而習之,知近而親近者,世多有人未在道撿,意不堅固與惡從事,不被教訓見物而習,見惡習惡見善習善,以己所見示見於人,身自不正焉能正人?猶如毒箭污染餘者,己身行惡教人習之,智者觀察此已終不行其惡,是故說曰:觀習而習之,知近而親近,毒箭在其束,淨者被其污,勇夫能除污,去惡不為伴也。

11.
[] yādṛśaṃ kurute mitraṃ yādṛśaṃ ca_upasevate |
na cirāt tādṛśo bhavati saṃsevā hy asya tādṛśī ||
[] As are one's associates, as is what one holds fast to, so will one become in a short while: examine well, then, whom you associate with, as you would a basket of fruit.
[梵文分析]
yādṛśaṃ kurute mitraṃ yādṛśaṃ ca upasevate |
如 作 友 如 與 親近
na cirāt tādṛśo bhavati saṃsevā hy asya tādṛśī ||
不 久 亦然 是 親近 實 彼 相似
如其所交友,如其所親近,不久彼亦然,與彼近者同。

12.
[] tasmāt phalapuṭasyaiva dṛṣṭvā sampākaṃ ātmanaḥ |
asanto nopaseveta santaḥ seveta paṇḍitaḥ ||
[] Not associating with the unrighteous, the wise man associates with the righteous ; by following this road the Bhixu " will find the end of misery.
[] 是故知果報,智人悉分別,非親慎莫習,習當近於賢,苾芻修行道,忍苦盡諸漏。
[梵文分析]
tasmāt phalapuṭasya eva dṛṣṭvā sampākaṃ ātmanaḥ |
故 果藍 實 見已 熟 自
asanto na upaseveta santaḥ seveta paṇḍitaḥ ||
不正 不 應親 正 應親 智者
是故已知自己果報,智者不應親近非賢,應親近賢者。
[出曜經]
是故知果報,智人悉分別,非親慎莫習,習當近於賢,比丘行於道,忍苦盡諸漏。
是故知果報,智人悉分別者,眾生造行果報不同,或舋輕而藥妙,或罪重而易療,唯有覺者能消滅耳;智人所習自審明矣,設有愆咎即能誨過,猶馬蹶躓加之杖策然後調伏,智人習行亦復如是,尋隙所生自悔不及,是故說曰:聖人知果報,智者悉分別也。
非親慎莫習,習當近於賢者,所謂非親,所行非義,口吐言教終無善響,布毒於人以為快樂。其有眾生翫習此者,便為長夜流轉生死受惱無量,神識倒錯心意煩熱。所謂賢者,包識眾事萬機不惑,為人師範辯才無礙,以己明慧演示眾生,其聞音者斯蒙度脫。是故說曰:非親慎莫習,習當近於賢也。
比丘行於道,忍苦盡諸漏者,行人執意眾業備具,賢聖八品如來聖道,諸佛世尊常所修行,復以賢聖苦忍之法,盡諸有漏成乎無漏。是故說曰:比丘行道,忍苦盡諸漏也。

13. cf.dhp064
[] yāvajjīvaṃ pi ced bālaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
na sa dharmaṃ vijānāti darvī sūparasān iva ||
[] If a fool for the whole of his life be associated with a wise man, he will no more perceive the law than does a spoon the taste of soup.
[] 愚人盡形壽,承事明智人,亦不知真法,如杓斟酌食。
[梵文分析]
yāvajjīvaṃ pi ced bālaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
盡形壽 若 愚 智 親近
na sa dharmaṃ vijānāti darvī sūparasān iva ||
不 彼 法 知 杓 湯味 如
愚人盡形壽,承事明智人,彼不能知法,如杓嚐湯味。
[出曜經] 愚者盡形壽,承事明智人,亦不知真法,如瓢斟酌食。
愚者處世雖受百年與智者同俱,然意曚曚不別真法,是以聖人以瓢為喻,終日酌物不知鹹酢,喻彼愚者雖遇賢聖,意迷心惑不達正教,寄生於世無益於時。是故說曰:愚者盡形壽,承事明智人,亦不知真法,如瓢斟酌食。

14. cf.dhp065
[] muhūrtam api saprajñaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
sa vai dharmaṃ vijānāti jihvā sūparasān iva ||
[] If an intelligent man be associated for an instant with a wise man, he will perceive the law as does the tongue the taste of soup.
[] 智若須臾間,承事賢聖人,一一知真法,如舌了眾味。
[梵文分析]
muhūrtam api saprajñaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
須臾 連 有智 智 親近
sa vai dharmaṃ vijānāti jihvā sūparasān iva ||
彼 實 法 知 舌 湯味 如
智者須臾間,承事賢聖人,彼實能知法,如舌知湯味。
[出曜經] 智者斯須間,承事賢聖人,一一知真法,如舌知眾味。
智人所學意志捷疾,聞一知萬豫達未然,隨時之行亦不錯謬,悉能分別亦無滯礙,猶舌嘗味,甜酢鹹淡悉能知之;學人所習究暢本末別白黑法,知病所興知病所滅,斯非顛倒斯是顛倒,皆能別了投之聖藥,是故說曰:智者斯須間,承事賢聖人,一一知真法,如舌知眾味也。略說其事,彼不解慧愚人所習,唯有智者能究其事,彼無眼目,所謂愚者是也;眼目者,賢聖眼目是也,唯有智者而有此耳。彼不知真法,三耶三佛說,所謂不知真法者,愚者是也。

15.
[] yāvajjīvaṃ pi ced bālaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
na sa dharmaṃ vijānāti prajñā hy asya na vidyate ||
[] If a fool for the whole of his life be associated with a wise mail, as he has no eyes he will not perceive the law.
[梵文分析]
yāvajjīvaṃ pi ced bālaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
盡形壽 若 愚 智 親近
na sa dharmaṃ vijānāti prajñā hy asya na vidyate ||
不 彼 法 知 智 實 彼 無 有
愚人盡形壽,承事明智人,彼不能知法,彼實無有智。

16.
[] muhūrtam api saprajñaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
sa vai dharmaṃ vijānāti prajñā tasya hi vidyate ||
[] If an intelligent man be only for an instant associated with a wise man, he, having eyes, will perceive the law.
[梵文分析]
muhūrtam api saprajñaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
須臾 連 有智 智 親近
sa vai dharmaṃ vijānāti prajñā tasya hi vidyate ||
彼 實 法 知 智 彼 實 有
智者須臾間,承事賢聖人,彼實能知法,彼實能有智。

17.
[] yāvajjīvaṃ pi cet bālaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
na sa dharmaṃ vijānāti samyaksambuddhadeśitam ||
[] If a fool for the whole of his life be associated with a wise man, he will not understand the law taught by the perfect Buddha.
[梵文分析]
yāvajjīvaṃ pi cet bālaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
盡形壽 若 愚 智 親近
na sa dharmaṃ vijānāti samyaksambuddhadeśitam ||
不 彼 法 知 正等覺所教
愚人盡形壽,承事明智人,彼不能知正等覺所教法。

18.
[] muhūrtam api saprajñaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
sa vai dharmaṃ vijānāti samyaksambuddhadeśitam ||
[] If an intelligent man be only associated for an instant with a wise man, he will understand the law taught by the perfect Buddha.
[梵文分析]
muhūrtam api saprajñaḥ paṇḍitān paryupāsate |
須臾 連 有智 智 親近
sa vai dharmaṃ vijānāti samyaksambuddhadeśitam ||
彼 實 法 知 正等覺所教
智者須臾間,承事賢聖人,彼能知正等覺所教法。

19.
[] ekam arthapadaṃ proktaṃ paṇḍitasyārthakārakam |
bālasya tu na kṛtyāya syāt sarvaṃ buddhabhāṣitam ||
[] A single significant word suffices for he who is wise; all the teaching of the Buddha would not suffice for the fool.
[] 一句義成就,智者所修學,愚者好遠離,真佛之所說。
[梵文分析]
ekam arthapadaṃ proktaṃ paṇḍitasya arthakārakam |
一 義句 所說 智 能作義
bālasya tu na kṛtyāya syāt sarvaṃ buddhabhāṣitam ||
愚 然 不 作 是 一切 佛所說
對智者而言,佛所說的一句有意義的話,就能得其利益。然而,對愚者而言,佛所說的一切教說不能令其得益。
[出曜經] 一句義成就,智者所修學,愚者好遠離,真佛之所說。
昔有比丘往至佛所,前白佛言:「唯然世尊大慈垂愍,開悟未及,願為說法應適人意,我聞法已心意開悟得蒙度脫。」爾時世尊略說其義,告比丘曰:「非汝則捨。」比丘白佛:「我以知矣。」佛告比丘:「我義云何汝以知乎?」比丘白佛:「色非我有,我以捨矣。」佛言:「善哉!如汝所說。」是故說曰:一句義成就,智者所修學也。
愚者好遠離,真佛之所說,聖人處世教誡眾生平等大道,愚者意迷神識難革,或見如來而掩目者,或聞說法而塞耳者,或見如來行跡輪相在地而蹋壞者,斯等之類罪垢深固難可改更。過去恒沙諸佛世尊,終訖說法於無餘境,然眾生類執愚積久,甘露滋降不睹不聞,捨形受形輪轉生死無有出期,斯由愚惑無明所纏故也。

20.
[] bālaḥ padasahasreṇa padam ekaṃ na budhyate |
padenaikena medhāvī padānāṃ vindate śatam ||
[] He who is intelligent will with one word know a hundred ; the fool with a thousand words will not know a single one.
[] 智者尋一句,演出無量義,愚者誦千句,不解一句義。
[梵文分析]
bālaḥ padasahasreṇa padam ekaṃ na budhyate |
愚 千句 句 一 不 覺
padena ekena medhāvī padānāṃ vindate śatam ||
句 一 智者 句 知 百
智者以一句,能知無量義,愚者誦千句,不解一句義。
[出曜經] 智者尋一句,演出百種義,愚者誦千句,不解一句義。
智者尋一句,演出百種義者,智者執意明達道術,禪燕不亂練精神識,永無塵垢四辯具了,問一句之義達百千之章,是故說曰:智者尋一句,演出百千義也。
愚者誦千句,不解一句義者,愚者意迷,從冥至冥不睹大明,雖誦千章不解一義,是以智人常當遠之不與從事,是故說曰:愚者誦千句,不解一句義也。

21.
[] amitraḥ paṇḍitaḥ śreyān na tu bālo ’nukampakaḥ |
bālo ’nukampamāno hi narakān upakarṣati ||
[] The wise man cares not for fools, he makes not his friends of fools ; for he who is fond of the society of fools is led down to hell.
[] 怨憎有智勝,不隨親友義,愚者訓非道,漸趣地獄徑。
[梵文分析]
amitraḥ paṇḍitaḥ śreyān na tu bālo ’nukampakaḥ |
非親 智 勝 不 然 愚 悲憫的
bālo ’nukampamāno hi narakān upakarṣati ||
愚 悲憫 實 地獄 拉向
怨敵有智慧,勝於有悲憫心的愚者,因為有悲憫心的愚者會將(我們)拉向地獄。
[出曜經] 怨憎有智勝,不隨親友義,愚者訓非道,漸趣地獄徑。
怨憎有智勝者,怨憎之人自知隙咎,本性明達防慮未然,恒自思惟:「設我今日行非法者,便自陷溺不毀彼人也,如有怨讎眾多,思欲報怨力所不至,知當如何?不如行慈乃可得勝。」是故說曰:怨憎有智勝也。
不隨親友義者,親友之人心意款到,意之所好教授前人與共同歡,惡則同惡好則同好,後受報對入地獄中,是故說曰:不隨親友義,愚者訓非道,漸趣地獄徑。

22. cf.dhp063
[] yo jānīyād ahaṃ bāla iti bālaḥ sa paṇḍitaḥ |
bālaḥ paṇḍitamānī tu bāla eva nirucyate ||
[] If a fool says, " I am a fool," he is wise in that knowledge; but the fool who thinks himself a wise man, he is called "a fool" (indeed).
[] 愚者自稱愚,當知善黠慧,愚人自稱智,是謂愚中甚。
[梵文分析]
yo jānīyād ahaṃ bāla iti bālaḥ sa paṇḍitaḥ |
若 知 我 愚 愚 彼 智
bālaḥ paṇḍita-mānī tu bāla eva nirucyate ||
愚 智 認為 然 愚 實 稱為
愚者自稱愚,當知善黠慧,愚人自稱智,是謂愚中甚。
[出曜經] 愚者自稱愚,當知善黠慧,愚人自稱智,是謂愚中甚。
愚者自稱愚,當知善黠慧者,愚自思惟悔本不及,我本所行實為非法,種諸罪根開地獄門,塞泥洹路,晝夜懇責,我今處世眾結自纏塵垢污染,捨身受身輪轉生死不離三有,便自悔責追師逐侶,漸漸得至無為之處。是故說曰:愚者自稱愚,當知善黠慧也。
愚人自稱智,是謂愚中甚者,愚人生世恒自歎譽,我為尊貴餘者不如,不達今世後世殃舋之罪,我所知見世之希有,自揚其名抑彼之德,不知生死之難,修凡夫行,是故說曰:愚人自稱智,是謂愚中甚。

23.
[] yac ca bālaḥ praśaṃseta yac ca nindeta paṇḍitaḥ |
nindā tu paṇḍitāt śreṣṭhā na tu bālāt praśaṃsanā ||
[] When the fool doth praise and when the wise man doth scorn; the scorn of the wise man is just, but improper is the praise of the fool.
[] 若復歎譽愚,毀訾智者身,毀智猶有勝,歎愚不為上。
[梵文分析]
yac ca bālaḥ praśaṃseta yac ca nindeta paṇḍitaḥ |
若 與 愚 讚 若 與 責 智
nindā tu paṇḍitāt śreṣṭhā na tu bālāt praśaṃsanā ||
責 然 智 勝 不 然 愚 讚
若為愚者讚,若為智者責,為智所責罵,猶勝愚者讚。
[出曜經] 若復歎譽愚,毀呰智者身,毀智猶有勝,歎愚不為上。
若復歎譽愚者,愚者所習見物歎譽,不別尊卑善惡之行,所可歎者反更毀呰,是故說曰:若復歎譽愚也。
毀呰智者身者,雖被誹謗不以憂慼,自知果報緣對所至,是故說曰:毀呰智者身猶有勝也。
歎愚不為上者,
眾生處世群愚黨惑,聞彼稱名歡喜踊躍不能自勝,不知久後於身不便,是故說曰:歎愚不為上也。

24. cf.dhp207
[] bālaṃ na paśyet śṛṇuyān na ca no tena saṃvaset |
duḥkho bālair hi saṃvāso hy amitreṇaiva sarvaśaḥ |
dhīrais tu sukhasaṃvāso jñātīnām iva saṃgamaḥ ||
[] He who associates with a fool is in misery, as if he were with an enemy; one ought not to associate with fools, neither ought one to listen to or see them; associating with the steadfast is happiness, like meeting again one's kinsfolk.
[] 莫見愚聞聲,亦莫與愚居,與愚同居難,猶如怨同處。
當選擇共居,如與親親會。
[梵文分析]
bālaṃ na paśyet śṛṇuyān na ca no tena saṃvaset |
愚 不 見 聞 不 與 不 此 住
duḥkho bālair hi saṃvāso hy amitreṇa eva sarvaśaḥ |
苦 愚 實 住 實 怨 實 遍
dhīrais tu sukhasaṃvāso jñātīnām iva saṃgamaḥ ||
智 然 樂住 親人 如 會遇
莫見愚聞聲,亦莫與愚居,與愚同居苦,實與怨同處。然與智樂住,如與親親會。
[出曜經] 莫見愚聞聲,亦莫與愚居,與愚同居難,猶如怨同處。
昔佛在羅閱祇,將侍者一人,名曰阿難,在路遊行。爾時世尊遙見調達逐路前進,佛告阿難:「我等可共就餘路行,何為與此愚人相見?」爾時阿難前白佛言:「云何世尊如來,今日畏此調達乎?何為欲避就於餘路?」佛告阿難:「我自憶念,本所造福自致無上等正覺,亦復不見魔若天外道異學沙門梵志,能使如來有恐怖者。此事不然。吾昔在樹王下眾結未盡,弊魔波旬將十八億眾,人身獸頭猿猴師子,虎兕毒蛇惡鬼形貌,擔山吐火把持刀劍戈牟鎧鉀,揚聲哮吼填塞虛空時來恐我,猶尚不能動我一毛,況今我身成等正覺三界獨尊,豈當畏於愚調達耶?此事不然。」爾時世尊便說此偈:「莫見愚聞聲,亦莫與愚居,與愚同居難,猶如怨同處,當選擇共居,如與親親會。」夫人處世,當與黠慧之人共居,出則和顏入則同歡,共相敬待如父如兄如身無異,猶如親親心意款至,如此相敬皆至無為。是故說曰:當選擇共居,如與親親會也。

25. cf.dhp208
[] dhīraṃ prājñaṃ niṣeveta śīlavantaṃ bahuśrutam |
dhaureyaṃ javasampannaṃ candraṃ tārāgaṇā iva ||
[] Therefore, as the moon keeps to the path of the constellations, so likewise keep (only) with them who are steadfast, erudite, who know what is best, virtuous, with the manners of the elect (Ariyas), pre-eminent, kind, and intelligent.
[] 是故事多聞,并及持戒者,如是人中上,如月在眾星。
[梵文分析]
dhīraṃ prājñaṃ niṣeveta śīlavantaṃ bahuśrutam |
堅定 智 親近 有戒 多聞
dhaureyaṃ java-sampannaṃ candraṃ tārāgaṇā iva ||
最好 捷疾 具足 月 星 如
應親近堅定、有智、有戒、多聞、最上、捷疾具足者,如月隨眾星。
[出曜經] 是故事多聞,并及持戒者,如是人中上,猶月在眾星。
是故事多聞,并及持戒者,多聞眾生解世非常明鑒三有,知今世後世之報,自知眾德具足,恒親近賢人,戒成就者,定成就慧成就解脫成就解脫見慧成就。說曰,是故事多聞,并及持戒者也。
如是人中上,猶月在眾星中者,五分法身未具令使具足,在大眾中獨尊隻步無有儔匹,猶如明月在眾星中,光明遠照無有及者。是故說曰:如是人中上,猶月在眾星。

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